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Linda Elder is an American educational psychologist, author and president of the Foundation for Critical Thinking.[1] She is currently an executive director of the Center for Critical Thinking. Elder is best known for her work on critical thinking development and thoughts including SEE-I.[2][3]

Contents

Early life and careerEdit

Elder started her career for a non-profit organization, Youth Services in 1983 to deal with Youth for juvenile detention. She completed her master's degree in Psychology in 1988 and her PhD in 1992 from the University of Memphis.[4] Elder started her academic career at the college level, where she served as a Professor and got introduced to the critical thinking initially. She subsequently started studying critical thinking, primarily to teach the subject at a deeper level to the students.

In 1992, she was introduced to the work of Richard Paul and the Foundation for Critical Thinking. Elder joined the Center and Foundation for Critical Thinking in 1994, focused primarily on the relationship between cognition and affect. Later in the same year, she developed an original stage theory of critical thinking development, which was later expanded along with Richard Paul in 1995.[5][6] She has written, with coauthor Richard Paul, 23 thinker’s guides to critical thinking and four books, which provided her the early success. Later in 1997, she was the primary researcher for the California Teacher Preparation for Instruction in Critical Thinking: Research Findings and Policy Recommendations.[7] The Journal of Developmental Education offered her a quarterly column on critical thinking, where she writes regularly.[8]

Research topicsEdit

Elder’s work has focused primary on the barriers to critical thinking development, closely to egocentric and sociocentric thought.[9] She had explained ethnocentricity as a form of sociocentricity, since, on her view, sociocentrism refers to all forms of group pathologies in thought, and therefore goes beyond those pathologies that arise out of ethnicity.[10] Her work has been influenced by the writings of Peter Singer, Jane Goodall, and Roger Fouts.[4] Elder has focused on the conceptual relationship between cognition and affect, thinking, feeling and motivation and has challenged common factors for the relationships between reason and emotion.[11][12]

BibliographyEdit

Elder has written books mostly on Critical Thinking with co-author Richard Paul.

  • Linda Elder; Richard Paul (2008). Defining Critical Thinking. Foundation for Critical Thinking Press. External link in |title= (help)
  • The Aspiring Thinker's Guide to Critical Thinking. Foundation Critical Thinking. 2009. ISBN 0944583415.
  • Linda Elder; Richard Paul (2009). The Thinker’s Guide: A Glossary of Critical Thinking Terms and Concepts. Foundation for Critical Thinking. ISBN 0944583415.
  • Linda Elder; Richard Paul (2007). The Thinker's Guide to Analytic Thinking. Foundation Critical Thinking. ISBN 0944583199.
  • Linda Elder; Richard Paul (2008). The Thinker's Guide to Intellectual Standards. ISBN 0944583393.
  • Linda Elder; Richard Paul (2004). The Miniature Guide to the Human Mind.
  • Linda Elder (2005). The Miniature Guide to Critical Thinking for Children. ISBN 0944583296.
  • Richard Paul; Linda Elder (2005). The International Critical Thinking Reading & Writing Test. ISBN 0944583210.
  • Richard Paul; Linda Elder (2001). The Miniature Guide to Critical Thinking: Concepts & Tools. ISBN 0944583105.
  • Richard Paul; Linda Elder (2006). The Thinker's Guide to Understanding the Foundations of Ethical Reasoning. ISBN 0944583172.
  • Richard Paul; Linda Elder (2006). 25 Days to Better Thinking & Better Living: A Guide for Improving Every Aspect of Your Life. Prentice Hall Professional. ISBN 0131738593.
  • Richard Paul; Linda Elder (2011). The Miniature Guide to Taking Charge of the Human Mind: Thinking, Feeling, Wanting. ISBN 0944583148.
  • Richard Paul; Linda Elder (2014). How to Improve Student Learning: 30 Practical Ideas. ISBN 0944583555.
  • Richard Paul; Linda Elder (2006). The Thinker's Guide to how to Write a Paragraph. ISBN 0944583229.
  • Richard Paul; Linda Elder (2005). A Guide for Educators to Critical Thinking Competency Standards: Standards, Principles, Performance Indicators, and Outcomes with a Critical Thinking Master Rubric. ISBN 094458330X.
  • Richard Paul; Linda Elder (2001). How to Study and Learn a Discipline. ISBN 0944583113.
  • Richard Paul; Linda Elder (2007). A Critical Thinker's Guide to Educational Fads: How to Get Beyond Educational Glitz and Glitter. ISBN 0944583342.
  • Judy Chartrand; Stewart Emery; Russ Hall; Heather Ishikawa; John Maketa; Richard Paul; Linda Elder; Robert E. Gunther (2011). Critical Thinking Strategies for Success. ISBN 0132938553.
  • Meg Gorzycki; Linda Elder; Richard Paul (2013). Historical Thinking: Bringing Critical Thinking Explicitly Into the Heart of Historical Study. ISBN 0944583482.
  • Linda Elder; Richard Paul (2008). The Thinker's Guide to Intellectual Standards: The Words that Name Them and the Criteria that Define Them. ISBN 0944583393.
  • Richard Paul; Robert Niewoehner; Linda Elder (2006). The Thinker's Guide to Engineering Reasoning. ISBN 0944583334.
  • Richard Paul; Linda Elder (2013). Critical Thinking: Tools for Taking Charge of Your Professional and Personal Life. ISBN 0133115690.
  • Linda Elder (2012). Student Guide to Historical Thinking. ISBN 0944583466.
  • Linda Elder; Richard Paul (2009). Critical Thinking Terms and Concepts. ISBN 0944583407.
  • Linda Elder; Richard Paul (2004). How to Detect Media Bias and Propaganda. ISBN 0944583156.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Melissa Korn (21 October 2014). "Bosses Seek 'Critical Thinking,' but What Is That?". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 24 May 2015.
  2. ^ "Critical Thinking According to the Scholars" (PDF). University of Pittsburgh. Retrieved 24 May 2015.
  3. ^ Don Ambrose; Robert J. Sternberg. How Dogmatic Beliefs Harm Creativity and Higher –Level Thinking. Routledge. ISBN 1136697551.
  4. ^ a b "Linda Elder biographical informationz" (PDF). Center for Critical Thinking. Retrieved 24 May 2015.
  5. ^ "IMPROVED CRITICAL THINKING SKILLS AS A RESULT OF DIRECT INSTRUCTION AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP TO ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT" (PDF). Indiana University of Pennsylvania. p. 12. Retrieved 24 May 2015.
  6. ^ "Paul-Elder Critical Thinking Framework". University of Louisville. Retrieved 24 May 2015.
  7. ^ "California Teacher Preparation for Instruction in Critical Thinking: Research Findings and Policy Recommendations". Education Resources Information Center. Retrieved 24 May 2015.
  8. ^ "Linda Elder". Education Resources Information Center. Retrieved 24 May 2015.
  9. ^ Rohana R, Wasala (19 August 2010). "Cultivation of Critical Thinking". Sunday Island. Retrieved 24 May 2015.
  10. ^ "The Need For a Critical Thinking Revolution". Forbes India. 1 April 2011. Retrieved 24 May 2015.
  11. ^ "Critical Thinking Hispanic Imperative; What It Is and Why We Need It". Highbeam. 3 May 2004. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 24 May 2015.
  12. ^ Ken Petress (22 March 2004). "Critical Thinking: An Extended Definition". Questia Online Library. Retrieved 24 May 2015.

External linksEdit