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List of vacuum tube computers

Vacuum tube computers are programmable digital computers using vacuum tube logic circuitry. They were preceded by systems using electromechanical relays and followed by systems built from discrete transistors. Later entries in this list may have been built using transistors in addition to vacuum tubes.

This is a list of vacuum tube computers, arranged by date put into service:

Computer Date Notes
Atanasoff–Berry Computer 1942 Not programmable, could solve a system of linear equations
Colossus 1943 First programmable electronic digital computer. Special purpose: cryptanalysis. Used to break the German Lorenz cipher. Working replica demonstrated daily at The National Museum of Computing, Bletchley Park.
ENIAC 1946 First large-scale general-purpose programmable electronic digital computer. Built by the University of Pennsylvania's Moore School of Electrical Engineering for the U.S. Army's Ballistic Research Laboratory. Originally programmed by wiring together components, later converted to a form of stored-program operation.
Manchester SSEM ("The Baby") 1948 First stored-program computer worked June 1948. Working replica demonstrated daily in Manchester Museum of Science and Industry
EDSAC 1949 Provided a computing service from May 1949. Working replica currently being built at The National Museum of Computing, Bletchley Park. Scheduled to go live in 2016.
Manchester Mark 1 1949 Provided a computing service from April 1949. First index registers. Replaced in 1951 by Ferranti Mark 1.
BINAC 1949 First stored-program computer to be sold, but did not work for customer.
CSIRAC 1949 Oldest surviving first generation electronic computer — unrestored and non-functional.
SEAC 1950 First U.S. stored-program computer to become operational. Built by and for the U.S. National Bureau of Standards. Used solid-state diode circuits for its logic. Several computers were based on the SEAC design.
SWAC 1950 Built for the National Bureau of Standards, it had 2,300 vacuum tubes. It had 256 words (each 37 bits) of memory, using Williams tubes
ERA Atlas 1950 (Military version of Univac 1101) Used 2700 vacuum tubes for its logic circuits
MADDIDA 1950 Special-purpose digital computer for solving a system of differential equations. Forty-four integrators were implemented using a magnetic drum with six storage tracks. The interconnections of the integrators were specified by writing an appropriate pattern of bits onto one of the tracks.
Harvard Mark III 1950 It used 5,000 vacuum tubes and 1,500 crystal diodes
Pilot ACE 1950 Based on a full-scale design by Alan Turing
MESM 1950 Built near Kiev, used 6,000 vacuum tubes. First universally programmable computer in Continental Europe.
Ferranti Mark 1 1951 First commercially available computer, based on Manchester Mark 1.
EDVAC 1951 The successor to ENIAC, and also built by the University of Pennsylvania's Moore School of Electrical Engineering for the U.S. Army's Ballistic Research Laboratory. One of the first stored-program computers to be designed, but its entry into service was delayed. EDVAC's design influenced a number of other computers.
Harwell Dekatron Computer 1951 Now officially the oldest original working computer in the world. Is frequently demonstrated at The National Museum of Computing, Bletchley Park.
Whirlwind 1951 Parallel logic, approx 5,000 vacuum tubes. First use of core memory.
UNIVAC I 1951 Mass-produced. 46 were made.
ORDVAC 1951 Built by the University of Illinois for the Ballistic Research Laboratory and was a twin of the ILLIAC I
LEO I 1951 First computer for commercial applications. Built by J. Lyons and Co. restaurant and bakery chain. Based on EDSAC design.
UNIVAC 1101 1951 Designed by ERA, Used 2700 vacuum tubes for its logic circuits
Hollerith Electronic Computer (HEC) 1951 Initial design by Andrew Donald Booth, then engineered by British Tabulating Machine Company. HEC 1 can be seen at The National Museum of Computing, Bletchley Park.
Remington Rand 409 1952 Built by Remington Rand, it was a punched card calculator programmed by a plugboard
Harvard Mark IV 1952 built by Harvard University under the supervision of Howard Aiken for the United States Air Force
IAS machine 1952 Built at the Institute for Advanced Study (IAS), sometimes called the von Neumann machine, since design was described by John von Neumann (the Von Neumann architecture). 1500 tubes. It was the basis of about 15 other computers.
G1 1952 Built by the Max Planck Institute for Physics in Göttingen, esp. by Heinz Billing
ILLIAC I 1952 Built by the University of Illinois in Urbana
MANIAC I 1952 Built at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory and based on the IAS computer
IBM 701 1952 Built by IBM, also known as the Defense Calculator, based on the IAS computer
BESM-1, BESM-2 1952 Built in the Soviet Union
AVIDAC 1953 Based on the IAS computer
FLAC 1953 Design based on SEAC. Located at Patrick Air Force Base.
JOHNNIAC 1953 Built by the RAND Corporation, based on the IAS computer
IBM 702 1953 Built by IBM for business computing
UNIVAC 1103 1953 Designed by Engineering Research Associates (ERA)
RAYDAC 1953 Built by Raytheon for Naval Air Missile Test Center
Strela computer 1953 Built in the Soviet Union
IBM 650 1954 The world's first mass-produced computer
IBM 704 1954 The first mass-produced computer with floating-point arithmetic hardware for scientific use
IBM 705 1954 Mostly compatible with the IBM 702, for business use. There is one that is not in operating condition at Computermuseum München.
BESK 1954 April Sweden's first computer and was the fastest computer in the world for a brief time
IBM NORC 1954 Dec Built by IBM for the US Navy Bureau of Ordnance, it was the first supercomputer and the most powerful computer in the world for at least 2 years. 9,800 tubes in logic.
REAC C-400 series 1954 In 1961 REAC installed for $60,000 at University of Minnesota[1]
UNIVAC 1102 1954 A variation of the UNIVAC 1101 built for the US Air Force
DYSEAC 1954 Built by the U.S. National Bureau of Standards as an improved version of SEAC. Mounted in a trailer van, making it the first computer to be transportable.
WISC 1954 Built by the University of Wisconsin–Madison
CALDIC 1955 Designed to be inexpensive and simple to use; it used decimal arithmetic
English Electric DEUCE 1955 A commercial version of the Pilot ACE
Zuse Z22 1955 An early commercial computer.
ERMETH 1955 Built by Eduard Stiefel, Heinz Rutishauser, Ambros Speiser at the ETH Zurich
ICT 1200 series 1955 Built by Andrew Booth
WEIZAC 1955 Built by the Weizmann Institute of Science (Israel) under the guidance of Prof. G. Estrin. First computer designed in the Middle East.
G2 1955 Built by the Max Planck Institute for Physics in Göttingen, esp. by Heinz Billing
IBM 305 RAMAC 1956 The first commercial computer to use a moving-head hard-disk drive for secondary storage
Bull Gamma 3 1956 Made by Groupe Bull and contained almost 400 tubes. Source says 1952.
PERM 1956 Built in Munich
D1 1956 Built by Joachim Lehmann at the TU Dresden
SMIL 1956 Built in Sweden and based on the IAS computer
Bendix G-15 1956 A small computer for scientific and industrial purposes by the Bendix Corporation. It had a total of about 450 tubes (mostly dual triodes) and 300 germanium diodes.
LGP-30 1956 Data-processing system made by Librascope [2]
UNIVAC 1103A 1956 First computer to have hardware interrupts
FUJIC 1956 The first electronic computer in Japan, designed to perform calculations for lens design by Fuji
Ferranti Pegasus 1956 Vacuum tube computer with magnetostrictive delay line memory intended for office usage. Second surviving oldest computer in the world.[3]
SILLIAC 1956 Built at the University of Sydney, based on the ILLIAC and ORDVAC
RCA BIZMAC 1956 RCA's first commercial computer, it contained 25,000 tubes
Axel Wenner-Gren ALWAC III-E 1957 Commercially constructed and installed at University of British Columbia and Oregon State University (then College)[4]
DASK 1957 The first computer in Denmark; had an early implementation of ALGOL
UNIVAC 1104 1957 A 30-bit variation of the UNIVAC 1103
Ferranti Mercury 1957 An early commercial vacuum tube computer by Ferranti, with core memory and hardware floating point capability
IBM 610 1957 A small computer designed to be used by one person with limited experience
FACIT EDB 2 1957
MANIAC II 1957 Built by the University of California and the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory
MISTIC 1957 A Michigan State University based on the ILLIAC I
MUSASINO-1 1957 A Japanese computer based on the ILLIAC I
Sandia RAYPAC (Ray Path Analog Computer) c. 1957 Sandia's Blast Prediction Unit used for Operation Teapot[5]
EDSAC 2 1958 First computer to have a microprogrammed control unit and a bit slice hardware architecture.
IBM 709 1958 An improved version of the IBM 704, the FORTRAN programming language was introduced on the 709
UNIVAC II 1958 An improved, fully compatible version of the UNIVAC I
UNIVAC 1105 1958 A follow-up to the UNIVAC 1103 scientific computer
AN/FSQ-7 1958 Largest vacuum tube computer ever built. 52 were built for Project SAGE.
Ural series 1959–1964 Ural-1 to Ural-4.
Ferranti Perseus 1958
ZEBRA 1958 Designed in Holland and built by Britain's Standard Telephones and Cables[6]
France SEA CAB 303 1958
Rice Institute Computer 1959 Operational 1959-1971, 54-bit tagged architecture
Cyclone 1959 IAS-type computer at Iowa State College
TIFRAC 1960 The first computer developed in India
CER-10 1960 The first computer developed in Yugoslavia, it also used some transistors
Philips Pascal 1960
The Wegematic 1000 1960 Renaming of the ALWAC III-E
Sumlock ANITA calculator 1961 Desktop calculator
G3 1963 Built by the Max Planck Institute for Physics in Göttingen, esp. by Heinz Billing
UMC-1 1962 Developed in Poland, it used the unusual negabinary number system internally
BRLESC 1962 1727 tubes and 853 transistors
OSAGE 1963 Close copy of the Rice Institute Computer built at the University of Oklahoma

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ "UDEC I II III : Unitized Digital Electronic Calculator Models I II and III". Retrieved 2017-04-26. 
  2. ^ LGP 30, technikum 29: Living Museum 
  3. ^ Pegasus at the V&A, Computer Conservation Society, June 2016, retrieved 29 August 2016 
  4. ^ Törn, Aimo (December 1, 2000). "Wegematic 1000". Early History of Computing in Turku, 1959-1964. Åbo Akademi (University). Retrieved 2016-08-11. 
  5. ^ Operation Teapot: Report of the Test Manager (Report). p. 68. 
  6. ^ "Computer History Museum - Standard Telephones and Cables Limted, London - Stantec Zebra Electronic Digital Computer". Retrieved April 24, 2017.