List of companion plants

This is a list of companion plants. Many more are in the list of beneficial weeds. Companion plants assist in the growth of others by attracting beneficial insects, repelling pests, or providing nutrients, shade, or support. They can be part of a biological pest control program.

Vegetables Edit

Common name Scientific name Helps Helped by Attracts -Repels/+distracts Avoid Comments
Alliums Allium Fruit trees,[1] nightshades (tomatoes,[2] capsicum peppers,[3] potatoes[4]), brassicas,[5] carrots[6][7] Carrots,[7] tomatoes,[8] carrots and African spider plants (Cleome gynandra) together, marigolds (Tagetes spp.),[9] mints[9] Thrips -rabbits,[5] slugs (see Garlic), -aphids,[6] carrot fly,[7] -cabbage loopers,[6] -cabbage maggots,[6] -cabbage worms,[6] -Japanese beetles[6] Beans,[10] peas[11] Alliums are a family of plants which include onions, garlic, leeks, shallots, chives, and others.
Asparagus Asparagus officinalis Tomatoes,[12] parsley[13][14] Aster family flowers, dill, coriander, tomatoes,[13][14] parsley,[13][14] basil,[14] comfrey, marigolds, nasturtiums[15] Coupled with basil seems to encourage lady bugs[citation needed] Onion, garlic, potatoes, gladiolus[16]
Beans, bush Phaseolus vulgaris Cucumber,[14] strawberries[17] Celery,[5][14] strawberries,[10][14] grains[18] Fennel,[10] soybeans,[18] dry beans,[18] alfalfa[18] "Lettuce, potato, tomato, other legumes, crucifers, or cucurbits increase sclerotinia" in the soil and should be avoided before and after snap beans.[18] See the entry for "Legumes" for more info
Beans, pole Phaseolus vulgaris Radishes, Corn[10] Sunflowers,[10] beets,[10] brassicas,[12] kohlrabi[19] the stalk of the corn provides a pole for the beans to grow on, which then gives nitrogen to the soil of the corn.[20][circular reference] As for the Radishes, see the entry for "Legumes" for more info
Beans, fava Vicia faba Strawberries, Celery[21] See the entry for "Legumes" for more info
Common name Scientific name Helps Helped by Attracts -Repels/+distracts Avoid Comments
Beets Beta vulgaris Broccoli,[5] bush beans,[10][22] cabbage,[22] lettuce,[22] kohlrabi,[12][23] onions,[12] brassicas,[22][19] passion fruit[24] Bush beans,[12][22] onions,[12] kohlrabi,[12][23] catnip,[25] garlic,[12] lettuce,[10] most brassicas,[10] mint Runner or pole beans[12] Good for adding minerals to the soil through composting leaves which have up to 25% magnesium. Runner or pole beans and beets stunt each other's growth.
Brassicas Brassica Beets,[10] onions,[12] potatoes,[citation needed] cereals (e.g. corn, wheat)[citation needed] Beets,[22][19] spinach,[19] chard,[19] Aromatic plants or plants with many blossoms, such as celery,[19] chamomile,[12][19] and marigolds.[9][26] Dill,[5][12] sage,[5] peas,[27] peppermint,[5][9] spearmint,[28] spurrey,[citation needed] rosemary,[5] rye-grass,[29] garlic,[12] onions[19][30] and potatoes.[5] geraniums, alliums,[5] nasturtium,[30] borage, hyssop,[5] tansy,[citation needed] tomatoes,[31] thyme,[5][30] wormwood,[5] southernwood,[5] beans,[18] clover[32] Wireworms Mustards, nightshades (tomatoes,[12][19] peppers, etc.), pole beans,[12][19] strawberries[12][19] Brassicas are a family of plants which includes broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower, Chinese cabbage, kohlrabi, radish, and turnip. Thyme, nasturtiums, and onion showed good resistance to cabbage worm, weevil and cabbage looper.[30]
Broccoli Brassica oleracea Lettuce Mixture of mustard, pac choi, and rabe.[citation needed] Beets, dill,[5] lettuce, mustard,[citation needed] onions,[22] tomato,[33] turnip,[34] clover[33] Broccoli as a main crop intercropped with lettuce was shown to be more profitable than either crop alone. Turnip acts as a trap crop.[34] See brassicas entry for more info
Brussels sprouts Brassica oleracea Sage,[35] thyme,[35] clover,[35] malting barley[citation needed]
Cabbage Brassica oleracea / Brassica chinensis Beans,[10] celery[5] Beans,[14] clover,[36][37] calendula/pot marigold,[38] chamomile,[22] larkspur,[12] nasturtiums,[22] dill,[22][39] coriander,[40] hyssop,[12] onions,[12][22] beets,[22] marigolds,[citation needed] mint,[12][22] rosemary,[22] sage,[12][22] thyme,[22] tomatoes,[citation needed] lacy phacelia,[citation needed] Green onions with Chinese cabbage.[citation needed] Snails and slugs[41] Grapes[42] See brassicas entry for more info. If using clover as an intercrop it should be sown after cabbage transplant so as not to affect crop yield. Nasturtiums repel cabbage moths[22]
Carrots Daucus carota Tomatoes,[43] alliums,[7] beans,[10] leeks,[11] lettuce,[12][44] onions,[7] passion fruit[24] Lettuce,[44] alliums (chives,[12] leeks,[12] onions,[7][12][13] shallots, etc.), rosemary,[12] wormwood,[12] sage,[12] beans, flax Assassin bug, lacewing, parasitic wasp, yellow jacket and other predatory wasps Leek moth,[13] onion fly[7][13] Dill, parsnip, radish Tomatoes grow better with carrots, but may stunt the carrots' growth. Beans provide the nitrogen carrots need more than some other vegetables. Aromatic companion plants repel carrot fly. Sage, rosemary, and radishes are recommended by some as companion plants, but listed by others as incompatible. Alliums inter-planted with carrots confuse onion and carrot flies. For the beneficial insect-attracting properties of carrots to work, they need to be allowed to flower; Otherwise, use the wild carrot, Queen Anne's Lace, for the same effect. Flax produces an oil that may protect root vegetables like carrots from some pests.
Cauliflower Brassica oleracea Beans,[10] celery,[5] spinach,[45] peas[46] Mixture of Chinese cabbage, marigolds, rape, and sunflower.[47] Spinach,[48] peas[46] One row of spinach alternating at 60 cm from each row of cauliflower proved mutually beneficial.[citation needed] See brassicas for more info. See peas regarding their mutualism with cauliflower.
Celery Apium graveolens Bush beans,[5][14] brassicas,[5][19] cucumber[49] Cosmos, daisies, snapdragons, leeks,[5] tomatoes,[5] cauliflower,[5] cabbage,[5] bush beans[5] Whiteflies[49] Corn, aster flowers Aster flowers, can transmit the aster yellows disease
Common name Scientific name Helps Helped by Attracts -Repels/+distracts Avoid Comments
Chard Beta vulgaris ssp. cicla Brassicas,[19] passion fruit[24]
Corn / Maize Zea mays Beans,[14][22] cucurbits,[12] soybeans,[50] tomatoes[51] Sunflowers, dill,[22] legumes (beans,[12][14][22] peas,[12] soybeans etc.), peanuts, cucurbits,[12] clover,[52] amaranth,[53] white geranium, pigweed,[12] lamb's quarters, morning glory, parsley, and potato,[12] field mustard,[54] Sudan grass[citation needed] Tomato,[55] celery Provides beans with a trellis, is protected from predators and dryness by cucurbits, in the three sisters technique
Cucumber Cucumis sativus Beans,[10][22] kohlrabi,[23] lettuce[12] Kohlrabi,[23] nasturtiums,[12] radishes,[55] marigolds, sunflowers,[55] peas,[55] beans,[14][22][55] chamomile,[12] beets, carrots, dill,[22] onions,[56] garlic,[56][57] amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus),[58] celery,[49] Malabar spinach[49] Beneficial for ground beetles Raccoons,[12] ants[12] Potato,[12] aromatic herbs[12] Sow 2 or 3 radish seeds in with cucumbers to repel cucumber beetles.[12] One study showed a 75% reduction in cucumber beetles with the concurrent seeding of amaranth.[58] Various sprays from lettuce, asparagus, Malabar spinach, and celery were found to reduce whiteflies.[49] See cucurbits entry for more info
Cucurbits Cucurbitaceae Corn[12] Corn,[12] grain sorghum[59] Cucurbits are a family of plants that includes melons, cucumbers, gourds, pumpkins, and squash
Eggplant or Aubergine Solanum melongena Beans, peppers, tomatoes,[60] passion fruit[24] Marigolds, catnip,[22] dill,[citation needed] redroot pigweed,[55] green beans,[55] tarragon, mints, thyme[12] Marigolds will deter nematodes.
Kohlrabi Brassica oleracea v. gongylodes Onion,[12][23] beets,[23] aromatic plants,[23] cucumbers[23] Beets,[12][23] cucumbers[23] See Brassicas entry for more info
Leek Allium ampeloprasum v. porrum Carrots,[12] celery,[23] onions,[23] tomato,[61] passion fruit[24] Carrots[11] clover,[62] Swiss chard See Alliums entry for more info
Legumes Phaseolus and Vicia Beets,[12][22] lettuce,[63] okra,[63] potato,[14][64][65][66] spinach,[citation needed] dill,[citation needed] cabbage,[14] carrots, chards, eggplant,[55] peas, tomatoes,[14] brassicas,[18] corn,[12][14][22] cucumbers,[22][55] grapes Summer savory,[10][14] beets,[10][22] cucumbers,[10][22] borage,[12] cabbage,[10] carrots,[10] cauliflower,[10] corn,[14][22] larkspur,[12] lovage,[12] marigolds,[10][22] mustards,[12] radish,[10][22] potato,[64][65][66] peppermint,[18] rosemary,[12][22][18] lettuce,[63] onion,[citation needed] squash,[63] lacy phacelia[67] Snails and slugs[41] Colorado potato beetle[10][65] Alliums,[10][22] gladiolas[10][19] Hosts nitrogen-fixing bacteria, a good fertiliser for some plants, too much for others. Rosemary and peppermint extracts are used in organic sprays for beans.[18] Summer savory[22] and potatoes[65] repel bean beetles.
Lettuce Lactuca sativa Beets,[10] beans,[63] okra,[63] onions,[23] radish,[12] broccoli, Carrots,[44] passion fruit[24] Radish, beets,[22] dill,[12][22] kohlrabi, onions,[12][23][30] beans,[63] carrots,[12][44] cucumbers,[12] strawberries,[12] broccoli, thyme,[30] nasturtiums,[30] alyssum,[68] cilantro[68] Slugs and snails.[41] Celery, cabbage, cress, parsley Mints (including hyssop, sage, and various "balms") repel slugs, a bane of lettuce and cabbages.[citation needed] Broccoli when intercropped with lettuce was shown to be more profitable than either crop alone.
Mustard Sinapis alba Beans,[12] broccoli,[citation needed] cabbage, cauliflower, fruit trees,[12] grapes,[12] radish, brussels sprouts, turnips Various pests See Brassicas entry for more info. Mustard acts as a trap crop in broccoli.[citation needed]
Common name Scientific name Helps Helped by Attracts -Repels/+distracts Avoid Comments
Nightshades Solanaceae Carrots, alliums, mints (basil, oregano, etc.) Beans, black walnuts, corn, fennel, dill, brassicas Nightshades are a family of plants which include tomatoes, tobacco, chili peppers (including bell peppers), potatoes, eggplant, and others
Okra Abelmoschus esculentus Sweet potato, tomatoes,[60] peppers[69] Beans,[63] lettuce,[63] squash,[63] sweet potato, peppers[69] Okra and sweet potato are mutually beneficial when planted simultaneously.
Onion Allium cepa Beets,[12] brassicas,[19][30] cabbage,[12][22] broccoli,[22] carrots,[7][12][13] lettuce,[12][23] cucumbers,[56] peppers,[3] passion fruit,[24] strawberries.[12] Green onions with Chinese cabbage.[citation needed] Carrots,[7] beets,[12] brassicas,[12] dill,[12] lettuce,[12] strawberries,[12] marigolds,[citation needed] mints,[citation needed] tomatoes,[12] summer savory,[12] chamomile,[12][22] pansy Lentils, peas,[12] beans[70] See Alliums entry for more info
Parsnip Pastinaca sativa Fruit trees A variety of predatory insects The flowers of the parsnip plant left to seed will attract a variety of predatory insects to the garden, they are particularly helpful when left under fruit trees, the predators attacking codling moth and light brown apple moth. The root also contains Myristricin, which is toxic to fruit flies, house flies, red spider mite, pea aphids, a simple blender made extraction of three blended parsnips roots to one litre of water through a food processor (not one for preparing food) and left overnight, strained and use within a few days.
Peas Pisum sativum Brassicas,[citation needed] turnip,[46] cauliflower,[46] garlic,[46] Turnip,[46] cauliflower,[46] garlic,[46] mints[12] Colorado potato beetle[7] Peas when intercropped with turnips, cauliflower, or garlic showed mutual suppression of growth however their profit per land area used was increased.[46]
Peppers Solanaceae, Capsicum Okra[69] Beans,[71] tomatoes, marjoram,[citation needed] okra,[69] geraniums, petunias, sunflowers,[72][73] onions[3] crimson clover,[74] basil,[12] field mustard[54] Beans, kale (cabbage, Brussels sprouts, etc.) Pepper plants like high humidity, which can be helped along by planting with some kind of dense-leaf or ground-cover companion, like marjoram and basil; they also need direct sunlight, but their fruit can be harmed by it...pepper plants grown together, or with tomatoes, can shelter the fruit from sunlight, and raises the humidity level. Sunflowers, when in bloom at the right time, sheltered beneficial insects which lowered thrips populations.[72]
Potato Solanum tuberosum Brassicas,[5] beans,[64][65][66] corn,[12] peas,[75] passion fruit[24] Horseradish,[12][22] beans,[14][64][65][66] dead nettle,[12] marigolds,[12] peas,[7][75] onion,[4] garlic,[4][76] thyme,[12] clover[77] Mexican bean beetle[65] Atriplex, carrot, cucumber,[12] pumpkin,[78] raspberries, squash, sunflower, tomato Horseradish increases the disease resistance of potatoes. It repels the potato bug.[22] Garlic was shown to be more effective than fungicides on late potato blight.[76] Peas were shown to reduce the density of Colorado potato beetles.[7]
Common name Scientific name Helps Helped by Attracts -Repels/+distracts Avoid Comments
Pumpkin Cucurbita pepo Corn,[78] beans Buckwheat, Jimson weed,[78] catnip, oregano,[12] tansy, radishes, nasturtiums spiders, ground beetles Potatoes[78] Radishes can be used as a trap crop against flea beetles, cucurbita can be used in the three sisters technique. Nasturtiums repel squash bugs.[12]
Radish Raphanus sativus Squash[12] eggplant, cucumber,[12] lettuce,[22] peas,[22] beans,[10][22] pole beans,[10] Chervil,[12][22] lettuce,[12] nasturtiums[12][22] flea beetles, cucumber beetles[22] Grapes Radishes can be used as a trap crop against flea beetles. Radishes grown with lettuce taste better.[12]
Soybean Glycine max Corn,[50] snap beans,[citation needed] sunflower[50] A mixture of corn, mungbean, and sunflower was found to rid soybeans of aphids.[50] Snap beans act as a trap crop for Mexican bean beetles in soybeans.[citation needed]
Spinach Spinacia oleracea Brassicas,[19] cauliflower,[citation needed] passion fruit[24] Strawberries,[79] peas, beans, cauliflower[citation needed] The peas and beans provide natural shade for the spinach. See cauliflower notes regarding mutualism with spinach.[citation needed]
Squash Cucurbita spp. corn, beans,[63] okra,[63] Beans,[63] buckwheat, borage,[12][22] catnip, tansy, radishes,[12] marigolds,[30] nasturtiums[12][65] Spiders, ground beetles Radishes can be used as a trap crop against flea beetles, cucurbita can be used in the three sisters technique. Marigolds[30] and nasturtiums repel squash bugs.[12][65] Marigolds repel cucumber beetles.[30]
Sweet potato Ipomoea batatas Okra Okra Okra and sweet potato are mutually beneficial when planted simultaneously.
Tomatoes Solanum lycopersicum Celery,[5] roses,[12] peppers, asparagus[79] Asparagus,[13] basil,[22][30][61][80] beans,[14] bee balm (Monarda),[10][12] oregano, parsley, marigold,[12] alliums, garlic,[2][12] leeks,[61] celery, geraniums, petunias, nasturtium, borage,[12][22] coriander,[43][81] chives,[12] corn,[51] dill,[43] mustard,[43] fenugreek,[43] barley,[43] carrots,[43] eggplant,[60] mints,[12] okra,[60] sage,[12] thyme,[12][30] "flower strips",[82] cucumbers, squash[83] Asparagus beetle[79] Black walnut,[12] alfalfa,[84] corn,[55] fennel,[12] chili peppers,[60] peas,[51] dill, potatoes,[12] beetroot, brassicas,[12] rosemary Black walnuts inhibit tomato growth,[12] in fact they are negative allelopathic to all other nightshade plants (chili pepper, potato, tobacco, petunia) as well, because it produces a chemical called juglone. Dill attracts tomato hornworm.

Growing tomatoes with Basil does not appear to enhance tomato flavour but studies have shown that growing them around 10 inches apart can increase the yield of tomatoes by about 20%.[80] One study shows that growing chili peppers near tomatoes in greenhouses increases tomato whitefly on the tomatoes.[60]

Cucumbers and squash can be used as living mulch, or green mulch, around tomato plants. The large leaves of these vining plants can help with soil moisture retention.[83]

Turnips and rutabagas Brassica rapa and Brassica napobrassica Peas,[46][79] broccoli[34] Hairy vetch,[79] peas[46][79] hedge mustard,[79] knotweed[79] Turnips act as a trap crop for broccoli.[34] See peas regarding their mutualism with turnips.

Fruit Edit

Common name Scientific name Helps Helped by Attracts -Repels/+distracts Avoid Comments
Apple Malus domestica Clover, chives, garlic, leeks, nasturtium, southernwood, daffodils, comfrey Cedar because of apple-cedar rust. Walnut because its roots produce growth inhibitors that apple trees are sensitive to[85]
Apricot Prunus armeniaca Peppers A fungus that peppers are prone to can infect apricot trees causing a lot of harm.
Blueberries Vaccinium spp. Oak trees,[86] pine trees,[86] strawberries, clover, bay laurel, dewberries, yarrow tomatoes

Pine and oak trees create the acidic soil blueberries need. Strawberries and dewberries create healthy ground cover, clover fixes nitrogen for the blueberries' high needs, yarrow and bay laurel repel unhealthy insects. Each of the herbal companions listed also like the acidic soil the blueberry plant needs.

Fruit trees Various Alliums,[1] tansy,[1] nasturtiums,[1] marigolds,[1] marjoram,[1] lemon balm,[1] mustards,[12] dandelions,[12] borage[1]
Grapes Vitis spp. Hyssop,[12][22] alyssum,[citation needed] basil, beans, chives,[12] geraniums, mustards,[12] oregano, clover, peas, blackberries Cabbage,[42] garlic,[42] radishes
Melon Cucumis melo Chamomile,[12] pigweed,[12] summer savoury,[12] sow thistle[12]
Passion fruit Passiflora edulis Potatoes,[24] beets,[24] Swiss chard,[24] carrots,[24] spinach,[24] strawberries,[24] eggplants,[24] onions,[24] leeks,[24] lettuce[24] Cucurbits,[24] maize,[24] cowpea,[24] sorghum,[24] okra,[24] sweet potatoes[24]
Pears Pyrus spp. "Aromatic plants"[87]
Strawberries Fragaria × ananassa Bush beans,[10] lettuce,[12] onions,[12] spinach,[79] passion fruit[24] Caraway,[17] bush beans,[17] lupin,[17] onions,[12] sage,[12] thyme,[12] borage[12][22][17] Slugs and snails.[41] Brassicas,[17] Verticillium-susceptible species (tomatoes, potatoes, eggplant, peppers, melons, okra, mint, bush or bramble fruits, stone fruits, chrysanthemums, roses)[17] Thyme planted and/or placed next to each other help grow more strawberries quickly.

Herbs Edit

Common name Scientific name Helps Helped by Attracts -Repels/+distracts Avoid Comments
Anise Pimpinella anisum Coriander[12] Bees, butterflies and hummingbirds[88] Not to be confused with star anise which is an entirely different species.
Basil Ocimum basilicum Tomato,[22][30][61][80] peppers,[12] oregano, asparagus, petunias, grapes Chamomile, anise Slugs and snails.[41] butterflies asparagus beetle, hornworms,[22] mosquitoes,[22] thrips and flies[22] Common rue, thyme Is said to make tomatoes taste better, chamomile and anise are supposed to increase the essential oils in many herbs like basil
Borage Borago officinalis Almost everything, especially beans,[12] strawberry,[12][22][17] cucurbits (cucumber, squash[12][22]), fruit trees,[1] tomatoes[12][22] and cabbage Predatory insects, honeybees Many pests, tomato worm[22] Predict a square metre for its adult size. Borage is a good companion for a wide variety of plants.[17]
Caraway Carum carvi Strawberries[17] Parasitic wasps, parasitic flies Dill[22]
Catnip Nepeta cataria Eggplant[22] Flea beetles,[22] ants,[22] aphids[12]
Chamomile Matricaria recutita Most herbs,[12] brassicas,[12][19] cucumber,[12] wheat, onion,[12][22] cabbage[22] Hoverflies, wasps Growing near herbs will increase their oil production.
Chervil Anthriscus cerefolium Radish,[12][22] lettuce, broccoli Aphids Radish Loves shade, fortunately it grows well with shade-tolerant food plants; will make radishes grown near it taste spicier
Chives Allium schoenoprasum Apples, carrots,[12][22] grapes,[12] roses,[12][22] tomatoes,[12] brassica (broccoli, cabbage, mustard, etc.), many others Carrots Cabbage worms, carrot fly, aphids,[12][22] mites,[22] nematodes[22] Beans, peas Same companion traits as all alliums (onions, garlic, shallots, leeks, etc.)said to prevent apple scab after 3 years planting at base of apple trees
Cilantro / Coriander Coriandrum sativum Anise[12] cabbage,[40] spinach, lettuce,[68] tomato[43][81] Beans, peas Tachinid fly, hoverflies[40][68] Aphids,[12][22] spider mites, white flies and potato beetle Attracts hoverflies which may in turn reduce pest populations in cabbages.[40]
Dill Anethum graveolens Brassicas,[5][12] broccoli,[citation needed] cabbage,[22][39] corn,[22] eggplant/aubergine,[citation needed] fennel,[89] lettuce,[12][22] onions,[12] cucumbers[22] Fennel[89] Tiger swallowtail butterflies/caterpillars, hoverflies, wasps, ladybugs, tomato hornworm, honeybees, ichneumonid wasps Aphids,[22] spider mites,[22] squash bugs, cabbage looper Carrots, tomatoes[citation needed] One of the few plants said to grow with fennel.[citation needed] See fennel for info about intercropping.
Common name Scientific name Helps Helped by Attracts -Repels/+distracts Avoid Comments
Fennel Foeniculum vulgare Dill[89] Dill[89] Ladybugs, syrphid fly,[68] tachinid fly Aphids[12][68] Almost everything[citation needed] Fennel is allelopathic to most garden plants, inhibiting growth, causing to bolt, or actually killing many plants.[90][citation needed] When growing together a higher ratio of fennel to dill provides the highest profit. Dill has a stabilizing effect on the fennel seed.[89] Because it attracts syrphidae it reduces aphids through predation.[68]
Flax Linum usitatissimum Carrots and potatoes Colorado potato beetle Almost everything[citation needed] Flax contains tannin and linseed oils which may offend the Colorado potato bug[91]
Garlic Allium sativum Vetch,[23] brassicas,[12] beets,[12] roses,[12][23] tomatoes,[2][12][23] cucumbers,[56][57] lettuce, celery, peas,[46] potatoes[4][76] Tarragon, peas[46] Aphids,[12][22] Japanese beetles,[22] mites,[22] cabbage looper, ants, cabbage maggot, fruit borers,[23] red spider mites,[23] slugs[92] Cabbages,[citation needed] grapes[42] See Alliums entry for more info. Peas and garlic when planted closely together suppress each other's growth; however the profit over land area used is higher.[46] Tarragon makes garlic grow rapidly.
Hyssop Hyssopus officinalis Brassicas,[5] cabbage,[12] grapes[12][22] Honeybees, butterflies, bees Cabbage moth larvae, cabbage butterflies Radishes[22] Stimulates growth of grapes.
Lavender Lavandula angustifolia, L. dentata, L. stoechas Chamomile, lettuce, brassicas, onions, tomatoes, oregano, thyme, marjoram, sage, rosemary, basil, lemon balm, squash butterflies, hummingbirds, bees
Lemon grass Cymbopogon citratus Eggplant[93] Cutworms Has been shown to reduce cutworms in eggplant in laboratory trials but needs field testing
Lovage Levisticum officinale Beans[12] Ichneumonid wasps, ground beetles (good) Rhubarb Is thought to improve the health of almost all plants, like borage and geraniums, is considered a "magic bullet" of companion planting
Oregano Origanum vulgare Grapes, tomatoes, peppers, pumpkin,[12] many other plants Basil Hoverflies/Syrphidae[68] Aphids[68] Provides ground cover and much-needed humidity for pepper plants if allowed to spread among them. Because it attracts syrphidae, it reduces aphids through predation.[68]
Parsley Petroselinum crispum Asparagus,[13][14] corn/maize, tomatoes Apple, asparagus,[13][14] rose Swallowtail butterflies, wasps, flies Alliums, lettuce Sacrificially attracts insects that feed on tomatoes
Peppermint Mentha piperita Alliums,[9] brassicas,[5][9] cabbage,[12][22] peas,[12] tomatoes[12] Cabbage root fly,[9] ants,[12] cabbage looper, aphids,[12] onion fly[9] Repels cabbage flies, has same general companion properties as other mints
Rosemary Rosmarinus officinalis Cabbage,[22] beans,[12][22][18] brassicas,[5] carrots,[12] thyme Bean beetle Deters cabbage flies, repels many bean parasites
Common name Scientific name Helps Helped by Attracts -Repels/+distracts Avoid Comments
Sage Salvia officinalis Brassicas,[5] rosemary, cabbage,[12][22] beans, Brussels sprouts,[35] carrots,[12] strawberry,[12] tomato,[12] marjoram[12] Honeybees, cabbage butterfly Cabbage flies, carrot fly, black flea beetle, cabbage looper, cabbage maggot, repels many bean parasites Avoid any member of the allium family and common rue
Southernwood Artemisia abrotanum Brassicas,[5] fruit trees Controls cabbage moths and malaria mosquitoes.
Spearmint Mentha spicata Alliums,[9] brassicas,[5][9] cabbage,[12][22] peas,[12] tomatoes[12] Ants,[12] aphids,[12] onion fly,[9] cabbage root fly[9] Controls ants and aphids, has same general companion properties as other mints.
Stinging nettle Urtica dioica Chamomille, mint, broccoli, tomatoes, valerian, angelica archangelica, marjoram, sage & peppermint Aphids
Summer savoury Satureja hortensis Beans,[10] melon,[12] onions[12] Also delays germination of certain foul herbs
Tarragon Artemisia dracunculus Most vegetables,[12] but especially eggplant Its scent is disliked by most pests, and this plant is also thought to have Nurse Plant properties, enhancing the growth and flavor of crops grown with it.
Thyme Thymus vulgaris Brassicas,[5][30] cabbage,[22] eggplant/aubergine,[12] potato,[12] strawberry,[12] tomato,[12][30] Brussels sprouts[35] Hoverflies/Syrphidae[68] Cabbage worm,[22][30] cabbage weevil,[30] cabbage looper,[30] aphids,[68] whitefly[citation needed] Because it attracts syrphidae it reduces aphids through predation.[68]
Wormwood Artemisia absinthium Brassicas,[5] carrots[12] Ants[12] Wormwood should be used with caution around most vegetables since it does contain toxins.[12]
Yarrow Achillea millefolium Many plants, "Most aromatic plants."[12] Predatory wasps, ladybugs, hoverflies,[68] damselbugs Aphids[68] May increase the essential oil production of some herbs. Also improves soil quality, use the leaves to enrich compost, or as mulch. Because it attracts syrphidae it reduces aphids through predation.[68]

Flowers Edit

Common name Scientific name Helps Helped by Attracts -Repels/+distracts Avoid Comments
Alyssum Lobularia maritima Grapes,[citation needed] lettuce[68] Syrphidae[68] and most beneficial insects Aphids[68] Because they attract syrphidae they help reduce aphids through predation.[68]
Baby's breath Gypsophila paniculata Syrphidae[68] Aphids[68] Because they attract syrphidae they help reduce aphids through predation.[68]
Bee balm Monarda spp. Tomato[10][12] Bees
Californian poppy Eschscholzia californica Syrphidae[68] Aphids[68] Because they attract syrphidae they help reduce aphids through predation.[68]
Dianthus Dianthus caryophyllus Roses, lavender, echinacea, aster, foxglove Slugs
Geraniums Pelargonium spp. Roses, corn, peppers, grapes Leafhoppers, Japanese beetles Tomatoes, tobacco, eggplants and other nightshades A trap crop, attracting pests away from roses and grape vines, distracts beet leafhoppers, carrier of the curly top virus, keep away from solanaceous plants like eggplant, and tobacco
Larkspur Delphinium spp. Beans,[12] cabbage[12]
Lupin Lupinus Cucurbits, brassica, lettuce, rosemary, dill, strawberry,[17] rose Summer savory, rose Honeybees Tomatoes and other solanaceae This wildflower is a legume, hosting bacteria that fixes nitrogen in the soil, fertilizing it for neighboring plants. Same with marigold, planting nearby roses causes them to grow vigorously.
Marigold Tagetes patula, T. erecta, T. minuta Most plants, especially tomatoes[12] and peppers, cucurbits (cucumbers, gourds, squash, potatoes,[12] roses,[12] alliums,[9] brassicas,[9][26] zucchini[30] Rose Snails and slugs.[41] Root-knot nematodes,[94][95] beet leaf hoppers, cucumber beetle,[30] squash bug,[30] onion fly,[9] cabbage root fly[9] Marigolds are a wonder-drug of the companion plant world, invoking the saying "plant them everywhere in your garden". French marigolds (T. patula) produce a pesticidal chemical from their roots, so strong it lasts years after they are gone. Mexican marigolds (T. erecta) do the same, but are so strong they will inhibit the growth of some more tender herbs. Stinking Roger (T. minuta) has also been found effective against certain perennial weeds.[96] Same with lupin, planting nearby roses causes them to grow vigorously.
Nasturtium Tropaeolum majus Beans, squash,[12][65] tomatoes, fruit trees, brassicas,[30] radish[12][22] cucumbers[12] Predatory insects Aphids,[12] asparagus beetle,[12] cabbage looper,[12][30] cabbage worm,[12][30] carrot fly,[12] cabbage weevil,[30] Colorado potato beetle[12] squash bug,[12][30] Japanese beetle,[12] Mexican bean beetle,[12] striped pumpkin beetles, whitefly,[12] cucumber beetles[12] flea beetle[12] Cauliflower Trap crops for aphids, is among the best at attracting predatory insects, deters many pests of cucurbits
Pansy Viola x wittrockiana Alliums, onions, roses Roses Bees, butterflies, ants Ants (with aphids), snails, slugs, white butterfly A good and nice-smelling flower that really attracts ants. It is like the viola plant, but has two or three colors in flowers. Helps alliums and onions, which repels the white butterfly.
Petunia Petunia x hybrida Cucurbits (squash, pumpkins, cucumbers), asparagus Leafhoppers, Japanese beetles, aphids, asparagus beetle Is a trap crop almost identical to geraniums in function
Phacelia Phacelia tanacetifolia Plants which are prone to aphids, especially lettuce, tomato, rose hoverfly This plant attracts hoverflies and is good around plants which are prone to aphids.[97]
Rose Rosa spp. Chives,[12][22] garlic,[12] marigolds[12]
Sunflower Helianthus annuus Peppers,[72][73] corn, cucumber,[55] soybeans,[50] tomatoes, swan plant Swan plant Aphids Pole beans[10] Was grown as a companion for corn (maize) before modern Europeans arrived in the Americas, supposedly increases their production, ants herd aphids onto sunflowers, keeping them off neighboring plants. Works as a trap plant for thrips keeping them off of bell peppers.[73] Planting near swan plants help sunflowers grow rapidly.
Common name Scientific name Helps Helped by Attracts -Repels/+distracts Avoid Comments
Swan plant Gomphocarpus physocarpus, Asclepias physocarpa, milkweed Sunflower Sunflower, basil Monarch butterfly Aphids Plants that attracts aphids and spider mites Attracts the monarch butterfly during spring and summer. Basil repels pests that attracts by the swan plant like aphids.
Sweet pea Lathyrus odoratus Sweet alyssum, lobelia, roses, lavender, catmint[98] Brassica, spinach, silverbeet and salads Bees, butterflies Aphids An annual climbing plant, which is like the edible pea. Makes a good decoration in your garden or fence.
Tansy Tanacetum vulgare Beans, brassicas,[citation needed] cucurbits (cucumbers, squash, etc.), raspberries and relatives, roses, corn, fruit trees[1] Ladybugs, honeybees flying insects(Ichneumonid wasps), ants,[12] Japanese beetles,[12] cabbage butterfly,[12] cabbage maggot,[12] asparagus beetle,[12] carrot fly,[12] striped cucumber beetles,[12] Colorado potato beetle,[12] cutworm,[12] flea beetle,[12] flies,[12] imported cabbageworm,[12] squash bugs,[12] mice Toxic to people and many animals, don't plant it where livestock browse. Is reputed to generally repel insects (except for nectar-eating types).
Zinnia Zinnia Beans, tomatoes, peppers Whiteflies Attracts hummingbirds that eat whiteflies, attracts pollinators

Other Edit

Common name Scientific name Helps Helped by Attracts -Repels/+distracts Avoid Comments
Alfalfa Medicago sativa Cotton Assassin bug, big-eyed bug, ladybug, parasitic wasps Lygus bugs Tomatoes,[84] fava beans Used by farmers to reduce cotton pests, a good crop to improve soil; fixes nitrogen like beans do. Also breaks up hardpan and other tough soil. Alfalfa has demonstrated some allelopathic effects to tomato seedlings[84]
Peanut Arachis hypogaea Beans, corn, cucumber, eggplant, lettuce, marigold, melon and sunflower Peanuts encourage growth of corn and squash[91]
Walnut tree Juglans spp. Many types of grass including Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis). European alder (sacrifice plant), hairy vetch,[99] crownvetch,[99] sericea lespedeza[99] Apple trees,[85] grasses[99] Black walnut is harmful to the growth of all nightshade plants, including Datura or Jimson weed, eggplant, mandrake, deadly nightshade or belladonna, capsicum (paprika, chile pepper), potato, tomato, and petunia.

See also Edit

References Edit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "What to Plant Around Fruit Trees | Garden Guides".
  2. ^ a b c Nassef, Dalia; El-Gaid, M.A. Abd (2012). "Evaluation of yield and its components of intercropped tomato – garlic in New Valley Governorate" (PDF). Research Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences. 8 (2): 256–260.
  3. ^ a b c Kahn, Brian A. (June 2010). "Intercropping for field production of peppers". HortTechnology. 20 (3): 530–532. doi:10.21273/HORTTECH.20.3.530.
  4. ^ a b c d Potts, Michael J.; Gunadi, Nikardi (1991). "The influence of intercropping with Allium on some insect populations in potato (Solatium tuberosum)". Annals of Applied Biology. 119 (1): 207–213. doi:10.1111/j.1744-7348.1991.tb04859.x.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai "Carrots Love Tomatoes, pg. 3".
  6. ^ a b c d e f "Compatible Plants with Onion & Garlic | Home Guides | SF Gate".
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Mateeva, A.; Ivanova, M.; Vassileva, M. (2002). "Effect of intercropping on the population density of pests in some vegetables". Acta Horticulturae. 579 (579): 507–511. doi:10.17660/ActaHortic.2002.579.88.
  8. ^ Intercropping: A participatory ipm-model for small scale vegetable farmers in Southern Blue Nile Region, Sudan
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Finch, S.; Collier, Rosemary H. (2012). "The influence of host and non-host companion plants on the behaviour of pest insects in field crops". Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata. 142 (2): 87–96. doi:10.1111/j.1570-7458.2011.01191.x.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag "Carrots Love Tomatoes, pg. 2". February 1992.
  11. ^ a b c Riotti, Louise (2004). Carrots love tomatoes & roses love garlic: Secrets of companion planting for successful gardening. U.S.A.: Storey Publishing, LLC.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt du dv dw dx dy dz ea eb ec ed ee ef eg eh ei ej ek el em en eo ep eq er es et eu ev ew ex ey ez fa fb fc fd fe ff fg fh fi fj fk fl fm fn fo fp fq fr fs ft fu fv fw fx fy fz ga gb gc gd ge gf gg gh gi gj gk gl gm gn go gp gq gr gs gt gu gv gw gx gy gz ha hb hc hd he hf hg hh hi hj hk hl hm hn ho hp "Cornell University Cooperative Extension - Companion Planting" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-02-21.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Carrots Love Tomatoes: Companion Planting for a Healthy Garden". February 1992. p. 1.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v "Companion planting: Myth or reality?". Utah Pests News. Spring 2010. Archived from the original on 2014-03-27. Retrieved 2014-03-20.
  15. ^ Jones, Steve (2019-04-09). "Nasturtium Companion Plants". Growing Guides. Retrieved 2022-02-23.
  16. ^ "Gladiolus". Retrieved 2022-02-21.
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Companion Planting Strawberries". 19 April 2018.
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Cornell University Cooperative Extension (2013). "Production guide for organic snap beans for processing" (PDF). NYS IPM Publication. 132.
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q "Companion planting chart for home & market gardening" (PDF). UCCE Master Gardeners Fresno County. February 23, 2013.
  20. ^ Three Sisters (agriculture)
  21. ^ "The Best Time to Plant Fava Beans".
  22. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp "Companion Plants". Alabama Cooperative Extension System.
  23. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t "Carrots Love Tomatoes, pg. 5". February 1992.
  24. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z "Passionfruit". Archived from the original on 2013-08-16. Retrieved 2014-03-14.
  25. ^ "StackPath". Retrieved 2022-02-21.
  26. ^ a b Hoffmann, Mike; Hoebeke, Rick; Dillard, Helene (1999). Flea beetle pests of vegetables (PDF) (Technical report). Cornell University Integrated Pest Management.
  27. ^ "StackPath". Retrieved 2022-02-21.
  28. ^ "StackPath". Retrieved 2022-02-21.
  29. ^ "Use Rye as a Companion Crop for Soybeans". Successful Farming. 2017-10-12. Retrieved 2022-02-21.
  30. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa Riesselman, Leah. Companion planting: A method for sustainable pest control (PDF) (Technical report). Iowa State University. RFR-A9099. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-05-14. Retrieved 2014-03-22.
  31. ^ "Discover the Companion Plants That Can Help Your Tomatoes Thrive". The Spruce. Retrieved 2022-02-21.
  32. ^ Jones, Steve (2019-04-26). "Companion Planting Clover". Growing Guides. Retrieved 2022-02-21.
  33. ^ a b Hooks, Cerruti R.R.; Johnson, Marshall W. (2002). "Lepidopteran pest populations and crop yields in row intercropped broccoli". Agricultural and Forest Entomology. 4 (2): 117–125. doi:10.1046/j.1461-9563.2002.00129.x.
  34. ^ a b c d Rousse, P.; Fournet, S.; Porteneuve, C.; Brunel, E. (2003). "Trap cropping to control Delia radicum populations in cruciferous crops: first results and future applications". Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata. 109 (2): 133–138. doi:10.1046/j.1570-7458.2003.00098.x. S2CID 84486637.
  35. ^ a b c d e Dover, John W. (1986). "The effect of labiate herbs and white clover on Plutella xylostella oviposition". Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata. 42 (3): 243–247. doi:10.1111/j.1570-7458.1986.tb01029.x. S2CID 85325209.
  36. ^ Undersowing cruciferous vegetables with clover: the effect of sowing time on flea beetles and diamondback moth
  37. ^ Björkman, Maria; Hambäck, Peter A.; Hopkins, Richard J.; Rämert, Birgitta (2010). "Evaluating the enemies hypothesis in a clover-cabbage intercrop: effects of generalist and specialist natural enemies on the turnip root fly (Delia floralis)". Agricultural and Forest Entomology. 12 (2): 123–132. doi:10.1111/j.1461-9563.2009.00452.x. S2CID 84358785.
  38. ^ Effect of intercropping white cabbage with French Marigold (Tagetes patula nana L.) and Pot Marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) on the colonization of plants by pest insects
  39. ^ a b Kenny, G.J.; Chapman, R.B. (1988). "Effects of an intercrop on the insect pests, yield, and quality of cabbage". New Zealand Journal of Experimental Agriculture. 16: 67–72. doi:10.1080/03015521.1988.10425616.
  40. ^ a b c d Morris, Michael C.; Li, Frank Y. (2000). "Coriander (Coriandrum sativum) "companion plants" can attract hoverflies, and may reduce pest infestation in cabbages". New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science. 28 (3): 213–217. doi:10.1080/01140671.2000.9514141. S2CID 86656803.
  41. ^ a b c d e f Snails and Slugs (PDF) (Technical report). University of California Statewide Integrated Pest Management Program. November 2009. Pest Notes 7427.
  42. ^ a b c d "What Vegetables to Plant Next to Grapes | Home Guides | SF Gate".
  43. ^ a b c d e f g h Ram, Suresh; Singh, Sunder (2010). "Effect of intercropping of spices, cereal and root crops on the incidence of Helicoverpa armigera (Hub.) in tomato". Vegetable Science. 37 (2): 164–166. Archived from the original on 2014-03-15. Retrieved 2014-03-15.
  44. ^ a b c d Bezerra Neto, Francisco; Gonçalves Gomes, Eliane; Rocha de Araújo, Rychardson; Queiroga de Oliveira; de Sousa Nunes, Henrique; Costa Grangeiro, Leilson; da Silveira Borges Azevedo, Celicina Maria (Jan 2010). "Evaluation of yield advantage indexes in carrot-lettuce intercropping systems" (PDF). Interciencia. 35 (1): 59–64.
  45. ^ Webber, Forrest (2021-02-27). "Spinach Companion Planting: 10 Plants to Grow with Spinach". Yard Surfer. Retrieved 2022-02-21.
  46. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Qasim, Syed Ali; Anjum, Muhammad Akbar; Hussain, Sajjad; Ahmad, Shakeel (2013). "Effect of pea intercropping on biological efficiencies and economics of some non-legume winter vegetables" (PDF). Pakistani Journal of Agricultural Science. 50 (3): 399–406.
  47. ^ Webber, Forrest (2021-02-15). "Sunflower Companion Planting: 11 Plants to Grow with Sunflower". Yard Surfer. Retrieved 2022-02-21.
  48. ^ Webber, Forrest (2021-02-27). "Spinach Companion Planting: 10 Plants to Grow with Spinach". Yard Surfer. Retrieved 2022-02-21.
  49. ^ a b c d e Zhao, Qing; Zhu, Junwei J.; Qin, Yuchuan; Pan, Pengliang; Tu, Hongtao; Du, Wenxiao; Zhou, Wangfang; Baxendale, Frederick P. (2014). "Reducing whiteflies on cucumber using intercropping with less preferred vegetables". Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata. 150: 19–27. doi:10.1111/eea.12135. S2CID 84569641.
  50. ^ a b c d e Abdallah, Youssef E.Y. (2012). "Effect of plant traps and sowing dates on population density of major soybean pests". The Journal of Basic & Applied Zoology. 65: 37–46. doi:10.1016/j.jobaz.2012.06.001.
  51. ^ a b c Zhang, S.; Roberts, P.D.; McGovern, R.J.; Datnoff, L.E. (March 2011). Fusarium crown and root rot of tomato in Florida (PDF) (Technical report). University of Florida Institute of Agricultural Sciences. PP-52.
  52. ^ Yeganehpoor, F.; Salmasi, S.Z.; Abedi, G.; Samadiyan, F.; Beyginiya, V. (2014). "The effect of cover crops on weeds biomass and corn yield". Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences. 14 (2): 178. doi:10.1016/j.jssas.2014.02.001.
  53. ^ Awe, G.O.; Abegunrin, T.P. (July 2009). "Effects of low input tillage and amaranth intercropping system on growth and yield of maize (Zea mays)". African Journal of Agricultural Research. 4 (7): 578–583.
  54. ^ a b Young-Matthews, A (June 2012). "Plant guide for field mustard (Brassica rapa ssp. rapa" (PDF). USDA-NRCS Plant Materials Center, Corvalis, Oregon.
  55. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Carrots Love Tomatoes, pg. 4". February 1992.
  56. ^ a b c d Morsy, S.M.; Drgham, Elham A.; Mohamed, Gehad M. (2009). "Effect of garlic and onion extracts or their intercropping on suppressing damping-off and powdery mildew diseases and growth characteristics of cucumber" (PDF). Egyptian Journal of Phytopathology. 37 (1): 35–46. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-03-18. Retrieved 2014-03-18.
  57. ^ a b Xiao, Xuemei; Cheng, Zhihui; Meng, Huanwen; Liu, Lihong; Li, Hezi; Dong, Yinxin (2013). "Intercropping of green garlic (Allium sativum L.) induces nutrient concentration changes in the soil and plants in continuously cropped cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) in a plastic tunnel". PLOS ONE. 8 (4): 1–7. Bibcode:2013PLoSO...862173X. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0062173. PMC 3634817. PMID 23637994.
  58. ^ a b Pitan, O.O.; Esan, E.O. (2013). "Intercropping cucumber with amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus L.) to suppress populations of major insect pests of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)". Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection. 47 (9): 1112–1119. doi:10.1080/03235408.2013.830809. S2CID 84412234.
  59. ^ Damicone, J.P.; Edelson, J.V. (May 2007). "Effects of border crops and intercrops on control of cucurbit virus diseases". Plant Disease. 91 (5): 509–516. doi:10.1094/pdis-91-5-0509. PMID 30780694.
  60. ^ a b c d e f Mansour, S.A.A.; Roff, Mohammed M.N.; Saad, Khalid A; Abuzid, Ismail; Idris, A.B. (2012). "Responses of Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) Population on Tomato Lycopersicon esculentnm Mixed with Other Crops under Glasshouse Conditions". APCBEE Procedia. 4: 48–52. doi:10.1016/j.apcbee.2012.11.009.
  61. ^ a b c d Hage-Ahmed, Karin; Krammer, Johannes; Steinkellner, Siegrid (2013). "The intercropping partner affects arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici interactions in tomato". Mycorrhiza. 23 (7): 543–550. doi:10.1007/s00572-013-0495-x. PMC 3778835. PMID 23549903.
  62. ^ Theunissen, J.; Schelling, G. (1997). "Damage threshold for Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in monocropped and intercropped leek" (PDF). {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  63. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Hadidi, Nazar; Sharaiha, Ramzi; Al-Debei, Hmoud (2011). "Effect of intercropping on the performance of some summer vegetable crops grown under different row arrangements" (PDF). Lucrări ştiinţifice. 54 (2): 11–17.
  64. ^ a b c d Raey, Yaegoob; Ghassemi-Golezani, Kazem (2009). "Yield-density relationship for potato (Solarium tuberosum) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) in intercropping". New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science. 37 (2): 141–147. doi:10.1080/01140670909510259. S2CID 85158043.
  65. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Zehnder, G.W.; Ray, Charles (1997). "Garden bugs: Insect pest management in the home vegetable garden" (PDF). Alabama Cooperative Extension System.
  66. ^ a b c d Sharaiha, R.K.; Hadidi, N.A. "Microenvironmental effects on potato and bean yields grown under intercropping system" (PDF). Lucrări ştiinţifice. 51: 209–219.
  67. ^ Wnuk, Andrzej; Wojciechowicz-Żytko, Elżbieta. "Effect of intercropping of broad bean (Vicia faba L.) with tansy phacelia (Phacelia tanacetifolia Benth.) on the occurrence of Aphis fabae Scop. and predatory Syrphidae" (PDF). Aphids and Other Hemipterous Insects. 13: 211–217.
  68. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z Bugg, Robert L.; Colfer, Ramy G.; Chaney, William E.; Smith, Hugh A.; Cannon, James (May 2008). Flower flies (Syrphidae) and other biological control agents for aphids in vegetable crops (PDF) (Technical report). University of California Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources (UCANR). 8285.
  69. ^ a b c d Lawal, A.B.; Rahman, S.A. (2007). "Effect of irrigation, fertiliser and manure on yield and economic return of okra/pepper intercrops". Tropical Science. 47 (1): 45–48. doi:10.1002/ts.194.
  70. ^ "The Best Onion Companion Plants". Growfully. 2022-02-01. Retrieved 2022-03-25.
  71. ^ De Costa, W.A.J.M.; Perera, M.K.K.W. (1998). "Effects of Bean Population and Row Arrangement on the Productivity of Chilli/Dwarf Bean (Capsicum annuum/Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Intercropping in Sri Lanka". Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science. 180 (1): 53–58. doi:10.1111/j.1439-037X.1998.tb00369.x.
  72. ^ a b c Bottenberg, Harry; Frantz, Galen; Mellinger, H.Charles (1999). "Refuge and cover crop plantings for beneficial insect habitats" (PDF). Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 112: 339–341.
  73. ^ a b c Legaspi, Jesusa Chrisostomo; Baer, Ignacio (2008). "Intercropping sunflower varieties with bell pepper: Effect on populations of Orius insidiosus (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) and thrips" (PDF). Subtropical Plant Science. 60: 13–20.
  74. ^ Frantz, G.; Mellinger, H.C. (1997). "Aspects of biologically based pest management in commercial pepper production" (PDF). Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 110: 295–297.
  75. ^ a b Singh, S.P.; Kushwah, V.S. (2012). "Effect of planting method on production potential of potato + pea intercropping system". Potato Journal. 39 (1): 95–97.
  76. ^ a b c Kassa, Bekele; Sommartya, Tharmmasak (2006). "Effect of Intercropping on Potato Late Blight, Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary Development and Potato Tuber Yield in Ethiopia" (PDF). Kasetsart Journal: Natural Science. 40: 914–924.
  77. ^ Bouws, H.; Finckh, M.R. (2008). "Effects of strip intercropping of potatoes with non-hosts on late blight severity and tuber yield in organic production". Plant Pathology. 57 (5): 916–927. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3059.2008.01860.x.
  78. ^ a b c d "Carrots Love Tomatoes, pg. 6". February 1992.
  79. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Carrots Love Tomatoes, pg. 7". February 1992.
  80. ^ a b c Bomford, Michael (May 2004). Yield, pest density, and tomato flavour effects of companion planting in garden-scale studies incorporating tomato, basil, and Brussels sprout (Thesis). Organic eprints. Retrieved 2012-05-02.
  81. ^ a b Togni, Pedro H.B.; Laumann, Raúl A.; Medeiros, Maria A.; Sujii, Edison R. (2010). "Odour masking of tomato volatiles by coriander volatiles in host plant selection of Bemisia tabaci biotype B". Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata. 136 (2): 164–173. doi:10.1111/j.1570-7458.2010.01010.x. S2CID 84095880.
  82. ^ Balzan, Mario V.; Moonen, Anna-Camilla (2014). "Field margin vegetation enhances biological control and crop damage suppression from multiple pests in organic tomato fields". Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata. 150: 45–65. doi:10.1111/eea.12142. S2CID 85575305.
  83. ^ a b "12 Evidence-Based Companion Plants for Tomatoes". Growfully. 2021-12-17. Retrieved 2022-03-25.
  84. ^ a b c El-Darier, Salama M.; Zein El-Dien, Marwa H. (2011). "Biological activity of Medicago sativa L. (alfalfa) residues on germination efficiency, growth and nutrient uptake of Lycopersicon esculentum L. (tomato) seedlings". Journal of Taibah University for Science. 5: 7–13. doi:10.1016/S1658-3655(12)60033-8.
  85. ^ a b "Fruit Tree Companion Planting".
  86. ^ a b "Plant Companions: Friend or Foe?".
  87. ^ Beizhou, Song; Jie, Zhang; Jinghui, Hu; Hongying, Wu; Yun, Kong; Yuncong, Yao (2011). "Temporal dynamics of the arthropod community in pear orchards intercropped with aromatic plants". Pest Management Science. 67 (9): 1107–1114. doi:10.1002/ps.2156. PMID 21480464.
  88. ^ "How to grow, care and harvest Anise hyssop". Shiny Plant. 2021-01-12. Retrieved 2021-01-13.
  89. ^ a b c d e Carrubba, Alessandra; Torre, Raffaele la; Saiano, Filippo; Aiello, Pietro (2008). "Sustainable production of fennel and dill by intercropping" (PDF). Agronomy for Sustainable Development. 28 (2): 247–256. doi:10.1051/agro:2007040.
  90. ^ "Our Herb Garden Fennel Companions". March 2013.
  91. ^ a b "Companion Planting". Archived from the original on 2013-09-24.
  92. ^ Krug, Kristine (2003-09-12). "Slugs take fright at garlic". BBC News. Salford.
  93. ^ Calumpang, Susan May F. (2013). "Behavioral response of Spodoptera litura (F) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to selected herbs and eggplant" (PDF). Journal of the International Society for Southeast Asian Agricultural Sciences. 19 (2): 95–103.
  94. ^ Nematodes (PDF) (Technical report). University of California Statewide Integrated Pest Management Program. July 2010. Pest Notes 7489.
  95. ^ "Root-knot Nematodes: Biocontrol with Marigolds" (PDF).
  96. ^ "Tagetes minuta Muster-John-Henry PFAF Plant Database".
  97. ^ "Lovely Companion Plant for Your Vegetable Garden: Phacelia". 2011-11-04.
  98. ^ "How to grow sweet pea flowers [Easily]". Shiny Plant. 2021-01-02. Retrieved 2021-01-13.
  99. ^ a b c d "Site-improving intercrops for Black Walnut" (PDF). Walnut Council Bulletin. Retrieved 13 April 2014.

External links Edit

Further reading Edit

  • Cunningham, Sally Jean. Great Garden Companions: A companion planting system for a beautiful, chemical-free vegetable garden. 1998. ISBN 0-87596-847-3
  • Hylton, W. The Rodale Herb Book, Eighth Printing. Rodale Press. 1974. ISBN 0-87857-076-4