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List of extant papal tombs

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A procession in the Catacomb of Callixtus, a site of several ancient papal tombs. By Alberto Pisa, 1905

A pope is the Bishop of Rome and the leader of the Catholic Church. Approximately 100 papal tombs are at least partially extant, representing less than half of the 264 deceased popes, from Saint Peter to Saint John Paul II.[1]

For the first few centuries in particular, little is known of the popes and their tombs, and available information is often contradictory. As with other religious relics, multiple sites claim to house the same tomb. Furthermore, many papal tombs that recycled sarcophagi and other materials from earlier tombs were later recycled for their valuable materials or combined with other monuments. For example, the tomb of Pope Leo I was combined with Leos II, III, and IV circa 855, and then removed in the seventeenth century and placed under his own altar, below Alessandro Algardi's relief, Fuga d'Attila. The style of papal tombs has evolved considerably throughout history, tracking trends in the development of church monuments.[2] Notable papal tombs have been commissioned from sculptors such as Michelangelo and Gian Lorenzo Bernini.

Most extant papal tombs are located in St. Peter's Basilica, other major churches of Rome (especially Archbasilica of Saint John Lateran, Santa Maria sopra Minerva and Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore), or other churches of Italy, France, and Germany.[3]

Papal tombs by century

1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th 12th 13th 14th 15th 16th 17th 18th 19th 20th-21st
Non-extantAntipopes


Note on non-extant tombsEdit

Many early tombs no longer exist due to repeated translations or destruction. This list does not include non-extant papal tombs. Information about these tombs is generally incomplete and uncertain. Locations of destroyed or lost papal tombs include:

Other tombs not included in this list are:

1st–5th centuriesEdit

1st centuryEdit

Pontificate Portrait Common English name Image Sculptor Location Notes
30–67
(as Head of the Church)
  Peter
Saint Peter
    Gian Lorenzo Bernini (baldachin) St. Peter's Basilica, Vatican City (Rome) See Saint Peter's tomb
post 42 / ante 57–64/67(?)
(as Bishop of Rome)

2nd centuryEdit

Pontificate Portrait Common English name Image Sculptor Location Notes
c. 157-168   Anicetus
Saint Anicetus
  Altemps Palace (Piazza Navona), Rome Remains transferred from Vatican Hill to the Cemetery of Callixtus and possibly again thereafter;[9] sarcophagus which may have once contained remains is extant in the Altemps Palace[10]

3rd centuryEdit

Pontificate Portrait Common English name Image Sculptor Location Notes
25 June 253 – 5 March 254   Lucius I
Saint Lucius
  Santa Cecilia in Trastevere, Rome Transferred from the Catacomb of Callixtus to one or more of: Santa Cecilia in Trastevere, San Silvestro in Capite, and Santa Prassede;[11] sarcophagus that once held remains is extant in the crypt of Santa Cecilia in Trastevere[10]
17 December 283 – 22 April 296   Caius
Saint Caius
  Sant'Andrea della Valle (Barberini chapel), Rome Translated from the crypt of St. Eusebius in the Cemetery of Callixtus to San Silvestre in Capite, then to another church, then to the private chapel of the Barberini princes in Sant'Andrea della Valle[12]

4th centuryEdit

Pontificate Portrait Common English name Image Sculptor Location Notes
18 January 336 – 7 October 336   Mark
Saint Mark
  San Marco Evangelista al Campidoglio, Rome Translated from the Catacomb of Balbina, one of the Catacombs of Rome, to an urn below the main altar of San Marco[13]

5th centuryEdit

Pontificate Portrait Common English name Image Sculptor Location Notes
29 September 440 – 10 November 461   Leo I
Saint Leo
Leo the Great
  Alessandro Algardi (relief) St. Peter's Basilica, Chapel of the Madonna of Partorienti First pope buried on the porch of Old St. Peter's Basilica; translated multiple times, combined with Leos II, III, and IV circa 855; removed in the seventeenth century and placed under his own altar, below Algardi's relief, Fuga d'Attila (pictured)[14]

6th–10th centuriesEdit

6th centuryEdit

Pontificate Portrait Common English name Image Sculptor Location Notes
3 September 590 – 12 March 604   Gregory I, O.S.B.
Saint Gregory
Gregory the Great
  Unknown St. Peter's Basilica Originally buried in the portico of Old St. Peter's, partly transferred to Soissons; during the demolition of St. Peter's, transferred to Sant'Andrea della Valle then Cappella Clementina, near the entrance of the modern St. Peter's[15]

7th centuryEdit

Pontificate Portrait Common English name Image Sculptor Location Notes
13 September 604 – 22 February 606   Sabinian
Saint Sabinian
Unknown St. Peter's Basilica Original monument in the atrium of Old St. Peter's destroyed during the demolition of Old St. Peter's;[16] small fragment of the original epitaph remains in the crypt of St. Peter's Basilica[17]
25 August 608 – 8 May 615   Boniface IV, O.S.B.
Saint Boniface
Unknown St. Peter's Baslica Originally buried in the portico of Old St. Peter's; translated to the interior; one arm translated to Santa Maria in Cosmedin; other relics translated to the Chapel of St. Sylvester beside the Church of the Quattro Coronati; remainder translated to another chapel of St. Peter's;[18] oratory which once contained the tomb is extant, as well as a sketch of the tomb by Ciampini[17]
December 681 – 3 July 683 Leo II
Saint Leo
  Unknown St. Peter's Basilica, Chapel of the Madonna of Partorienti Originally buried in Old St. Peter's; translated under the altar of the Chapel of the Madonna della Colonna; combined with Leo I in the early seventeenth century; for centuries believed to be under the altar of the Church of San Stefano in Ferrara; combined remains of Leos I, II, and IV found during the demolition of Old St. Peter's[19]

8th centuryEdit

Pontificate Portrait Common English name Image Sculptor Location Notes
1 February 772 – 26 December 795   Adrian I Unknown St. Peter's Basilica Original monument in the Oratory of Cathedra Petri destroyed during the demolition of Old St. Peter's;[20] inscription, composed by Charlemagne, remains in the portico of modern St. Peter's[21][22]
26 December 795 – 12 June 816   Leo III
Saint Leo
  Unknown St. Peter's Basilica, Chapel of the Madonna of Partorienti Originally buried in Old St. Peter's; combined with Leo II and IV by Pope Paschal II; combined sarcophagus destroyed during the demolition of Old St. Peter's; combined with Leo I in 1601 and placed in a sarcophagus under the altar of our Savior della Colonna in new St. Peter's[23]

9th centuryEdit

Pontificate Portrait Common English name Image Sculptor Location Notes
January 847 – 17 July 855   Leo IV, O.S.B.
Saint Leo
  Unknown St. Peter's Basilica, Chapel of the Madonna of Partorienti Combined with Leos I, II, and III[24]
24 April 858 – 13 November 867   Nicholas I
Saint Nicholas
Nicholas the Great
Unknown St. Peter's Basilica Originally buried in the atrium of Old St. Peter's; epitaph partially preserved during the demolition of Old St. Peter's, extant in the Vatican grottoes[25]
14 December 867 – 14 December 872   Adrian II Unknown St. Peter's Basilica Originally buried in Old St. Peter's; epitaph partially preserved during the demolition of Old St. Peter's, still visible in the Vatican grottoes[25]
17 May 884 – c.September 885   Adrian III
Saint Adrian
  Unknown Nonantola Abbey, Modena Crypt altar[26]

10th centuryEdit

Pontificate Portrait Common English name Image Sculptor Location Notes
22 May 964 – 23 June 964   Benedict V   Unknown Hamburg Cathedral. Germany Destroyed; possibly translated back to Old St. Peter's (but no trace has been found);[27] cenotaph, not tomb, remains[28]
October 974 – 10 July 983   Benedict VII   Unknown Santa Croce in Gerusalemme Funerary inscription embedded in the wall near the entrance[29]
3 May 996 – 18 February 999   Gregory V   Unknown St. Peter's Basilica Tomb discovered on August 14, 1607 under the pavement of St. Peter's; exhumed and reburied on January 15, 1609 in a fourth/fifth century sarcophagus[30]
2 April 999 – 12 May 1003   Sylvester II   Gzila Nalder and Giuseppe Damko Archbasilica of Saint John Lateran Destroyed in the Lateran fire of 1308; charred remains were collected and buried in a polyandrum in the same basilica; epitaph reingraved on a cenotaph in the same basilica; modern monument created in 1910[31]

11th–15th centuriesEdit

11th centuryEdit

Pontificate Portrait Common English name Image Sculptor Location Notes
31 July 1009 – 12 May 1012   Sergius IV   Francesco Borromini Archbasilica of Saint John Lateran Original destroyed in a fire in either 1308 or 1361; remains collected in a polyandrum in the same basilica; new cenotaph placed on the right side of the main nave by Borromini in the seventeenth century[32]
24 December 1046 – 9 October 1047   Clement II   "Reims workshop"[33] Bamberg Cathedral Only extant papal tomb outside of Italy and France;[34][35][36] original completed circa 1237, dismantled in the seventeenth century, separating the tomb-chest and effigy; tomb-chest constructed with marble from Kärnten[33][37]
17 July 1048 – 9 August 1048   Damasus II   Unknown San Lorenzo fuori le Mura Sarcophagus in the portico[38][39]
12 February 1049 – 19 April 1054   Leo IX
Saint Leo
Unknown St. Peter's Basilica Originally buried in the east wall of Old St. Peter's, close to the altar of Gregory I; coffin opened on January 11, 1606 during the demolition of Old St. Peter's and parts were taken as relics; remainder reburied under the altar of Saints Marziale and Valeria,[40] now dedicated to the Crucifixion of St. Peter.
22 April 1073 – 25 May 1085   Gregory VII, O.S.B.
Saint Gregory
  Unknown Salerno Cathedral Originally buried in the Church of St. Matthew; discovered in 1573, opened in 1578, reburied beneath the Salerno altar; opened again in 1605 (head taken to Cathedral of Soana; corpse translated to chapel of the Crociata); original sarcophagus placed in transept in 1954[41]
24 May 1086 – 16 September 1087   Victor III, O.S.B.
Blessed Victor
  Unknown Abbey of Monte Cassino Translated in 1515 to the altar in the chapel of St. Bertharius, then the chapel of St. Victor; transferred from Monte Cassino during World War II to San Polo fuori le Mura, avoiding the aerial bombing that destroyed the original chapel;[42] returned to the rebuilt basilica of Monte Cassino in 1963[43]

12th centuryEdit

Pontificate Portrait Common English name Image Sculptor Location Notes
24 January 1118 – 28 January 1119   Gelasius II, O.S.B.   Unknown Cluny Abbey Tuscan-style bright marble tomb destroyed in 1792 during the French Revolution;[44] fragments remain[28]
14 February 1130 – 24 September 1143   Innocent II, Can. Reg.   Vespignani (design) Santa Maria in Trastevere Originally buried in the porphyry sarcophagus of Emperor Hadrian in the Archbasilica of Saint John Lateran; damaged during the fire of 1308 and moved to the vestibule; moved to a simple slab in the fifteenth century; moved to Santa Maria Trastevere[45]
8 July 1153 – 3 December 1154   Anastasius IV   Unknown Vatican Museum Reused the sarcophagus of Helena of Constantinople, Constantine's mother; only tomb to survive the Lateran fires of 1308 and 1361 (restored fully in 1509); moved to the treasury of the Vatican Museum in the nineteenth century[46]
4 December 1154 – 1 September 1159   Adrian IV, O.S.A.   Unknown St. Peter's Basilica Reused an Early Christian sarcophagus[47]
7 September 1159 – 30 August 1181   Alexander III   Francesco Borromini Archbasilica of Saint John Lateran Ruined by mob graffiti and then destroyed in the Lateran fire of 1308 or 1361; new cenotaph raised in seventeenth century[48]
1 September 1181 – 25 November 1185   Lucius III Unknown Verona Cathedral Originally buried in a marble sarcophagus in front of the high altar; moved beneath the pavement under a red Veronese marble slab during the reign of bishop Gilberti (1524–1543); damaged during a storm on February 25, 1879; recovered with marble thereafter and original slab hung on the wall of the Cathedral[49][50]
25 November 1185 – 19 October 1187   Urban III   G.B. Boffa (modern cenotaph) Ferrara Cathedral Moved several times; original tomb replaced with cenotaph in fifteenth century[51]
8 January 1198 – 16 July 1216   Innocent III   Giuseppe Lucchetti Archbasilica of Saint John Lateran Originally buried in the Perugia Cathedral; moved several times within the Cathedral, and temporarily combined with Urban IV and Martin IV, before being transferred to Archbasilica of Saint John Lateran in 1891[52]

13th centuryEdit

Pontificate Portrait Common English name Image Sculptor Location Notes
25 June 1243 – 7 December 1254   Innocent IV   Tommaso Malvito Naples Cathedral Original, commissioned by archbishop Humbert of Montauro, almost completely destroyed; the recumbent figure (with the anachronistic round top tiara) and above reliefs were added in the sixteenth century[53]
29 August 1261 – 2 October 1264   Urban IV [54] Giovanni Pisano (original) Perugia Cathedral Destroyed in the late fourteenth century, save the epitaph which is currently in the Civic Museum of Perugia; combined with Innocent III and Martin IV in 1587 and interred in the sacristy;[55] Innocent III's remains were transferred to the Archbasilica of Saint John Lateran in the late nineteenth century, but the iron casket is extant in the sacristy of the Perugia Cathedral;[10] possibly translated to the Troyes Cathedral in 1901[56]
5 February 1265 – 29 November 1268   Clement IV   Pietro Oderisi San Francesco (Viterbo) Translated from Santa Maria in Gradi[57][58]
1 September 1271 – 10 January 1276   Gregory X
Blessed Gregory
  Margaritone d'Arezzo Arezzo Cathedral Original body and sarcophagus are extant[28][59]
11 July 1276 – 18 August 1276   Adrian V   Arnolfo di Cambio (possibly Pietro Vassalletto) San Francesco (Viterbo) Modified in 1994[58][60]
8 September 1276 – 20 May 1277   John XXI   Filippo Gnaccarini Viterbo Cathedral Original destroyed in the sixteenth century, no longer extant;[58] new monument constructed in the 19th century and damaged during World War II,[61] of which a sarcophagus and other fragments remain[10][62]
25 November 1277 – 22 August 1280   Nicholas III   Unknown St. Peter's Basilica Original destroyed during the demolition of Old St. Peter's; combined with two Rainaldo Orsinis in 1620[63]
22 February 1281 – 28 March 1285   Martin IV [54] Giovanni Pisano Perugia Cathedral Original tomb destroyed by 1375; reconstructed and redestroyed by the end of the fourteenth century; combined with Popes Urban IV and Innocent III in 1587; Innocent III's remains were transferred to the Archbasilica of Saint John Lateran in the late nineteenth century, but the iron casket containing Martin IV and possibly Urban IV is extant in the sacristy of the Perugia Cathedral[10]
2 April 1285 – 3 April 1287   Honorius IV   Arnolfo di Cambio Santa Maria in Aracoeli Original destroyed early in the demolition of Old St. Peter's; baldecchio destroyed and replaced in 1727[64][65]
22 February 1288 – 4 April 1292   Nicholas IV, O.F.M.   Domenico Fontana (design)
Leonardo da Sarzana (sculptor)
Leonardo Sormani (figures)
Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore Originally buried in a simple urn; mausoleum commissioned in the late sixteenth century[66]
5 July 1294 – 13 December 1294   Celestine V, O.S.B.
Saint Celestine
  Girolama da Vicenza Santa Maria di Collemaggio (L'Aquila) Originally buried in Church of St. Anthony; moved to Church of St. Agatha; stolen in 1327 by L'Aquilan friars;[67] damaged in the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake[68]
24 December 1294 – 11 October 1303   Boniface VIII   Unknown St. Peter's Basilica Original tomb chapel, into which Boniface VIII had moved the relics of Boniface IV, destroyed[69][70]

14th centuryEdit

Pontificate Portrait Common English name Image Sculptor Location Notes
22 October 1303 – 7 July 1304   Benedict XI, O.P.
Blessed Benedict
  Giovanni Pisano Basilica of San Domenico (Perugia) Wall tomb and ossuary[28][71]
5 June 1305 – 20 April 1314   Clement V   Jehan de Bonneval Collegiate church (Uzeste) [72]
7 August 1316 – 4 December 1334   John XXII   Unknown Avignon Cathedral Moved several times within the Cathedral's chapels; all 60 statuettes have been stolen, head of effigy is originally from another bishop's tomb; damaged badly during French Revolution[73][74]
20 December 1334 – 25 April 1342   Benedict XII, O.Cist.   Jean Lavenier Avignon Cathedral Bust of Benedict XII in the St. Peter's Basilica grottoes;[75] fragments of original in Fondation Calvet[28]
7 May 1342 – 6 December 1352   Clement VI   Pierre Boye, Jean Sanholis, and Jean David Abbey of La Chaise-Dieu Sculpted weepers in Musée Crozatier, Le Puy;[76][77] sculpted angel in Musée de Petit-Palais, Avignon[78]
18 December 1352 – 12 September 1362   Innocent VI   Beltran Nogayrol Chartreuse du Val de Bénédiction (Villeneuve-lès-Avignon) [79]
28 September 1362 – 19 December 1370   Urban V, O.S.B.
Blessed Urban
  Joglarii Abbey of St. Victor (Marseille) Effigy in Musée de Petit-Palais, Avignon[80][81]
30 December 1370 – 26 March 1378   Gregory XI   Pietro Paolo Olivieri Santa Francesca Romana Original Olivieri relief carved in 1584 (drawing above);[82] replica located in Palais des Papes
8 April 1378 – 15 October 1389   Urban VI   Unknown St. Peter's Basilica Saved during the deconstruction of Old St. Peter's; nearly dumped by workmen for use as a water trough[83][84]

15th centuryEdit

Pontificate Portrait Common English name Image Sculptor Location Notes
17 October 1404 – 6 November 1406   Innocent VII   Unknown St. Peter's Basilica Originally buried in the Chapel of Saints Peter and Paul, moved to the Chapel of St. Thomas in 1455, moved into a mid-fifteenth century copy of the original sarcophagus on September 12, 1606[85]
30 November 1406 – 4 July 1415   Gregory XII   Camillo Rusconi San Flaviano (Recanati) Cardinal at the time of his death, due to his resignation during the Council of Constance; Moved in 1623, 1760, and 1793; illustrations of an "original" tomb (pictured) have been deemed fabrications by historians;[86] last papal tomb outside Rome (c.f. Tomb of Antipope John XXIII); original sarcophagus extant[10]
11 November 1417 – 20 February 1431   Martin V   Simone Ghini Archbasilica of Saint John Lateran[87] Moved in front of the high altar in 1853[88]
3 March 1431 – 23 February 1447   Eugene IV, O.S.A.   Iaia da Piso and Pellegrino di Antonio da Viterbo San Salvatore in Lauro Moved out of Old St. Peter's before its demolition[89]
6 March 1447 – 24 March 1455   Nicholas V, O.P.   Mino da Fiesole St. Peter's Basilica Moved from the left outer aisle of Old St. Peter's to the right outer aisle, but still monument (not sarcophagus) destroyed during the demolition of Old St. Peter's[90]
8 April 1455 – 6 August 1458   Callixtus III   Unknown St. Peter's Basilica Originally located in Chapel of St. Mary della febbre; monument, but not sarcophagus, destroyed during the demolition of Old St. Peter's[91]
  Filippio Moratilla Santa Maria in Monserrato Remains later combined with Alexander VI[91]
19 August 1458 – 15 August 1464   Pius II   Paolo Romano Sant'Andrea della Valle Heart enshrined in the Duomo of Ancona; originally buried in the Chapel of St. Andrews in St. Peter's; moved to San Andrea della Valle in 1614[92]
30 August 1464 – 26 July 1471   Paul II   Giovanni Dalmata (effigy)
Mino da Fiesole (figures and bas-reliefs)
St. Peter's Basilica Monument moved in 1544 and torn down in seventeenth century; sarcophagus survived demolition of Old St. Peter's[93]
9 August 1471 – 12 August 1484   Sixtus IV, O.F.M.   Antonio del Pollaiolo St. Peter's Basilica Originally located in the choir chapel of Old St. Peter's; moved in 1610 to the sacristy; moved in 1625 to the Chapel del Coro in new St. Peter's; combined with Julius II in 1926; moved again in 1940s[94]
29 August 1484 – 25 July 1492   Innocent VIII   Antonio del Pollaiolo St. Peter's Basilica First papal tomb to depict a live pope rather than a deathbed effigy; originally placed in the Oratory of Our Lady in Old St. Peter's; moved to the sudarium on 5 September 1606 during the demolition[94]
11 August 1492 – 18 August 1503   Alexander VI   Filippio Moratilla Santa Maria di Monserrato Originally located in the oratory of Saints Cosmas and Damian, in the round chapel of Santa Maria de Febribus; moved in the sixteenth century next to Calixtus III; combined in 1582 in the Chapel of Santa Maria della Febbre; survived demolition of Old St. Peter's but broken up in 1605; urns were taken to Santa Maria di Monserrato; monument in Chapel of St. Diego sculpted in 1881[95]

16th–20th centuriesEdit

16th centuryEdit

Pontificate Portrait Common English name Image Sculptor Location Notes
22 September 1503 – 18 October 1503   Pius III   Unknown St. Peter's Basilica Originally built in Old St. Peter's; last papal mausoleum erected in Old St. Peter's[96]
  Sebastiano Ferrucci Sant'Andrea della Valle Moved to Sant'Andrea della Valle by Paul V[96]
31 October 1503 – 21 February 1513   Julius II   Michelangelo
Possible assistants include:
Antonello Gagini
Giacomo del Duca
San Pietro in Vincoli Original, planned tomb—intended for the Cappella Maggiore of St. Peter's—never completed and moved to San Pietro in Vincoli[97]
See Tomb of Pope Julius II, Moses and Dying Slave
Unknown St. Peter's Basilica Actual remains deposited in a simple sarcophagus, combined with Sixtus IV, his uncle[96]
9 March 1513 – 1 December 1521   Leo X   Baccio Bandinelli (design)
Antonio da Sangallo the Younger (monument)
Raffaello da Montelupo (statue)
Santa Maria sopra Minerva Translated from Old St. Peter's in 1536[98]
9 January 1522 – 14 September 1523   Adrian VI   Baldassare Peruzzi (design)
Michelangelo of Sieno and Niccolò Tribolo (carved)
Santa Maria dell'Anima Translated from Old St. Peter's in 1533 to the national church of the Holy Roman Empire[99]
26 November 1523 – 25 September 1534   Clement VII   Nanni di Baccio Bigio Santa Maria sopra Minerva Originally buried in a brick tomb in Old St. Peter's; tomb is across from that of Leo X, another Medici pope[100]
13 October 1534 – 10 November 1549   Paul III   Guglielmo della Porta St. Peter's Basilica Moved in 1599[101]
7 February 1550 – 29 March 1555   Julius III   Unknown St. Peter's Basilica Originally buried in St. Peter's Basilica sans monument in a red stone sarcophagus in the chapel of San Andrea; reinterred in an ancient sarcophagus in 1608, which was reopened two years later during the demolition of Old St. Peter's;[102] sometimes cited as buried in the Del Monte chapel of San Pietro in Montorio along with his adopted cardinal-nephew, Innocenzo Ciocchi Del Monte[103]
9 April 1555 – 30 April or 1 May 1555   Marcellus II   Unknown St. Peter's Basilica No monument; fourth century sarcophagus, bearing a traditio legis[104]
23 May 1555 – 18 August 1559   Paul IV   Pirro Ligorio (design)
Giacomo da Castignola, Tommaso della Porta, Gian Pietro Annon, and Rocco da Montefiascone (sculpted)
Santa Maria sopra Minerva [105]
26 December 1559 – 9 December 1565   Pius IV   Unknown Santa Maria degli Angeli e dei Martiri Moved from Old St. Peter's in 1583; buried under the altar with a nearby wall plaque[106]
7 January 1566 – 1 May 1572   Pius V, O.P.
Saint Pius
  Domenico Fontana (design)
Leonardo Sormani (effigy)
Nicholas Cordier (left and right bas-reliefs)
Silla Longhi da Viggiu (center bas-relief)
Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore Translated from Old St. Peter's in 1583[107]
13 May 1572 – 10 April 1585   Gregory XIII   Camillo Rusconi St. Peter's Basilica Original monument destroyed; new monument built in eighteenth century[108]
24 April 1585 – 27 August 1590   Sixtus V, O.F.M. Conv.   Domenico Fontana (design)
Vasoldo (sculpted)
Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore [109]
15 September 1590 – 27 September 1590   Urban VII   Ambrogio Buonvicino Santa Maria sopra Minerva [110]
5 December 1590 – 15 /16 October 1591   Gregory XIV Prospero Antichi St. Peter's Basilica [111]
29 October 1591 – 30 December 1591   Innocent IX   Unknown St. Peter's Basilica No monument[111]
30 January 1592 – 3 March 1605   Clement VIII   Flaminio Ponzio (design) Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore Moved in 1646 to the Borghese Crypt in the Paulline Chapel in Santa Maria Maggiore; figure of Clement VIII was carved by Silla da Viggiu and the cornice figures by Pietro Bernini; features "The Peace of Henry IV and Philip III by Ippolito Buzzi and "The Coronation of Clement VIII" by Bernini, "The Canonization of St. Giacinto and St. Raimondo" by Giovanni Antonio Valsolde, "The Occupation of Ferrara" by Ambriogo Bonvicino, and "Invitation of the Troops in Hungary" by Camillo Mariani[112]

17th centuryEdit

Pontificate Portrait Common English name Image Sculptor Location Notes
1 April 1605 – 27 April 1605   Leo XI   Alessandro Algardi (pope and sarcophagus)
Ercole Ferrata (Prudence)
Giuseppe Peroni (Liberty)
St. Peter's Basilica [113]
16 May 1605 – 28 January 1621   Paul V   Flaminio Ponzio (design)
Silla da Viggiu (figure of pope)
Stefano Moderna, Ambrogio Bonvicinio, Ippolito Buzzi, Cristoforo Stati, and Antonio Valsoldo (reliefs)
Pompeo Ferucci (cornice figures)
Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore Moved from the Borghese Chapel of St. Peter's to the Pauline chapel of Santa Maria Maggiore[113]
9 February 1621 – 8 July 1623   Gregory XV   Orazio Grassi (design)
Pierre Le Gros the Younger, Pierre-Étienne Monnot, and Camillo Rusconi (sculpted)
Sant'Ignazio Buried with his cardinal-nephew, Ludovico Ludovisi; moved from the Quirinal Palace in 1634[114]
6 August 1623 – 29 July 1644   Urban VIII   Gian Lorenzo Bernini St. Peter's Basilica [115]
15 September 1644 – 7 January 1655   Innocent X   G. Valvassori and G.B. Maini Sant'Agnese in Agone Cenotaph featuring the Virtues (left) and Strength (right) erected in 1730[116]
7 April 1655 – 22 May 1667   Alexander VII   Gian Lorenzo Bernini (monument)
Michele Maglia (figure of pope)
Giuseppe Mazzuoli (Charity)
Lazzaro Morelli and Giulio Catani (Truth)
Giuseppe Baratta and Giulio Cartari (Prudence)
Giulio Catani (Justice)
St. Peter's Basilica Sculpted between 1672 and 1678; Charity's breast's covered by Innocent XI[117]
See Tomb of Pope Alexander VII
20 June 1667 – 9 December 1669   Clement IX   Ercole Ferrata Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore Moved from St. Peter's in 1675; figures are Clement IX (by Girolamo Rainaldi), Charity (by Ferrata), and Truth (by Cosimo Fancelli)[118]
29 April 1670 – 22 July 1676   Clement X   Mattia de' Rossi (design) St. Peter's Basilica Figures are Clement X (by Ercole Ferrata), Clemency (by Giuseppe Mazzuoli), Goodness (by Lazzaro Morelli), and two putti (by Filippo Carcani)[119]
21 September 1676 – 11/12 August 1689   Innocent XI
Blessed Innocent XI
  C. Maratta (design)
Pierre Etienne Monnot (sculpted)
St. Peter's Basilica Featured the pope with the Virtue Truth and the Goddess Athena; bas-relief on the sarcophagus reads "The Liberation of Vienna"[120]
  Unknown Separate glass sarcophagus moved under the altar of the Transfiguration after his body was removed from the altar of Saint Sebastian in 2011[120]
6 October 1689 – 1 February 1691   Alexander VIII   Angelo de Rossi St. Peter's Basilica [121]
12 July 1691 – 27 September 1700   Innocent XII   Filippo della Valle and Ferdinando Fuga St. Peter's Basilica Moved from the tribune to the left transept in the late eighteenth century by Cardinal Giuseppe Spinelli; originally buried in a simple marble sarcophagus in the Chapel of the Sacrament; present monument completed in 1746; features the pope bestowing the benediction with Charity (left) and Justice (right)[122]
23 November 1700 – 19 March 1721   Clement XI   Carlo Fontana St. Peter's Basilica In the Choro chapel; no monument;[123] cenotaph also placed in Ferrara Cathedral[28]

18th centuryEdit

Pontificate Portrait Common English name Image Sculptor Location Notes
8 May 1721 – 7 March 1724   Innocent XIII   Unknown St. Peter's Basilica Originally buried in a stucco sepulcher in the right nave of St. Peter's; reinterred in an ancient sarcophagus in 1836[124]
29 May 1724 – 21 February 1730   Servant of God
Benedict XIII, O.P.
  Pietro Bracci and Carlo Marchionni Santa Maria sopra Minerva Remains were originally with his monument in St. Peter's Basilica[124]
12 July 1730 – 6 February 1740   Clement XII   Giovanni Battista Maini Archbasilica of Saint John Lateran [125]
17 August 1740 – 3 May 1758   Benedict XIV   Pietro Bracci St. Peter's Basilica Two figures are Knowledge (by Bracci) and Temptation (by Gaspare Sibilla)[126]
6 July 1758 – 2 February 1769   Clement XIII   Antonio Canova St. Peter's Basilica [126]
19 May 1769 – 22 September 1774   Clement XIV, O.F.M. Conv.   Antonio Canova Santi Apostoli, Rome Moved to Santi Apostoli in 1802[127]
15 February 1775 – 29 August 1799   Pius VI   Antonio Canova St. Peter's Basilica Monument by Antonio Canova, circa 1822[28]
  Unknown Remains placed in an ancient sarcophagus with a bas-relief of the Adoration of the Magi by Pius XII in 1949 (below); original praecordia monument in the Valence Cathedral sculpted by Massimiliano Laboureur and commissioned by Napoleon[28]
14 March 1800 – 20 August 1823   Servant of God
Pius VII, O.S.B.
  Bertel Thorvaldsen St. Peter's Basilica Commissioned at the expense of Cardinal Consalvi, Pius VII's Secretary of State; depicts the pope blessing the angels of Time and History, with the onlooking figures of Wisdom (left) and Strength (right)[128]

19th centuryEdit

Pontificate Portrait Common English name Image Sculptor Location Notes
28 September 1823
– 10 February 1829
  Leo XII   Giuseppe Fabris St. Peter's Basilica [129]
31 March 1829
– 1 December 1830
  Pius VIII   Pietro Tenerani St. Peter's Basilica Moved from the Vatican grottoes in 1857 to the Tenerani monument commissioned by Cardinal Albani; figures are the kneeling pontiff and seated Christ as well as Saints Peter (left) and Paul (right); base reliefs are Prudence (left) and Justice (right)[129]
2 February 1831
– 1 June 1846
  Gregory XVI
O.S.B. Cam.
  Luigi Amici St. Peter's Basilica [130]
16 June 1846
– 7 February 1878
  Blessed
Pius IX
  Unknown San Lorenzo fuori le Mura [131]
20 February 1878
– 20 July 1903
  Leo XIII   Giulio Tadolini Archbasilica of Saint John Lateran Tomb monument[10]

20th - 21st centuriesEdit

Pontificate Portrait Common English name Image Sculptor Location Notes
4 August 1903
– 20 August 1914
  Saint
Pius X
  Pier Enrico Astorri
Florestano Di Fausto (architect)
St. Peter's Basilica [132]
3 September 1914
– 22 January 1922
  Benedict XV   Pietro Canonica St. Peter's Basilica Monument in St. Peter's[133]
  Giulio Barbieri (bronze effigy) Tomb[133]
6 February 1922
– 10 February 1939
  Pius XI   Giannino Castiglioni St. Peter's Basilica Candoglia marble sarcophagus topped with a deathbed effigy[134]
2 March 1939
– 9 October 1958
  Venerable
Pius XII
  Francesco Messina (bronze funeral monument) St. Peter's Basilica Funeral monument in St. Peter's separate from sarcophagus in the Vatican grottoes.[135]
28 October 1958
– 3 June 1963
  Saint
John XXIII
  Emilio Greco St. Peter's Basilica Moved from the Vatican grottoes to the Altar of Saint Jerome after his beatification on 3 September 2000.[136]
21 June 1963
– 6 August 1978
  Saint
Paul VI
  Unknown St. Peter's Basilica Three reliefs are from the fifteenth century; "as simple as possible [...] neither tomb nor monument" and buried in the ground per Paul VI's wishes.[137]
  Unknown Updated in October 2018 with "Sanctvs" for his canonisation.
26 August 1978
– 28 September 1978
  Venerable
John Paul I
  Francesco Vacchini (design)
Andrea Bregno (reliefs)
St. Peter's Basilica Reliefs are late fifteenth century; across the aisle from Marcellus II, another short-reigning pope.[138]
16 October 1978
– 2 April 2005
  Saint
John Paul II
  Unknown St. Peter's Basilica See Funeral of Pope John Paul II.

His body was moved from the Vatican grottoes to the chapel of Saint Sebastian after his beatification on 1 May 2011. The inscription "Beatvs" was changed in April 2014 to "Sanctvs" for his canonization.

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Mann, 2003, p. 1.
  2. ^ Reardon, 2004, pp. 5–12.
  3. ^ Reardon, 2004, pp. 269–271.
  4. ^ Reardon, 2004, pp. 23–26.
  5. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 23.
  6. ^ Reardon, 2004, pp. 10–11.
  7. ^ Reardon, 2004, pp. 272–277.
  8. ^ Reardon, 2004, pp. 70–109.
  9. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 25.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g Reardon, 2004, p. 270.
  11. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 30.
  12. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 31.
  13. ^ Reardon, 2004, pp. 34–35.
  14. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 40–41.
  15. ^ Reardon, 2004, pp. 46–48.
  16. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 48.
  17. ^ a b Mann, 2003, p. 22.
  18. ^ Reardon, 2004, pp. 49–51.
  19. ^ Reardon, 2004, pp. 54–55.
  20. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 60.
  21. ^ Gardner, 1992, ill. 16.
  22. ^ Mann, 2003, p. 24.
  23. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 61.
  24. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 62.
  25. ^ a b Reardon, 2004, p. 64.
  26. ^ Reardon, 2004, pp. 66.
  27. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 73.
  28. ^ a b c d e f g h Reardon, 2004, p. 269.
  29. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 74.
  30. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 76.
  31. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 77.
  32. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 80.
  33. ^ a b Williamson, Paul. (1998). Gothic sculpture, 1140–1300. pp. 95–98.
  34. ^ Beckwith, John. (1961). "Review: The Tomb of Pope Clement II at Bamberg". The Burlington Magazine, Vol. 103, No. 700, pp. 321–322.
  35. ^ Turner, Jane. (1996). The dictionary of art. p. 139.
  36. ^ Porter, Darwin. (2004). Frommer's Germany. p. 210.
  37. ^ Reardon, 2004, pp. 82–83.
  38. ^ Gardner, 1992, ill. 9.
  39. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 83.
  40. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 84.
  41. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 87.
  42. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 88.
  43. ^ Thomas, Sarah Fawcett. (2000). Butler's Lives of the Saints: September / revised by Sarah Fawcett Thomas. Continuum International Publishing. ISBN 978-0-86012-258-6. p. 150.
  44. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 89.
  45. ^ Reardon, 2004, pp. 90–91.
  46. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 93.
  47. ^ Gardner, 1992, ill. 11.
  48. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 95.
  49. ^ Mann, 2003, p. 32.
  50. ^ Gardner, 1992, ill. 12.
  51. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 98.
  52. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 100.
  53. ^ Reardon, 2004, pp. 102–103.
  54. ^ a b An illustration of the iron casket can be seen in Reardon, 2004, p. 113.
  55. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 104.
  56. ^ Keys to Umbria: City Walks. May 22, 2009 (retrieved). "Interior of the Duomo Archived 2009-01-07 at the Wayback Machine ".
  57. ^ Gardner, 1992, p. 36, ill. 21, 25–27, 31.
  58. ^ a b c Frothingham, A. L., Jr. (1891). "Notes on Roman Artists of the Middle Ages. III. Two Tombs of the Popes at Viterbo by Vassallectus and Petrus Oderisi". The American Journal of Archaeology and of the History of the Fine Arts, 7(1/2): 38.
  59. ^ Gardner, 1992, ill. 132–135.
  60. ^ Gardner, 1992, ill. 34–38.
  61. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 109.
  62. ^ An illustration of the nineteenth century Tomb of Pope John XXI can be found in: Daly, Walter J. (2004). "An Earlier De Motu Cordis". Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Association, Vol. 115.
  63. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 111.
  64. ^ Gardner, 1992, ill. 97–99.
  65. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 115.
  66. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 116.
  67. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 118.
  68. ^ Kington, Tom (14 April 2009). "Italy earthquake focus shifts to saving Abruzzo's heritage". The Guardian.
  69. ^ Gardner, 1992, ill. 106–108, 111–112.
  70. ^ Reardon, 2004, pp. 120–121.
  71. ^ Gardner, 1992, ill. 88, 124–130.
  72. ^ Gardner, 1992, ill. 176–179.
  73. ^ Gardner, 1992, ill. 167–172.
  74. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 126.
  75. ^ Gardner, 1992, ill. 139.
  76. ^ Gardner, 1992, ill. 183–184.
  77. ^ Gardner, 1992, ill. 186.
  78. ^ Gardner, 1992, ill. 195–196.
  79. ^ Gardner, 1992, ill. 190–194.
  80. ^ Gardner, 1992, ill. 203. As seen in Acta Sanctorum.
  81. ^ Gardner, 1992, ill. 204–207.
  82. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 133.
  83. ^ Gardner, 1992, ill. 147.
  84. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 137.
  85. ^ Reardon, 2004, pp. 141–142.
  86. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 145.
  87. ^ Gardner, 1992, ill. 18.
  88. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 149.
  89. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 152.
  90. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 153.
  91. ^ a b Reardon, 2004, p. 156.
  92. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 161.
  93. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 163.
  94. ^ a b Reardon, 2004, p. 167.
  95. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 173.
  96. ^ a b c Reardon, 2004, p. 177.
  97. ^ Reardon, 2004, pp. 177–178.
  98. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 179.
  99. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 182.
  100. ^ Reardon, 2004, 182.
  101. ^ Reardon, 2004, 185–186.
  102. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 186.
  103. ^ Aldrich, Robert, and Wotherspoon, Garry. (2002). Who's who in gay and lesbian history. Routledge. p. 278.
  104. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 187–188.
  105. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 188.
  106. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 189.
  107. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 191.
  108. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 195.
  109. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 195–197.
  110. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 198.
  111. ^ a b Reardon, 2004, p. 199.
  112. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 201.
  113. ^ a b Reardon, 2004, p. 204.
  114. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 206.
  115. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 207.
  116. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 208–209.
  117. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 211.
  118. ^ Reardon, 2004, pp. 211–213.
  119. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 213.
  120. ^ a b Reardon, 2004, p. 215.
  121. ^ Olszewski, Edward J. (2004). Cardinal Pietro Ottoboni (1667–1740) and the Vatican tomb of Pope Alexander VIII. DIANE Publishing. ISBN 978-0-87169-252-8.
  122. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 218.
  123. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 218–219.
  124. ^ a b Reardon, 2004, p. 219.
  125. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 221.
  126. ^ a b Reardon, 2004, p. 223.
  127. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 224–225.
  128. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 227.
  129. ^ a b Reardon, 2004, p. 229.
  130. ^ Reardon, 2004, pp. 229–232.
  131. ^ Reardon, 2004, pp. 232–233.
  132. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 235.
  133. ^ a b Reardon, 2004, p. 239.
  134. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 240.
  135. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 243.
  136. ^ Fodors. 2009, May 24 (accessed). "Basilica di San Pietro Archived 2009-05-08 at the Wayback Machine."
  137. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 246.
  138. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 249.

ReferencesEdit

External linksEdit