Hlai people

  (Redirected from Li people)

The Hlai, also known as Li or Lizu, are a Kra–Dai-speaking ethnic group, one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the People's Republic of China. The vast majority live off the southern coast of China on Hainan Island,[3] where they are the largest minority ethnic group. Divided into the five branches of the Qi (Gei), Ha, Run (Zwn), Sai (Tai, Jiamao) and Meifu (Moifau),[4] the Hlai have their own distinctive culture and customs.

Hlai (or Li)
黎族
1962-05 1962年 海南岛乐东县 黎族民众.jpg
Total population
1,463,064 (2010)[1]
Regions with significant populations
Hainan, Guangdong and islands in the South China Sea
Languages
Hlai languages, Jiamao, Hainanese and Mandarin
Religion
Animism, Theravada Buddhism[citation needed]
Related ethnic groups
Other Tai–Kadai peoples and populations from Mainland Southern China[2]
Hlai people
Chinese
Literal meaning[phonetic]
Alternative Chinese name
Chinese黎族
Literal meaningLi Ethnicity

Traditional weaving methods of the Hlai on Hainan Island, China. The worker uses her feet to stretch the handloom.

NamesEdit

黎 (Lí), which was pronounced /lei/ in Middle Chinese is the Chinese transcription of their native name, which is Hlai. They are sometimes also known as the "Sai" or "Say".[citation needed] During China's Sui Dynasty, their ancestors were known by various names, including Lǐliáo (俚僚), a general term encompassing several non-Han ethnic groups in Southern China. The name Li first is recorded during the Later Tang period (923–937 CE).[5]

HistoryEdit

According to the third century Nanzhou Yiwuzhi, the Hlai people were bandits who lived south of Guangzhou in the five commanderies: Cangwu, Yulin, Hepu, Ningpu and Gaoliang. They lived in villages with no walls and took refuge in the mountains and narrow passes. They did not have commanders or lords.[6]

In the early 6th century, the Liang dynasty waged war on the Hlai people, calling it the "pacification of the Li dong".[7] By the 11th century, records no longer mention the Hlai on the mainland.[8]

State administration of Hainan's lowlands was indirect until the Song dynasty and state control of the inland mountains was indirect until the 1950s. By the 11th century, Chinese records state that Hlai people were living close to Chinese settlements and paid taxes to the central state.[9] However by the end of the Ming dynasty in the mid-17th century, virtually all areas of Hainan capable of intense cultivation had been settled by Han Chinese, while the Hlai filled the niche of supplying mountain products. By 1700, the Qing dynasty had re-established administration over Hainan. Migrant merchants started entering Hainan and threatened the economic niche of the Hlai, who broke out in violent protest against these "guest merchants" in 1766.[10]

The shu Li live in the foothills of the Five-Fingers mountains, and although their nature differs from that of Han people, still they plow and plant and pay taxes and perform corvée service. They have been marinated in Han culture for a very long time. Therefore there are many Li people in every area who have shaved their heads and want to become regular citizens [qimin]. But it has not been made a clear order, and there are many shu Li who have not shaved their heads. There is really no uniformity. We should order the Li leaders to clearly order all shu Li to shave their heads . . . by requiring them universally and gradually to comply, we will make shaven heads the prevailing custom, and they will not be able to pretend to be sheng Li and cause trouble. It will gradually and imperceptibly rid them of their violent tendencies and habits.[11]

— Yang Tingzhang

In 1751, He Xiang wrote an essay titled "Arguments against Settling the Li and Establishing Counties." In it he explained that Hainan was dangerous not because the Hlai people were fierce, but because of malaria and poisonous animals. He mocked previous campaigns against the Hlai for conquering hamlets of no value or significance while several thousand troops died of malaria. The highlands inhabited by the Hlai were also not economically valuable, and therefore had not yet been transformed. While many Chinese generals had made a name for themselves by "settling Guangdong", they all left the Hlai alone.[12]

While its indigenous inhabitants, known in Chinese as the Li people, have frequently clashed with Han Chinese on the island, Hainan has never produced a noteworthy political or military movement that sought independence from China. There has never been a question as to Hainan’s allegiance and belonging. This sets Hainan apart from other troublesome border regions of China, including Tibet, Xinjiang, Manchuria, Mongolia, and Taiwan.[13]

— Jeremy A. Murray

During the Japanese occupation of Hainan (1939–1945), the Hlai suffered extremely heavily due to their communist resistance activities especially in western Hainan. Hlai villages were frequently targeted for extermination and rape by Kuomintang and Japanese soldiers. In four towns alone, the Japanese slaughtered more than 10,000 Hlai people.[14] In another incident, Nationalist forces massacred over 7,000 Hlai in a village. Nationalist officers had 9,000 Hlai and 3,000 Miao executed after tricking them to the war fronts during a fake conscription campaign. As the Nationalists retreated with over 1.5 million civilians that they evacuated to the hills with, they massacred and stole food from the ethnic Hlai as well as other tribal peoples. The Nationalists executed 2,180 Miao women and children of Baisha and Baoting uprising origin.[15] Tens of thousands of Hlai were also killed in Japanese labour camps, as unlike other Chinese civilians they and the Tanka were not evacuated by Chinese Nationalists to safety zones. Undercover Nationalist agents pretending to work for the Japanese observed how Japanese commanders gunned down thousands of Hlai while trying to escape the camp.

They are held in high esteem by the Beijing government because they fought on the side of the CPC against Kuomintang rule during the Chinese Civil War. Hainan Li-Miao Autonomous Prefecture was created in 1952 (abolished in 1988).

LanguageEdit

The Hlai speak the Hlai languages, a member of the Kra–Dai language family,[16] but most can understand or speak Hainanese and Standard Chinese. The language spoken natively by the Sai (also known as Tai or Jiamao) subgroup has been noted for its dissimilarity to the dialects or languages spoken by the other subgroups of the Hlai.

CultureEdit

Among the Hlai, the women have a custom of tattooing their arms and backs after a certain age is reached. The Hlai play a traditional wind instrument called kǒuxiāo (口箫)[17] and another called lìlāluó (利拉罗). The Hlai in Wenchang assimilated into the local population and pretended to be Hainanese while most of the Hlai population was exterminated in most other parts of Hainan only a small portion of the Hlai survived and fled to the mountains where they still maintain a Hlai identity.

The land of the sheng Li is not governed by officials [bushu guan], but they all have leaders. Among them are some who receive pawned goods, and they use a piece of bamboo as a receipt. The Li have no writing, and the bamboo they use is split into three parts, and upon it is carved the price and amount of “hill” land. The two parties and a mediator each carry off one part as proof of the transaction. There is not one who dares to cheat. Lately, however, dishonest, sneaky people frequently make counterfeits, which starts fights. . . . The Li people do not store grain. After the harvest they tie up the grain and save it and hang it over their stoves using the stove’s smoke to cure it, and eat it after a certain number of days. . . . They see this as very convenient. Among the Li there are no markets, and there have never been sellers of grain there. Poor people who lack food borrow from those who have rice. They do not calculate interest. Whether they pay back or not is also not a weighty matter. Lately there are many dishonest, greedy people who lend in the spring and expect repayment in the fall. They get profits from very high interest; their hearts do not follow the ways of the ancients![18]

— Zhang Qingchang

ReligionEdit

The Hlai were primarily animists. According to Hlai legends, their clans each originated from the marriage of a woman and an animal. The most prominent animal is the snake. Leigong, the God of Thunder, laid a snake on Li Mountain. From the egg hatched a woman named Limu (literally "mother of the Li") who lived off of wild fruits and nested in the trees. Eventually she married and their descendants became the Hlai people. Another version says that the woman arrived on a ship and married a dog, giving birth to the Hlai. The Hlai also worshiped other animals such as the ox, which was represented in each house by a stone that they called the "soul of the ox." The "Oxen's Festival" was celebrated on the eighth day of the third lunar month every year. On that day the oxen were forbidden to be killed or worked. They stayed at home and were fed liquor believed to protect the ox and guarantee plentiful harvest. The "najiaxila" bird of legend was worshiped as a protector god for taking care of an ancestor woman of the Hlai. Dragons and cats were worshiped as well since they are considered to be ancestors.[19]

GeneticsEdit

The Hlai are believed to be descendants of the Rau people, Kra–Dai-speaking tribes of ancient China, who settled on the island thousands of years ago.[20] DNA analysis carried out amongst the modern Hlai population indicate a close relationship with populations in the Southern Chinese province of Guangxi,[2] most of them have Y-DNA O1a and O1b.

Notable peopleEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ 胡鸿保; 张丽梅 (2009). 民族识别原则的变化与民族人口. Southwest University for Nationalities University Press (4).
  2. ^ a b Peng, Min-Sheng; He, Jun-Dong; Liu, Hai-Xin; Zhang, Ya-Ping (15 February 2011). "Tracing the legacy of the early Hainan Islanders - a perspective from mitochondrial DNA". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 11: 46. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-11-46. PMC 3048540. PMID 21324107.
  3. ^ Original from Indiana University Viscount James Bryce Bryce (1904). Hans Ferdinand Helmolt (ed.). The World's History: Oceania, Eastern Asia and the Indian Ocean. Volume 2 of The World's History: A Survey of Man's Record. LONDON: William Heinemann. p. 60. Retrieved Dec 20, 2011. extended as far as the Han River, and the Man lived on the central and upper Yangtsze, chiefly on the right bank. But the number of the tribes that had not then been subdued must have been much greater; even at the present day, more than two thousand six hundred years later, tribes of original inhabitants in complete or partial independence are constantly found in the southern and western provinces of the empire. That such tribes as the Hlai (Limin or Limu, probably descendants of the Miaotsze to whom Kublai Khan [Shi Tsu] is said to have assigned a part of Formosa in 1292) should have held their ground in the interior of Formosa and Hainan is the less remarkable, in view of the fact that even at the present day whole tribes of original inhabitants have been able to maintain their independence in the provinces on the mainland, where the Chinese supremacy has endured for hundreds or thousands of years. |volume= has extra text (help)
  4. ^ "Chinese Nationalities (Li Minority)". Retrieved February 18, 2011.
  5. ^ "黎族 (The Li People)" (in Chinese). 国家民委网站 (State Ethnic Affairs Commission). 14 April 2006. Retrieved 22 March 2020. 在我国古籍上很早就有关于黎族先民的记载。西汉以前曾经以 “骆越”,东汉以“里”、“蛮”,隋唐以“俚”、“僚”等名称,来泛称我国南方的一些少数民族,其中也包括海南岛黎族的远古祖先。“黎”这一族称最早正式出现在唐代后期的文献上...... 南朝梁大同中(540—541年),由于儋耳地方俚僚(包括黎族先民)1000多峒 “归附”冼夫人,由“请命于朝",而重置崖州。
  6. ^ Churchman 2015, p. 65.
  7. ^ Churchman 2015, p. 70.
  8. ^ Churchman 2015, p. 75.
  9. ^ Csete 2006, p. 229.
  10. ^ Csete 2006, p. 230.
  11. ^ Csete 2006, p. 247.
  12. ^ Csete 2006, p. 238.
  13. ^ Murray 2017, p. 2.
  14. ^ "Zhonghua min guo shi lu: Min guo yuan--san shi ba nian (1912.1.1.-1949.9.30)". 1998. Missing or empty |url= (help)
  15. ^ (China), 中南民族学院 (1989). "Journal of South Central College for Nationalities: Philosophy and social sciences". Missing or empty |url= (help)
  16. ^ Norquest, Peter K. 2007. A Phonological Reconstruction of Proto-Hlai. Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of Arizona.
  17. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2007-12-08. Retrieved 2007-12-03.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  18. ^ Csete 2006, p. 241.
  19. ^ http://factsanddetails.com/china/cat5/sub30/entry-4366.html
  20. ^ "Li | Asian people". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2018-10-24.

BibliographyEdit

  • Churchman, Catherine (2015), Where to Draw the Line? The Chinese Southern Frontier in the Fifth and Sixth Centuries
  • Csete, Anne (2006), Ethnicity, Conflict, and the State in the Early to Mid-Qing
  • Murray, Jeremy A. (2017), China's Lonely Revolution
  • He, Guanglin; Wang, Zheng; Guo, Jianxin; Wang, Mengge (March 2020). "Inferring the population history of Tai-Kadai-speaking people and southernmost Han Chinese on Hainan Island by genome-wide array genotyping". European Journal of Human Genetics. 28 (D1): 1111–1123. doi:10.1038/s41431-020-0599-7. PMC 7381617. PMID 32123326.