List of presidents of Syria

(Redirected from List of Presidents of Syria)

This article lists the presidents of Syria since 1920.

List of officeholdersEdit

Syria (1922–1958)Edit

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Elected Term of office Political party Note(s)
Took office Left office Time in office
Syrian Federation (under French mandate; 1922–1925)
1   Subhi Bey Barakat
صبحي بك بركات
(1889–1939)
29 June 1922[1] 1 January 1925 2 years, 185 days Independent
State of Syria (under French mandate; 1925–1930)
(1)   Subhi Bey Barakat
صبحي بك بركات
(1889–1939)
1 January 1925 21 December 1925 354 days Independent
  François Pierre-Alype
فرانسوا بيير أليب
(1853–1932)
9 February 1926 28 April 1926 78 days Independent
2   Ahmad Nami
أحمد نامي
(1873–1962)
28 April 1926 15 February 1928 1 year, 293 days Independent
  Taj al-Din al-Hasani
تاج الدين الحسني
(1885–1943)
15 February 1928 14 May 1930 2 years, 88 days Independent
First Syrian Republic (1930–1950)
Mandatory Syrian Republic (1930–1946)
  Taj al-Din al-Hasani
تاج الدين الحسني
(1885–1943)
14 May 1930 19 November 1931 1 year, 189 days Independent
  Léon Solomiac
ليون سولومياك
(1873–1960)
19 November 1931 11 June 1932 205 days Independent
3   Muhammad Ali Bey al-Abid
محمد علي بك العابد
(1867–1939)
11 June 1932 21 December 1936 4 years, 193 days Independent
4   Hashim al-Atassi
هاشم الأتاسي
(1875–1960)
21 December 1936 7 July 1939 2 years, 198 days National Bloc
5   Bahij al-Khatib
بهيج الخطيب
(1895–1981)
10 July 1939 4 April 1941 1 year, 268 days Independent
  Khalid al-Azm
خالد العظم
(1903–1965)
4 April 1941 16 September 1941 165 days Independent
6   Taj al-Din al-Hasani
تاج الدين الحسني
(1885–1943)
16 September 1941 17 January 1943 1 year, 123 days Independent Hasani died in office.[2]
  Jamil al-Ulshi
جميل الألشي
(1883–1951)
17 January 1943 25 March 1943 67 days Independent
7   Ata Bey al-Ayyubi
عطا الأيوبي
(1877–1951)
25 March 1943 17 August 1943 145 days Independent
8   Shukri al-Quwatli
شكري القوّتلي
(1891–1967)
17 August 1943 24 October 1945 2 years, 68 days National Bloc
Independent First Syrian Republic (1945–1950)
(8)   Shukri al-Quwatli
شكري القوّتلي
(1891–1967)
24 October 1945 29 March 1949 3 years, 156 days National Bloc / National Party Quwatli was ousted from power on 29 March 1949 by Husni al-Za'im, his Chief of Staff.[3]
9   Husni al-Za'im
حسني الزعيم
(1897–1949)
1949 30 March 1949 14 August 1949 137 days Syrian Social Nationalist Party Za'im was overthrown by a military coup in 1949 led by Adib Shishakli, he was later executed on the orders of the new government.[4]
10   Sami al-Hinnawi
سامي الحناوي
(1898–1950)
14 August 1949 15 August 1949 1 day Military
11
(4)
  Hashim al-Atassi
هاشم الأتاسي
(1875–1960)
15 August 1949 5 September 1950 1 year, 21 days People's Party
Second Syrian Republic (1950–1958)
(11)
(4)
  Hashim al-Atassi
هاشم الأتاسي
(1875–1960)
5 September 1950 2 December 1951 1 year, 88 days People's Party
  Adib Shishakli
أديب الشيشكلي
(1909–1964)
2 December 1951 3 December 1951 1 day Syrian Social Nationalist Party
12   Fawzi Selu
فوزي سلو
(1905–1972)
3 December 1951 11 July 1953 1 year, 220 days Military
13   Adib Shishakli
أديب الشيشكلي
(1909–1964)
1953 11 July 1953 25 February 1954 229 days Arab Liberation Movement Shishakli resigned from office because of threats of a coup in 1954.[5] He fled the country, claiming that he did not want the country to fall into a civil war.[5]
  Maamun al-Kuzbari
مأمون الكزبري
(1914–1998)
25 February 1954 28 February 1954 3 days Independent
14
(4)
(11)
  Hashim al-Atassi
هاشم الأتاسي
(1875–1960)
28 February 1954 6 September 1955 1 year, 190 days People's Party
15
(8)
  Shukri al-Quwatli
شكري القوّتلي
(1891–1967)
6 September 1955 22 February 1958 2 years, 169 days National Party

United Arab Republic (1958–1961)Edit

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Elected Term of office Political party
Took office Left office Time in office
1   Gamal Abdel Nasser
جمال عبد الناصر
(1918–1970)
1958 22 February 1958 29 September 1961 3 years, 219 days National Union

Syria (1961–present)Edit

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Elected Term of office Political party Note(s)
Took office Left office Time in office
Syrian Arab Republic (1961–present)
  Maamun al-Kuzbari
مأمون الكزبري
(1914–1998)
29 September 1961 20 November 1961 52 days Independent Kuzbari took office following the 1961 coup d'état, which dissolved the United Arab Republic.
  Izzat al-Nuss
عزت النص
(1912–1976)[6]
20 November 1961 14 December 1961 24 days Military
1   Nazim al-Qudsi
ناظم القدسي
(1906–1998)
14 December 1961 8 March 1963 1 year, 84 days People's Party The 1963 coup d'état, an event known as the 8th of March Revolution, toppled Qudsi and brought the National Council for the Revolutionary Command (NCRC) to government, although real power lay with the Ba'athist Military Committee, which organized the coup.[7]
2   Lu'ay al-Atassi
لؤي الأتاسي
(1926–2003)
9 March 1963 27 July 1963 140 days Independent Atassi was appointed president by the NCRC because he posed no threat to the Military Committee's power.[8] He resigned after high-ranking non-Ba'athist officers were purged.[9]
3   Amin al-Hafiz
أمين الحافظ
(1921–2009)
27 July 1963 23 February 1966 2 years, 211 days Ba'ath Party
(Syria Region)
Hafiz was overthrown by the Military Committee because of his support for Michel Aflaq and the National Command of the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party.[10]
4   Nureddin al-Atassi
نور الدين الأتاسي
(1929–1992)
25 February 1966 18 November 1970 4 years, 266 days Syrian Ba'ath Party
(Syria Region)
Atassi was overthrown when a falling out occurred between Salah Jadid, the real ruler of Syria from 1966 to 1970, and Hafez al-Assad, the Minister of Defense.[11] Assad initiated a coup in 1970, known as the Corrective Movement.[12]
  Ahmad al-Khatib
أحمد الخطيب
(1933–1982)
18 November 1970 22 February 1971 96 days Syrian Ba'ath Party
(Syria Region)
5   Hafez al-Assad
حافظ الأسد
(1930–2000)
1971
1978
1985
1991
1999
22 February 1971 10 June 2000 29 years, 109 days Syrian Ba'ath Party
(Syria Region)
Assad died in office.[13]
  Abdul Halim Khaddam
عبدالحليم خدام
(1932–2020)
10 June 2000 17 July 2000 37 days Syrian Ba'ath Party
(Syria Region)
6   Bashar al-Assad
بَشَّارُ ٱلْأَسَدِ
(born 1965)
2000
2007
2014
2021
17 July 2000 Incumbent 22 years, 193 days Syrian Ba'ath Party
(Syria Region)

TimelineEdit

Bashar al-AssadAbdul Halim KhaddamHafez al-AssadAhmad al-KhatibNureddin al-AtassiAmin al-HafizLu'ay al-AtassiNazim al-KudsiIzzat al-NussGamal Abdel NasserMaamun al-KuzbariFawzi SeluAdib ShishakliSami al-HinnawiHusni al-Za'imShukri al-QuwatliAta al-AyyubiJamil al-UlshiKhalid al-AzmBahij al-KhatibHashim al-AtassiMuhammad Ali al-AbidLéon SolomiacTaj al-Din al-HasaniAhmad NamiFrançois Pierre-AlypeSubhi Barakat

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

General
  1. ^ Arrêtés Nos. 1, 2 & 3, Bulletin hebdomadaire des actes administratifs du Haut-Commissariat (8 October 1922), p. 268; [1].
  2. ^ Moubayed 2006, p. 345.
  3. ^ Moubayed 2006, p. 311.
  4. ^ Moubayed 2006, p. 610.
  5. ^ a b Moubayed 2006, p. 339.
  6. ^ "Who's who in the Arab World". 1974.
  7. ^ Moubayed 2006, p. 133.
  8. ^ Moubayed 2006, p. 175.
  9. ^ Rabinovich 1972, p. 72.
  10. ^ Seale 1990, pp. 99–101.
  11. ^ Seale 1990, pp. 142–144.
  12. ^ Seale 1990, pp. 162–163.
  13. ^ Moubayed 2006, pp. 154–155.
Bibliography