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Below is the List of Palmyrene monarchs which refers to the monarchs that ruled and presided over the city of Palmyra and the subsequent Palmyrene Empire in the 3rd century AD, and the later vassal princes of the Al Fadl dynasty which ruled over the city in the 14th century.

House of OdaenathusEdit

Odaenathus, the lord of Palmyra, declared himself king before riding into battle against the Sassanians after news of the Roman defeat at Edessa reached him.[1] This elevated Palmyra from a subordinate city to a de facto independent kingdom allied to Rome.[2]

Odaenathus later elevated himself to the title of King of Kings, crowning his son co-King of Kings in 263.[3] The title was later passed to Vaballathus his son, before it was dropped for the title of King[4] and later Emperor.

Portrait Name Ruler From Ruler Until Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title Notes
  Odaenathus 260 267 King
King of Kings
Founder of the Palmyrene monarchy, dropped the King title and started using King of Kings by 263
  Hairan I 263 267  • Son of Odaeanthus King of Kings Made co-King of Kings by his father.[5]
  Maeonius 267 267  • Odaenathus' cousin.[6] Emperor No evidence exist for his reign,[7] but he allegedly murdered Odaenathus and his son, Hairan and attempted a usurpation
  Vaballathus 267 272  • Son of Odaenathus King of Kings
King
Emperor
Dropped the "King of Kings" title in 270, replacing it with the Latin rex (king) and declared emperor in 271.[4] Reigned under the regency of his mother, Zenobia.[8]
  Zenobia 267 272  • Mother of Vaballathus Queen
Empress
Ruled as a regent for her children and did not claim to rule in her own right.[8]
Antiochus 273 273  • Possibly a son of Zenobia.[9] Emperor

Al Fadl dynastyEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Dignas, Beate; Winter, Engelbert (2007) [2001]. Rome and Persia in Late Antiquity: Neighbours and Rivals. Cambridge University Press. p. 159. ISBN 978-0-521-84925-8.
  2. ^ Young, Gary K. (2003) [2001]. Rome's Eastern Trade: International Commerce and Imperial Policy 31 BC - AD 305. Routledge. p. 159. ISBN 978-1-134-54793-7.
  3. ^ Udo Hartmann (2001). Das palmyrenische Teilreich (in German). p. 178.
  4. ^ a b Andrew M. Smith II (2013). Roman Palmyra: Identity, Community, and State Formation. p. 179.
  5. ^ Maurice Sartre (2005). The Middle East Under Rome. p. 353.
  6. ^ Trevor Bryce (2014). Ancient Syria: A Three Thousand Year History. p. 292.
  7. ^ George C. Brauer (1975). The Age of the Soldier Emperors: Imperial Rome, A.D. 244-284. p. 163.
  8. ^ a b Pat Southern (2008). Empress Zenobia: Palmyra's Rebel Queen. p. 92.
  9. ^ Alaric Watson (2004). Aurelian and the Third Century. p. 81.
  10. ^ محمد عدنان قيطاز (1998). "مهنّا (أسرة)". الموسوعة العربية (in Arabic). 19. هيئة الموسوعة العربية. p. 788.
  11. ^ a b c d e Khayr al-Dīn Ziriklī (1926). al-Aʻlām,: qāmūs tarājim al-ashʾhur al-rijāl wa-al-nisāʾ min al-ʻArab wa-al-mustaʻrabīn wa-al-mustashriqīn, Volume 7 (in Arabic). p. 73.
  12. ^ Yūsuf al-Atābikī Ibn Taghrī Birdī (1451). al-Manhal al-ṣāfī wa-al-mustawfá baʻda al-wāfī (in Arabic). p. 373.
  13. ^ a b c d e Ibn Khaldūn (1375). Kitāb al-ʻibar wa-dīwān al-mubtadaʾ wa-al-khabar f̣ī ayyām al-ʻArab wa-al-ʻAjam ẉa-al-Barbar wa-man ʻāṣarahum min dhawī al-sulṭān al-al-akbar wa-huwa tarīkh waḥīd ʻaṣrih, Volume 5 - Part 30 (in Arabic). p. 105.
  14. ^ a b c Khalīl ibn Aybak Ṣafadī (1363). al-Wāfī bi-al-Wafayāt Vol.28 (in Arabic). p. 345.
  15. ^ a b c d Khalīl ibn Aybak Ṣafadī (1363). al-Wāfī bi-al-Wafayāt Vol.7 (in Arabic). p. 192.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i Ibn Khaldūn (1375). Kitāb al-ʻibar wa-dīwān al-mubtadaʾ wa-al-khabar f̣ī ayyām al-ʻArab wa-al-ʻAjam ẉa-al-Barbar wa-man ʻāṣarahum min dhawī al-sulṭān al-al-akbar wa-huwa tarīkh waḥīd ʻaṣrih, Volume 6 - Part 11 (in Arabic). p. 11.
  17. ^ Yūsuf al-Atābikī Ibn Taghrī Birdī (1451). al-Manhal al-ṣāfī wa-al-mustawfá baʻda al-wāfī, Volume 6 (in Arabic). p. 48.
  18. ^ a b Aḥmad Ibn-ʻAlī Ibn-ʻAbdalqādir al- Maqrīzī (1441). as-Sulūk li-maʻrifat duwal al-mulūk (in Arabic). p. 801.