List of New York City Designated Landmarks in Manhattan on smaller islands

The New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission (LPC), formed in 1965, is the New York City governmental commission that administers the city's Landmarks Preservation Law. Since its founding, it has designated over a thousand landmarks, classified into four categories: individual landmarks, interior landmarks, scenic landmarks, and historic districts.

Front view of the Statue of Liberty
The Statue of Liberty on Liberty Island is one of several New York City Designated Landmarks that are located on smaller islands in Manhattan.[1]:1

The New York City borough of Manhattan consists of the main island of Manhattan; the neighborhood of Marble Hill, located on the North American mainland; and several smaller islands. The LPC has designated fifteen landmarks on four smaller islands in Manhattan, including two historic districts, twelve individual landmarks, and one interior landmark. These designations comprise two on Ellis Island, six on Governors Island, one on Liberty Island, and six on Roosevelt Island. The designations include the Statue of Liberty, a national monument, as well as numerous buildings that are all also on the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP).

ContextEdit

The New York City borough of Manhattan contains numerous smaller islands in addition to the main island of Manhattan.[2] Three of these islands, Ellis Island, Governors Island, and Liberty Island, are located in Upper New York Bay,[3]:9 though jurisdiction of Ellis Island is shared with neighboring Jersey City, New Jersey, and Liberty Island is an exclave of Manhattan within New Jersey.[4][5] There are also several islands in the East River, including U Thant Island, Roosevelt Island, Mill Rock, and Randalls and Wards Islands,[3]:151 which are legally part of Manhattan.[2]

The New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission (LPC) is the New York City governmental commission that administers the city's Landmarks Preservation Law.[6] Formed in 1965,[7] the commission administers four types of landmarks: individual landmarks, which consist of the exteriors of objects or structures; interior landmarks, which consist of the interiors of structures; scenic landmarks, which include city-owned "parks or other landscape features"; and historic districts, which consist of geographically cohesive collections of buildings with a distinct architectural style.[8] Some are also on the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP), a separate program administered by the National Park Service.[9] As of May 2020, the LPC has designated 149 historic districts, 1,439 individual landmarks, 120 interior landmarks, and 11 scenic landmarks.[10]

The smaller islands in Manhattan contain two historic districts, twelve individual landmarks, and one interior landmark.[11] Both historic districts contain landmarks within them: the Ellis Island Historic District includes one interior landmark while the Governors Island Historic District contains five individual landmarks.[11] As of May 2020, all twelve individual landmarks on Manhattan's smaller islands are on the NRHP;[12] Ellis Island and the Statue of Liberty are also part of the Statue of Liberty National Monument,[13] and all landmarks on Governors Island are also part of the Governors Island National Monument.[14] In addition, the Statue of Liberty is a World Heritage Site designated by UNESCO,[15] and both the Statue of Liberty and Ellis Island are on the New Jersey Register of Historic Places.[16]

HistoryEdit

The LPC designated its first landmarks on smaller islands in Manhattan during 1967, when five buildings on Governors Island were given individual-landmark status.[17] The LPC subsequently gave individual-landmark status to six buildings on Roosevelt Island in March 1976; the structures included a house, a lighthouse, a chapel, and three former hospitals.[18] That September, the LPC also designated the Statue of Liberty as a city landmark.[19] The LPC designated the entirety of Ellis Island as a historic district in 1993,[20][21]:76–77 although most of the island is in New Jersey.[5] The interior of the registry room inside Ellis Island's main building was also designated at the same time.[22]:1 In 1997, the LPC designated 90 acres (36 ha) of Governors Island as a historic district, which included approximately 100 buildings. The designation overlays that of the five individual landmarks that had been previously designated.[23]

Despite the protections given by the LPC, some landmarks have fallen into decay after their designations.[24] These landmarks have included the Octagon Tower,[25] Blackwell House,[26] and Smallpox Hospital on Roosevelt Island.[27] The Octagon Tower was incorporated into an apartment complex in 2005 after the LPC approved the tower's renovation.[28]

Historic districtsEdit

[a] Landmark name Image Date listed[b] Location Island Description
1 Ellis Island Historic District
November 16, 1993
(#1902)
 
40°41′58″N 74°02′30″W / 40.699398°N 74.041723°W / 40.699398; -74.041723 (Ellis Island Historic District)
Ellis Island A group of some 30 structures that formed the Ellis Island federal immigration station.[21]
2 Governor's Island Historic District
June 18, 1996
(#1946)
 
40°41′26″N 74°00′59″W / 40.690516°N 74.016415°W / 40.690516; -74.016415 (Governor's Island Historic District)
Governors Island A group of over 100 structures that were used by the U.S. military continuously for over two centuries.[29]

Individual landmarksEdit

All of these individual landmarks are also listed on the NRHP.[12]

[a] Landmark name Image Date listed[b] Location Island Description
1 The Admiral's House
September 19, 1967
(#0546)
Nolan Park
40°41′25″N 74°00′50″W / 40.690278°N 74.013889°W / 40.690278; -74.013889 (The Admiral's House)
Governors Island Used by the commanding officers of the Army and Coast Guard units.[30]
2 Blackwell House
March 23, 1976
(#0912)
501 Main Street
40°45′38″N 73°57′05″W / 40.760556°N 73.951389°W / 40.760556; -73.951389 (Blackwell House)
Roosevelt Island Built in 1796 by a descendant of the first English owner of the island.[31]
3 Block House
September 19, 1967
(#0544)
Nolan Park on Barry Road
40°41′20″N 74°00′51″W / 40.688889°N 74.014167°W / 40.688889; -74.014167 (Block House)
Governors Island A small military prison on Governors Island.[32]
4 Castle Williams
September 19, 1967
(#0547)
Hay Road and Andes Road
40°41′34″N 74°01′11″W / 40.692778°N 74.0197°W / 40.692778; -74.0197 (Castle Williams)
Governors Island A circular 19th century fortification of red sandstone on the northwest point of Governors Island, part of a system of forts to protect New York City from naval attack.[33]
5 Chapel of the Good Shepherd
March 23, 1976
(#0907)
543 Main Street
40°45′42″N 73°57′02″W / 40.761667°N 73.950556°W / 40.761667; -73.950556 (Chapel of the Good Shepherd)
Roosevelt Island A historic Episcopal church designed by architect Frederick Clarke Withers, now known as the Good Shepherd Community Ecumenical Center.[34]
6 Fort Jay
September 19, 1967
(#0543)
Quadrangle Road
40°41′29″N 74°00′59″W / 40.691389°N 74.016389°W / 40.691389; -74.016389 (Fort Jay)
Governors Island A 1794 coastal star fort, built to defend New York Harbor.[35]
7 The Governor's House
September 19, 1967
(#0545)
Building 2, Andes Road
40°41′27″N 74°00′48″W / 40.690833°N 74.013333°W / 40.690833; -74.013333 (The Governor's House)
Governors Island A historic house on Governors Island.[36]
8 Lighthouse
March 23, 1976
(#0911)
North end of Roosevelt Island
40°46′22″N 73°56′26″W / 40.772778°N 73.940556°W / 40.772778; -73.940556 (Lighthouse)
Roosevelt Island An 1872 lighthouse located at the northeast tip of Roosevelt Island in the East River.[37]
9 The Octagon
March 23, 1976
(#0910)
888 Main Street
40°46′08″N 73°56′38″W / 40.768889°N 73.943889°W / 40.768889; -73.943889 (The Octagon)
Roosevelt Island Originally serving as the main entrance to the New York City Lunatic Asylum, which opened in 1841, it was designed by Alexander Jackson Davis.[38]
10 Smallpox Hospital
March 23, 1976
(#0908)
E Road
40°45′06″N 73°57′36″W / 40.751667°N 73.96°W / 40.751667; -73.96 (Smallpox Hospital)
Roosevelt Island Originally designed by architect James Renwick Jr., the 100-bed hospital opened in 1856, when the area was known as Blackwell's Island. Its ruins have been stabilized and preserved.[39]
11 Statue of Liberty
September 14, 1976
(#0931)
Liberty Island, New York Harbor
40°41′21″N 74°02′40″W / 40.689154°N 74.044441°W / 40.689154; -74.044441 (Statue of Liberty)
Liberty Island The iconic statue named Liberty Enlightening the World[1]
12 Strecker Memorial Laboratory
March 23, 1976
(#0909)
E Road
40°45′09″N 73°57′31″W / 40.7525°N 73.958611°W / 40.7525; -73.958611 (Strecker Memorial Laboratory)
Roosevelt Island Built in 1892 to serve as a laboratory for City Hospital, it was "the first institution in the nation for pathological and bacteriological research." The building was designed by architects Frederick Clarke Withers and Walter Dickson in the Romanesque Revival style.[40]

Interior landmarksEdit

[a] Landmark name Image Date listed[b] Location Island Description
1 Ellis Island, Main Building (Interior)
November 16, 1993
(#1903)
Ellis Island
40°41′57″N 74°02′22″W / 40.699160°N 74.039491°W / 40.699160; -74.039491 (Ellis Island, Main Building (Interior))
Ellis Island The interior of the second- and third-floor registry room of Ellis Island's main building, where immigrants were processed.[22]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b c Numbers represent an ordering by significant words.
  2. ^ a b c The number below each date is the number assigned to each location by the Landmarks Preservation Commission. The landmark designation report can be viewed by clicking the number.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b "Statue of Liberty" (PDF). New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission. September 14, 1976. Retrieved May 27, 2020.
  2. ^ a b "Borough Boundaries". NYC Open Data. Government of New York City. Retrieved May 23, 2019.
  3. ^ a b Seitz, Sharon; Miller, Stuart (2011). The Other Islands of New York City: A History and Guide (Third ed.). Countryman Press. ISBN 978-1-58157-886-7. Retrieved May 28, 2020.
  4. ^ New Jersey v. New York, 523 U.S. 767 (1998) ("New Jersey has sovereign authority over the filled land added to the original Island.").
  5. ^ a b Brogan, Pamela; Gannett News Service (May 27, 1998). "Court rules Ellis Island is mostly in New Jersey". Courier-Post. Camden, NJ. pp. 1, 4 – via newspapers.com  .
  6. ^ "Rules of the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission, Title 63, Rules of the City of New York" (PDF). New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission; Government of New York City. January 22, 2019. p. 2. Retrieved May 28, 2020.
  7. ^ Ennis, Thomas W. (April 20, 1965). "Landmarks Bill Signed by Mayor; Wagner Approves It Despite Protests of Realty Men". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved May 28, 2020.
  8. ^ "Landmark Types and Criteria". New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission; Government of New York City. Retrieved December 22, 2019.
  9. ^ "Landmark Designation". New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission; Government of New York City. Retrieved May 28, 2020.
  10. ^ "About LPC". New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission; Government of New York City. Retrieved May 28, 2020.
  11. ^ a b "Discover New York City Landmarks". New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission. Retrieved December 21, 2019 – via ArcGIS.
  12. ^ a b "National Register of Historic Places". data.ny.gov. United States National Park Service. Retrieved November 6, 2020.
  13. ^ Healy, Paul (May 12, 1965). "Ellis Island Finds Shelter With Miss Liberty". New York Daily News. p. 3. Retrieved June 5, 2019 – via newspapers.com  .
  14. ^ Hernandez, Raymond; Stewart, Barbara (January 21, 2001). "Clinton, With Time Running Out, Protects Part of Governors Island". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved May 24, 2019.
  15. ^ "Statue of Liberty". World Heritage. UNESCO. Retrieved October 20, 2011.
  16. ^ "New Jersey and National Registers of Historic Places – Hudson County". New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection – Historic Preservation Office. Retrieved August 2, 2014.
  17. ^ "Museum Now Landmark". The Record. December 1, 1967. p. 34. Retrieved May 10, 2020 – via newspapers.com  .
  18. ^ Mason, Bryant (March 24, 1976). "Designate Landmarks". New York Daily News. p. 94. Retrieved May 15, 2020 – via newspapers.com  .
  19. ^ Miele, Al (September 15, 1976). "Statue of Liberty a City Landmark". New York Daily News. p. 294. Retrieved May 15, 2020 – via newspapers.com  .
  20. ^ Sullivan, Ronald (November 17, 1993). "Panel Seeks Stronger Role in Future of Ellis Island". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved May 28, 2020.
  21. ^ a b Robins, Anthony; Urbanelli, Elisa (November 16, 1993). "Ellis Island Historic District" (PDF). New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission. Retrieved May 27, 2020.
  22. ^ a b Robins, Anthony (November 16, 1993). "Ellis Island, Main Building (Interior)" (PDF). New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission. Retrieved May 27, 2020.
  23. ^ Stout, David (June 19, 1996). "Governors Island Historic District Created". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved May 28, 2020.
  24. ^ McCain, Mark (August 2, 1987). "Despite Protections, Landmarks Decay". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved May 28, 2020.
  25. ^ Dunlap, David W. (November 21, 1988). "A Historic Asylum Needs Urgent Care". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved May 28, 2020.
  26. ^ Lippincott, E. E. (July 22, 2001). "Neighborhood Report: Roosevelt Island; An 18th-Century Landmark Faces 21st-Century Problems". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved May 28, 2020.
  27. ^ Dunlap, David W. (January 4, 2008). "Smallpox Hospital on Roosevelt Island Crumbles". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved May 28, 2020.
  28. ^ Gray, Christopher (January 23, 2005). "A Once-Grand 1839 Tower Is Given a New Life". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved May 28, 2020.
  29. ^ Pearson, Marjorie; Hansen, Laura (August 18, 1996). "Governor's Island Historic District" (PDF). New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission. Retrieved May 27, 2020.
  30. ^ "The Admiral's House" (PDF). New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission. September 19, 1967. Retrieved May 27, 2020.
  31. ^ "Blackwell House" (PDF). New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission. March 23, 1976. Retrieved May 27, 2020.
  32. ^ "The Block House" (PDF). New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission. September 19, 1967. Retrieved May 27, 2020.
  33. ^ "Castle Williams" (PDF). New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission. September 19, 1967. Retrieved May 27, 2020.
  34. ^ "Chapel of the Good Shepherd" (PDF). New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission. March 23, 1976. Retrieved May 27, 2020.
  35. ^ "Fort Jay" (PDF). New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission. September 19, 1967. Retrieved May 27, 2020.
  36. ^ "The Governor's House" (PDF). New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission. September 19, 1967. Retrieved May 27, 2020.
  37. ^ "Lighthouse" (PDF). New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission. March 23, 1976. Retrieved May 27, 2020.
  38. ^ "Octagon Tower" (PDF). New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission. March 23, 1976. Retrieved May 27, 2020.
  39. ^ "Smallpox Hospital" (PDF). New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission. March 23, 1976. Retrieved May 27, 2020.
  40. ^ "Strecker Laboratory" (PDF). New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission. March 23, 1976. Retrieved May 27, 2020.