Legal affairs of Donald Trump
An analysis by USA Today published in June 2016 found that over the previous three decades, Donald Trump and his businesses have been involved in 3,500 legal cases in U.S. federal courts and state court, an unprecedented number for a U.S. presidential candidate. Of the 3,500 suits, Trump or one of his companies were plaintiffs in 1,900; defendants in 1,450; and bankruptcy, third party, or other in 150. Trump was named in at least 169 suits in federal court. Over 150 other cases were in the Seventeenth Judicial Circuit Court of Florida (covering Broward County, Florida) since 1983. In about 500 cases, judges dismissed plaintiffs' claims against Trump. In hundreds more, cases ended with the available public record unclear about the resolution. Where there was a clear resolution, Trump won 451 times, and lost 38.
The topics of the legal cases include contract disputes, defamation claims, and allegations of sexual harassment. Trump's companies have been involved in more than 100 tax disputes, and on "at least three dozen" occasions the New York State Department of Taxation and Finance has obtained tax liens against Trump properties for nonpayment of taxes. On a number of occasions, Trump has threatened legal action but did not ultimately follow through.
Of Trump's involvement in the lawsuits, his lawyer Alan Garten said in 2015 that this was "a natural part of doing business in [the United States]", and in the real estate industry, litigation to enforce contracts and resolve business disputes is indeed common. Trump has, however, been involved in far more litigation than fellow real-estate magnates; the USA Today analysis in 2016 found that Trump had been involved in legal disputes more than Edward J. DeBartolo Jr., Donald Bren, Stephen M. Ross, Sam Zell, and Larry Silverstein combined.
The Trump lawsuits have attracted criticism from Trump's opponents, who say that this is not a trait that conservatives should support. James Copland, director of legal policy at the conservative-leaning Manhattan Institute, states that "Trump clearly has an affinity for filing lawsuits, partly because he owns a lot of businesses" and has sometimes used litigation as a "bullying tactic".
Although Trump has said that he "never" settles legal claims, Trump and his businesses have settled with plaintiffs in at least 100 cases (mostly involving personal injury claims arising from injuries at Trump properties), with settlements ranging as high as hundreds of thousands of U.S. dollars and recently as high as tens of millions of dollars.
Among the most well-known Trump legal cases was the Trump University litigation. Three legal actions were brought alleging fraud, one by the New York State attorney general and the others by class action plaintiffs. In November 2016, Trump agreed to pay $25 million to settle the litigation.
Trump initially came to public attention in 1973 when he was accused by the Justice Department of violations of the Fair Housing Act in the operation of 39 buildings. The Department of Justice said that black "testers" were sent to more than half a dozen buildings and were denied apartments, but a similar white tester would then be offered an apartment in the same building. The government alleged that Trump's corporation quoted different rental terms and conditions to blacks and made false "no vacancy" statements to blacks for apartments they managed in Brooklyn, Queens, and Staten Island.
Representing Trump, Roy Cohn filed a counter-suit against the government for $100 million, asserting that the charges were irresponsible and baseless. A federal judge threw out the countersuit, calling it a waste of "time and paper". Trump settled the charges out of court in 1975 without admitting guilt, saying he was satisfied that the agreement did not "compel the Trump organization to accept persons on welfare as tenants unless as qualified as any other tenant".
Tony Schwartz, the ghostwriter of Trump's book, The Art of the Deal, said that the housing case was "a classic example" of Trump being "a counterpuncher": someone accuses Trump of doing something horrible, and he "goes back at them with all guns blazing.... And admits nothing." If Trump loses, he will "declare victory".
The corporation was required to send a bi-weekly list of vacancies to the New York Urban League, a civil rights group, and give them priority for certain locations. In 1978 the Trump Organization again was in court for violating terms of the 1975 settlement; Trump denied the charges.
In 1985, New York City brought a lawsuit against Trump for allegedly using tactics to force out tenants of 100 Central Park South, which he intended to demolish together with the building next door. After ten years in court, the two sides negotiated a deal allowing the building to stand as condominiums.
In 1988, the Justice Department sued Trump for violating procedures related to public notifications when buying voting stock in a company related to his attempted takeovers of Holiday Corporation and Bally Manufacturing Corporation in 1986. On April 5, 1988, Trump agreed to pay $750,000 to settle the civil penalties of the antitrust lawsuit.
In late 1990, Trump was sued for $2 million by a business analyst for defamation, and Trump settled out of court. Briefly before Trump's Taj Mahal opened in April 1990, the analyst had said that the project would fail by the end of that year. Trump threatened to sue the analyst's firm unless the analyst recanted or was fired. The analyst refused to retract the statements, and his firm fired him for ostensibly unrelated reasons. Trump Taj Mahal declared bankruptcy in November 1990, the first of several such bankruptcies. After, the NYSE ordered the firm to compensate the analyst $750,000; the analyst did not release the details of his settlement with Trump.
In 1991, Trump sued the manufacturers of a helicopter that crashed in 1989, killing three executives of his New Jersey hotel casino business. The helicopter fell 2,800 feet after the main four-blade rotor and tail rotor broke off the craft, killing Jonathan Benanav, an executive of Trump Plaza, and two others: Mark Grossinger Etess, president of Trump Taj Mahal, and Stephen F. Hyde, chief executive of the Atlantic City casinos. One of the defendants was owned by the Italian government, providing a basis for removing it to federal court, where the case was dismissed. The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit upheld the dismissal in 1992, and the Supreme Court denied Trump's petition to hear the case in the same year.
In 1991, Trump Plaza was fined $200,000 by the New Jersey Casino Control Commission for moving African American and female employees from craps tables in order to accommodate high roller Robert LiButti, a mob figure and alleged John Gotti associate, who was said to fly into fits of racist rage when he was on losing streaks. There is no indication that Trump was ever questioned in that investigation, he was not held personally liable, and Trump denies even knowing what LiButti looked like.
In 1991, one of Trump's casinos in Atlantic City, New Jersey, was found guilty of circumventing state regulations about casino financing when Donald Trump's father bought $3.5 million in chips that he had no plans to gamble. Trump Castle was forced to pay a $30,000 fine under the settlement, according to New Jersey Division of Gaming Enforcement Director Jack Sweeney. Trump was not disciplined for the illegal advance on his inheritance, which was not confiscated.
In 1993, Donald Trump sued Jay Pritzker, a Chicago financier and Trump's business partner since 1979 on the Grand Hyatt hotel. Trump alleged that Pritzker overstated earnings in order to collect excessive management fees. In 1994, Pritzker sued Trump for violating their agreement by, among other ways, failing to remain solvent. The two parties ended the feud in 1995 in a sealed settlement, in which Trump retained some control of the hotel and Pritzker would receive reduced management fees and pay Trump's legal expenses.
In 1993, Vera Coking sued Trump and his demolition contractor for damage to her home during construction of the Trump Plaza Hotel and Casino. In 1997, she dropped the suit against Trump and settled with his contractor for $90,000. Coking had refused to sell her home to Trump and ultimately won a 1998 Supreme Court decision that prevented Atlantic City from using eminent domain to condemn her property.
In 1996, Trump was sued by more than 20 African-American residents of Indiana who charged that Trump reneged on promises to hire 70% of his work force from the minority community for his riverboat casino on Lake Michigan. The suit also charged that he hadn't honored his commitments to steer sufficient contracts to minority-owned businesses in Gary, Indiana. The suit was eventually dismissed due to procedural and jurisdiction issues.
In the late 1990s, Donald Trump and rival Atlantic City casino owner Stephen Wynn engaged in an extended legal conflict during the planning phase of new casinos Wynn had proposed to build. Both owners filed lawsuits against one another and other parties, including the State of New Jersey, beginning with Wynn's antitrust accusation against Trump. After two years in court, Wynn's Mirage casino sued Trump in 1999 alleging that his company had engaged in a conspiracy to harm Mirage and steal proprietary information, primarily lists of wealthy Korean gamblers. In response, Trump's attorneys claimed that Trump's private investigator dishonored his contract by working as a "double agent" for the Mirage casino by secretly taping conversations with Trump. All the cases were settled at the same time on the planned day of an evidentiary hearing in court in February 2000, which was never held.
Personal and sexualEdit
In 1992, Trump sued ex-wife Ivana Trump for not honoring a gag clause in their divorce agreement by disclosing facts about him in her best-selling book. Trump won the gag order. The divorce was granted on grounds that Ivana claimed Donald Trump's treatment of her was "cruel and inhuman treatment". Years later, Ivana said that she and Donald "are the best of friends".
In April 1997, Jill Harth Houraney filed a $125,000,000 lawsuit against Trump for sexual harassment in 1993, claiming he "'groped' her under her dress and told her he wanted to make her his 'sex slave'". Harth voluntarily withdrew the suit when her husband settled a parallel case. Trump has called the allegations "meritless".
In 2000, Donald Trump paid $250,000 to settle fines related to charges brought by New York State Lobbying Commission director David Grandeau. Trump was charged with circumventing state law to spend $150,000 lobbying against government approval of plans to construct an Indian-run casino in the Catskills, which would have diminished casino traffic to Trump's casinos in Atlantic City.
From 2000 on, Trump tried to partner with a German venture in building a "Trump Tower Europe" in Germany. The company founded for this, "TD Trump Deutschland AG" was dissolved in 2003, several lawsuits following in the years thereafter.
In 2001, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission brought a financial-reporting case against Trump Hotels & Casino Resorts Inc., alleging that the company had committed several "misleading statements in the company's third-quarter 1999 earnings release". Trump Hotels & Casino Resorts Inc. consented to the commission's cease-and-desist order, said the culprit had been dismissed, and that Trump had personally been unaware of the matter.
Trump sued Leona Helmsley, and Helmsley counter-sued Trump due to contentions regarding ownership and operation of the Empire State Building. In 2002, Trump announced that he and his Japanese business partners, were selling the Empire State Building to partners of his rival Leona Helmsley.
In 2003, the city of Stuttgart denied TD Trump Deutschland AG, a Trump Organization subsidiary, the permission to build a planned tower due to questions over its financing. Trump Deutschland sued the city of Stuttgart, and lost. In 2004 Trump's German corporate partner brought suit against the Trump Organization for failure to pay back a EUR 200 million pre-payment as promised. In 2005, the German state attorney prosecuted Trump Deutschland and its partners for accounting fraud.
In 2004, Donald Trump sued Richard T. Fields in Broward County Circuit Court (in Florida); Fields was once Trump's business partner in the casino business, but had recently become a successful casino developer in Florida apart from Trump. Fields counter-sued Trump in Florida court. Trump alleged that Fields misled other parties into believing he still consulted for Trump, and Fields alleged improprieties in Trump's business. The two businessmen agreed in 2008 to drop the lawsuits when Fields agreed to buy Trump Marina in Atlantic City, New Jersey, for $316 million, but the deal was unsettled again in 2009 because Trump resigned his leadership of Trump Entertainment after Fields lowered his bid. Fields never bought the company, which went into bankruptcy about the same time and was sold for $38 million. Trump's lawsuit was dismissed after a hearing in 2010.
In 2004, the Trump Organization partnered with Bayrock Group on a $200 million hotel and condo project in Fort Lauderdale Beach, to be called Trump International Hotel & Tower. After proceeding for five years, real estate market devaluation stymied the project in 2009 and Trump dissolved his licensing deal, demanding that his name be removed from the building. Soon after this, the project defaulted on a $139 million loan in 2010. Investors later sued the developers for fraud. Trump petitioned to have his name removed from the suit, saying he had only lent his name to the project. However his request was refused since he had participated in advertising for it. The insolvent building project spawned over 10 lawsuits, some of which were still not settled in early 2016.
In 2006, the Town of Palm Beach began fining Trump $250 per day for ordinance violations related to his erection of an 80-foot-tall (24 m) flagpole flying a 15 by 25 feet (4.6 by 7.6 m) American flag on his property. Trump sued the town for $25 million, saying that they abridged his free speech, also disputing an ordinance that local businesses be "town-serving". The two parties settled as part of a court-ordered mediation, in which Trump was required to donate $100,000 to veterans' charities. At the same time, the town ordinance was modified allowing Trump to enroll out-of-town members in his Mar-a-Lago social club.
After the 2008 housing-market collapse, Deutsche Bank attempted to collect $40 million that Donald Trump personally guaranteed against their $640 million loan for Trump International Hotel and Tower in Chicago. Rather than paying the debt, Trump sued Deutsche Bank for $3 billion for undermining the project and damage to his reputation. Deutsche Bank then filed suit to obtain the $40 million. The two parties settled in 2010 with Deutsche Bank extending the loan term by five years.
In 2008, Trump filed a $100 million lawsuit for alleged fraud and civil rights violations against the California city of Rancho Palos Verdes, over thwarted luxury home development and expansion plans upon part of a landslide-prone golf course in the area, which was purchased by Trump in 2002 for $27 million. Trump had previously sued a local school district over land leased from them in the re-branded Trump National Golf Club, and had further angered some local residents by renaming a thoroughfare after himself. The $100 million suit was ultimately withdrawn in 2012 with Trump and the city agreeing to modified geological surveys and permit extensions for some 20 proposed luxury homes (in addition to 36 homes previously approved). Trump ultimately opted for a permanent conservation easement instead of expanded housing development on the course's driving range.
In 2009, Donald Trump sued a law firm he had used, Morrison Cohen, for $5 million for mentioning his name and providing links to related news articles on its website. This lawsuit followed a lawsuit by Trump alleging overcharging by the law firm, and a countersuit by Morrison Cohen seeking unpaid legal fees. The suit was dismissed in a 15-page ruling by Manhattan Supreme Court Justice Eileen Bransten, who ruled that the links to news articles concerned "matters of public interest."
In 2009, Trump was sued by investors who had made deposits for condos in the canceled Trump Ocean Resort Baja Mexico. The investors said that Trump misrepresented his role in the project, stating after its failure that he had been little more than a spokesperson for the entire venture, disavowing any financial responsibility for the debacle. Investors were informed that their investments would not be returned due to the cancellation of construction. In 2013, Trump settled the lawsuit with more than one hundred prospective condo owners for an undisclosed amount.
Construction and property law mattersEdit
In 2011, Donald Trump sued Scotland, alleging that it built the Aberdeen Bay Wind Farm after assuring him it would not be built. He had recently built a golf course there and planned to build an adjacent hotel. Trump lost his suit, with the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom unanimously ruling in favor of the Scottish government in 2015.
In 2015, Trump initiated a $100 million lawsuit against Palm Beach County claiming that officials, in a "deliberate and malicious" act, pressured the FAA to direct air traffic to the Palm Beach International Airport over his Mar-a-Lago estate, because he said the airplanes damaged the building and disrupted its ambiance. Trump had previously sued the county twice over airport noise; the first lawsuit, in 1995, ended with an agreement between Trump and the county; Trump's second lawsuit, in 2010, was dismissed.
Trump is suing the town of Ossining, New York, over the property tax valuation on his 147-acre (59 ha) Trump National Golf Club Westchester, located in Briarcliff Manor's portion of the town, which Trump purchased for around $8 million at a foreclosure sale in the 1990s and to which he claimed, at the club's opening, to have added $45 million in facility improvements. Although Trump stated in his 2015 FEC filing that the property was worth at least $50 million, his lawsuit seeks a $1.4 million valuation on the property, which includes a 75,000-square-foot clubhouse, five overnight suites, and permission to build 71 condominium units, in an effort to shave $424,176 from his annual local property tax obligations. Trump filed the action after separately being sued by Briarcliff Manor for "intentional and illegal modifications" to a drainage system that caused more than $238,000 in damage to the village's library, public pool, and park facilities during a 2011 storm.
In October 2016, the Ontario Court of Appeal ruled that Trump, together with two principals of a connected developer, could be sued for various claims, including oppression, collusion and breach of fiduciary duties, in relation to his role in the marketing of units in the Trump International Hotel and Tower in Toronto, Canada. A subsequent application for leave to appeal was dismissed by the Supreme Court of Canada in March 2017. Also in October 2016, JCF Capital ULC (a private firm that had bought the construction loan on the building) announced that it was seeking court approval under the Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act to have the building sold in order to recoup its debt, which then totaled $301 million. The court allowed for its auction which took place in March 2017, but no bidders, apart from one stalking horse offer, took part.
Also in 2011, an appellate court upheld a New Jersey Superior Court judge's decision dismissing Trump's $5 billion defamation lawsuit against author Timothy L. O'Brien, who had reported in his book, TrumpNation: The Art of Being the Donald (2005), that Trump's true net worth was really between $150 and $250 million. Trump had reportedly told O'Brien he was worth billions and, in 2005, had publicly stated such. Trump said that the author's alleged underestimation of his net worth was motivated by malice and had cost him business deals and damage to his reputation. The appellate court, however, ruled against Trump, citing the consistency of O'Brien's three confidential sources.
In 2014, the former Miss Pennsylvania Sheena Monnin ultimately settled a $5 million arbitration judgment against her, having been sued by Trump after alleging that the Miss USA 2012 pageant results were rigged. Monnin wrote on her Facebook page that another contestant told her during a rehearsal that she had seen a list of the top five finalists, and when those names were called in their precise order, Monnin realized the pageant election process was suspect, compelling Monnin to resign her Miss Pennsylvania title. The Trump Organization's lawyer said that Monnin's allegations had cost the pageant a lucrative British Petroleum sponsorship deal and threatened to discourage women from entering Miss USA contests in the future. According to Monnin, testimony from the Miss Universe Organization and Ernst & Young revealed that the top 15 finalists were selected by pageant directors regardless of preliminary judges' scores. As part of the settlement, Monnin was not required to retract her original statements.
On January 17, 2017, Summer Zervos, represented by attorney Gloria Allred, filed a defamation suit against President-elect Donald Trump for claiming that she had lied in her public sexual assault allegations against him.
In July 2011, New York firm ALM Unlimited filed a lawsuit against Trump, who ended payments to the company in 2008 after nearly three years. ALM was hired in 2003 to seek offers from clothing companies for a Trump fashion line, and had arranged a meeting between Trump and PVH, which licensed the Trump name for dress shirts and neckwear. ALM, which had received over $300,000, alleged in the lawsuit that Trump's discontinuation of payments was against their initial agreement. In pre-trial depositions, Trump and two of his business officials – attorney George H. Ross and executive vice president of global licensing Cathy Glosser – gave contradictory statements regarding whether ALM was entitled to payments. Trump, who felt that ALM had only a limited role in the deal between him and PVH, said "I have thousands of checks that I sign a week, and I don't look at very many of the checks; and eventually I did look, and when I saw them (ALM) I stopped paying them because I knew it was a mistake or somebody made a mistake."
In January 2013, a judge ordered that the case go to trial, after Trump and ALM failed to settle the lawsuit. During the trial in April 2013, Trump said that ALM's role in the PVH agreement was insubstantial, stating that Regis Philbin was the one who recommended PVH to him. Trump's attorney, Alan Garten, said ALM was not legally entitled to any money. The judge ruled in favor of Trump later that month because a valid contract between him and ALM was never created.
Trump University litigationEdit
In 2013, in a lawsuit filed by New York attorney general Eric Schneiderman, Trump was accused of defrauding more than 5,000 people of $40 million for the opportunity to learn Trump's real estate investment techniques in a for-profit training program, Trump University, which operated from 2005 to 2011. Trump ultimately stopped using the term "University" following a 2010 order from New York regulators, who called Trump's use of the word "misleading and even illegal"; the state had previously warned Trump in 2005 to drop the term or not offer seminars in New York. Although Trump has claimed a 98% approval rating on course evaluations, former students recounted high-pressure tactics from instructors seeking the highest possible ratings, including threats of withholding graduation certificates, and more than 2,000 students had sought and received course refunds before the end of their paid seminars.
In a separate class action civil suit against Trump University in mid-February 2014, a San Diego federal judge allowed claimants in California, Florida, and New York to proceed; a Trump counterclaim, alleging that the state attorney general's investigation was accompanied by a campaign donation shakedown, was investigated by a New York ethics board and dismissed in August 2015. Trump filed a $1 million defamation suit against former Trump University student Tarla Makaeff, who had spent about $37,000 on seminars, after she joined the class action lawsuit and publicized her classroom experiences on social media. Trump University was later ordered by a U.S. district judge in April 2015 to pay Makaeff and her lawyers $798,774.24 in legal fees and costs.
Breach of contract mattersEdit
In 2013 Trump sued comedian Bill Maher for $5 million for breach of contract. Maher had appeared on The Tonight Show with Jay Leno and had offered to pay $5 million to a charity if Trump produced his birth certificate to prove that Trump's mother had not mated with an orangutan. This was said by Maher in response to Trump having previously challenged Obama to produce his birth certificate, and offering $5 million payable to a charity of Obama's choice, if Obama produced his college applications, transcripts, and passport records. Trump produced his birth certificate and filed a lawsuit after Maher was not forthcoming, claiming that Maher's $5 million offer was legally binding. "I don't think he was joking," Trump said. "He said it with venom." Trump withdrew his lawsuit against the comedian after eight weeks.
In 2014, model Alexia Palmer filed a civil suit against Trump Model Management for promising a $75,000 annual salary but paying only $3,380.75 for three years' work. Palmer, who came to the US at age 17 from Jamaica under the H-1B visa program in 2011, claimed to be owed more than $200,000. Palmer contended that Trump Model Management charged, in addition to a management fee, "obscure expenses" from postage to limousine rides that consumed the remainder of her compensation. Palmer alleged that Trump Model Management promised to withhold only 20% of her net pay as agency expenses, but after charging her for those "obscure expenses", ended up taking 80%. Trump attorney Alan Garten claimed the lawsuit is "bogus and completely frivolous". Palmer filed a class-action lawsuit against the modeling agency with similar allegations. The case was dismissed from U.S. federal court in March 2016, in part because Palmer's immigration status, via H1-B visa sponsored by Trump, required labor complaints to be filed through a separate process.
In 2015, Trump sued Univision, demanding $500 million for breach of contract and defamation when they dropped their planned broadcast of the Miss USA pageant. The network said that the decision was made because of Trump's "insulting remarks about Mexican immigrants". Trump settled the lawsuit with Univision CEO Randy Falco out of court.
In July 2015, Trump filed a $10 million lawsuit in D.C. Superior Court for breach of contract against Spanish celebrity chef José Andrés, claiming that he backed out of a deal to open the flagship restaurant at Trump International Hotel in Washington, D.C. Andrés replied that Trump's lawsuit was "both unsurprising and without merit" and filed an $8 million counterclaim against a Trump Organization subsidiary.
Also in July 2015, Chef Geoffrey Zakarian also withdrew from the Washington, D.C., project with Andrés in the wake of Trump's comments on Mexican illegal immigrants, and is expected to lose his own $500,000 restaurant lease deposit as a result. Trump denounced and then sued Zakarian in August 2015 for a sum "in excess of $10 million" for lost rent and other damages. Trump's lawsuit called Zakarian's offense at his remarks "curious in light of the fact that Mr. Trump's publicly shared views on immigration have remained consistent for many years, and Mr. Trump's willingness to frankly share his opinions is widely known".
Disputes with both chefs were eventually settled in April 2017.
In 2015, restaurant workers at Trump SoHo filed a lawsuit that from 2009 to at least the time of the filing, gratuities added to customers' checks were illegally withheld from employees. The Trump Organization has responded that the dispute is between the employees and their employer, a third-party contractor. Donald Trump has been scheduled to testify in court on September 1, 2016.
In 2018, Noel Cintron, the personal driver for Donald Trump before he became the president of the United States, filed a lawsuit Cintron v Trump Organization LLC with the Supreme Court of the State of New York (Manhattan). The lawsuit claims that during his 25-year employment by Trump, he was not compensated for overtime and the second time his salary was raised he was induced to surrender his health insurance, an action which saved Trump approximately $17,866 per year. The lawsuit seeks $178,200 of overtime back pay, plus $5,000 in penalties that are seen under the New York State Labor Law.
In September 2015, five men who had demonstrated outside of a Trump presidential campaign event at Trump Tower in New York City sued Donald Trump, alleging that Trump's security staff punched one of them. They also allege that Trump's security guards had been advised by city police that they were permitted to protest there. Several people videotaped the incident.
In June 2015, the Culinary Workers Union filed charges with the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB), alleging that the owners of Trump Hotel Las Vegas "violated the federally protected rights of workers to participate in union activities" and engaged in "incidents of alleged physical assault, verbal abuse, intimidation, and threats by management". In October 2015, the Trump Ruffin Commercial and Trump Ruffin Tower I, the owners of Trump Hotel Las Vegas, sued the Culinary Workers Union and another union, alleging that they had knowingly distributed flyers that falsely stated that Donald Trump had stayed at a rival unionized hotel, rather than his own non-unionized hotel, during a trip to Las Vegas.
Poll watching controversyEdit
On October 31, 2016, a New Jersey federal judge, John Michael Vazquez, ordered the Republican National Committee (RNC) to hand over all communications with the Trump campaign related to poll watching and voter fraud. He asked for testimony and documents relating to Kellyanne Conway, RNC officials Ronna Romney McDaniel of Michigan, and Rob Gleason from Pennsylvania. It is claimed Gleason, McDaniel, and Roger Stone recruited poll watchers to check for voter fraud. The state Democratic parties of Nevada, Pennsylvania, Arizona, and Ohio filed lawsuits against Trump for encouraging illegal voter intimidation. The states' Democratic parties are also suing their respective Republican party counterparts, along with Roger Stone, who is allegedly recruiting poll watchers and organizing ballot security efforts in a number of states. Stone runs the group "Stop the Steal." It claims Trump supporters yelled at voters outside Las Vegas area polling places when they said they weren't voting for the Republican nominee, and that Stone is asking supporters to conduct an illegitimate "exit polling" initiative aimed at intimidating voters of color.
Pat McDonald, the director of Cuyahoga County Board of Elections in Ohio, reported that "Trump supporters have already visited the county elections board identifying themselves as poll observers, even though they did not appear to be credentialed as poll observers as required under Ohio law." Election officials have expressed concern about "instability on Election Day," one lawsuit claims, and discussed the possibility of bringing police to polling sites to address conflicts. In Clark County of Nevada, a lawsuit claims: "A Trump supporter harassed and intimidated multiple voters outside of the Albertson's supermarket early voting location on Lake Mead Boulevard, repeatedly asking voters for whom they were voting, and then yelling at them belligerently and attempting to keep them from entering the voting location when they stated they were not voting for Donald Trump." When poll staffers told the Trump supporters to stop harassing voters, "the Trump supporter told poll workers that he had 'a right to say anything he wanted to the voters.'" Poll staffers called police, and the Trump supporter left. The lawsuit also claims similar incidents took place in neighboring Nye County as well. In Pennsylvania, Murrysville City Councilman Josh Lorenz supposedly posted instructions for the way Clinton supporters could vote online, even though there is no online voting in Pennsylvania. Eight registered electors, mostly from the Philadelphia area, challenged the portion of the state Election Code that prevents poll watchers from observing elections outside of the counties where they live.
In Pompano Beach, Florida, police asked two poll watchers to leave a polling site. Two precinct clerks were also fired for not adhering to policy and training. No arrests were made. No other incidents were reported in South Florida.
Nevada early voting Latino turnout controversyEdit
On November 8, 2016, Trump filed a lawsuit claiming early voting polling places in Clark County, Nevada, were kept open too late. These precincts had high turnout of Latino voters. Nevada state law explicitly states that polls are to stay open to accommodate eligible voters in line at closing time. Hillary Clinton campaign advisor Neera Tanden says the Trump campaign is trying to suppress Latino voter turnout. A political analyst from Nevada, Jon Ralston tweeted that the Trump lawsuit is "insane" in a state that clearly allows the polls to remains open until everyone in line has voted. Former Nevada Secretary of State Ross Miller, posted the statute that states "voting must continue until those voters have voted". Miller said: "If there are people in line waiting to vote at 7 pm, voting must continue until everyone votes.... We still live in America, right?"
A Nevada judge denied Trump's request to separate early voting ballots. Judge Gloria Sturman, of the District Court for Clark County Nevada, ruled that County Registrar of Voters Joe P. Gloria was already obligated by state law to maintain the records that the Trump campaign is seeking. Sturman said: "That is offensive to me because it seems to go against the very principle that a vote is secret." Diana Orrock, the Republican National Committeewoman for Nevada and a vocal Trump ally, said she was unaware of the lawsuit before Politico contacted her. "I know that the [Clark County] registrar was on TV this morning saying that anybody who's in line was allowed to participate in the voting process until all of them came through," she said. "If that's what they did, I don't have a problem with that ... I don't know that filing a suit's going to accomplish anything." Orrock doubts the lawsuit will have any impact.
Lawsuit for inciting violence at March 2016 campaign rallyEdit
During a campaign rally on March 1, 2016, in Louisville, Kentucky, Trump repeatedly said "get 'em out of here" while pointing at anti-Trump protesters as they were forcibly escorted out by his supporters. Three protesters say they were repeatedly shoved and punched while Trump pointed at them from the podium, citing widely shared video evidence of the events. They also cited previous statements by Trump about paying the legal bills of supporters who got violent, or suggesting a demonstrator deserved to be "roughed up."
The lawsuit accuses Donald Trump of inciting violence against protesters in Louisville, Kentucky. The plaintiffs are Kashiya Nwanguma (21), Molly Shah (36) and Henry Brousseau (17). The suit is against Trump, his campaign, and three Trump supporters (Matthew Heimbach, Alvin Bamberger and an unnamed defendant). Bamberger, who was wearing a Veteran's uniform in the video, apologized to the Korean War Veterans Association immediately after the event, writing that he "physically pushed a young woman down the aisle toward the exit" after "Trump kept saying 'get them out, get them out."
Trump's attorneys requested to get the case dismissed, arguing he was protected by free speech laws, and wasn't trying to get his supporters to resort to violence. They also stated that Trump had no duty to the protesters, and they had assumed the personal risk of injury by deciding to protest at the rally.
On Friday, April 1, 2017, Judge David J. Hale in Louisville ruled against the dismissal of a lawsuit, stating there was ample evidence to support that the injuries of the protesters were a "direct and proximate result" of Trump's words and actions. Hale wrote, "It is plausible that Trump's direction to 'get 'em out of here' advocated the use of force," and, "It was an order, an instruction, a command." Hale wrote that the Supreme Court has ruled out some protections for free speech when used to incite violence.
Defendant Heimbach requested to dismiss the discussion in the lawsuit about his association with a white nationalist group, and also requested to dismiss discussion of statements he made about how a President Trump would advance the interests of the group. The request was declined, with the judge saying the information could be important for determining punitive damages because they add context.
Hale also declined to remove the allegation that Plaintiff Nwanguma, who is African-American, was victim to ethnic, racial and sexist slurs at the rally from the crowd. The judge stated that this context may support claims by the plaintiffs' of incitement and negligence by Trump and the Trump campaign. The judge wrote, "While the words themselves are repulsive, they are relevant to show the atmosphere in which the alleged events occurred."
The judge stated that all people have a duty to use care to prevent foreseeable injury. "In sum, the Court finds that Plaintiffs have adequately alleged that their harm was foreseeable and that the Trump Defendants had a duty to prevent it." The case was referred a federal magistrate, Judge H. Brent Brennenstuhl, who will handle preliminary litigation, discovery and settlement efforts.
Heimbach filed a separate counterclaim in April 2017, arguing that Trump was "responsible for any injuries" he [Heimbach] "might have inflicted because Mr. Trump directed him and others to take action". Heimbach, "a self-employed landscaper", and a member of the Traditionalist Youth Network, "which advocates separate American 'ethno states', "spends much of his time" online writing "against Jews, gays and immigrants and urging whites to stand up for their race." He wrote his own lawsuit which requested that Trump pay Heimbach's "legal fees, citing a promise Mr. Trump made at an earlier rally to pay legal costs of anyone who removed protesters." Heimbach's "counterclaim" against Trump has "probed the limits of free speech and public protest while confronting the courts with a unique legal argument". On May 5, Trump's lawyers submitted legal filings that argue that Heimbach's "indemnity claim should be dismissed on the same grounds". According to a University of Virginia law professor, Leslie Kendrick, this indemnity or "impleader" case is "highly unusual." New York University's Samuel Issacharoff, a professor of constitutional law, argued that care must be taken to not allow speech, in the "context of a political rally" to be "turned into something that is legally sanctionable."
This section needs to be updated. In particular: Missing Committee on Oversight and Reform investigation, Justice Department apparently ends investigation, court orders release of documents.July 2019)(
Adult film actress Stormy Daniels has alleged that she and Trump had an extramarital affair in 2006, months after the birth of his youngest child. Just before the 2016 presidential election Daniels, whose real name is Stephanie Clifford, was paid $130,000 by Trump's attorney Michael Cohen as part of a non-disclosure agreement (NDA), through an LLC set up by Cohen; he says he used his own money for the payment. In February 2018, Daniels filed suit against the LLC asking to be released from the agreement so that she can tell her story. Cohen filed a private arbitration proceeding and obtained a restraining order to keep her from discussing the case. According to White House Press Secretary Sarah Huckabee Sanders, Trump has denied the allegations.
On March 6, 2018, Daniels sued Trump in California Superior Court, claiming among other things that the NDA never came into effect because Trump did not sign it personally. On March 16 Cohen, with Trump's approval, asked for Daniels' suit to be moved from state to federal court, based on the criteria that the parties live in different places and the amount at stake is more than $75,000; Cohen asserted that Daniels could owe $20 million in liquidated damages for breaching the agreement. The filing marked the first time that Trump himself, through his personal attorney, had taken part in the Daniels litigation. In early April 2018, Trump said that he did not know about Cohen paying Daniels, why Cohen had made the payment or where Cohen got the money from. On April 30, Daniels further sued Trump for defamation. In May 2018, Trump's annual financial disclosure revealed that he reimbursed Cohen in 2017 for expenditures related to the Daniels case.
In August 2018, Cohen pleaded guilty to breaking campaign finance laws, admitting paying hush money of $130,000 and $150,000 "at the direction of a candidate for federal office", to two women who alleged affairs with that candidate, "with the purpose of influencing the election". The figures match sums of payments made to Stormy Daniels and Playboy model Karen McDougal. American Media, Inc. had reportedly in 2016 bought for $150,000 the rights to a story by McDougal alleging an affair with a married Trump from 2006 which lasted between nine months to a year. David Pecker (AMI CEO/chairman and friend of Trump), Dylan Howard (AMI chief content officer) and Allen Weisselberg (chief financial officer of the Trump Organization) were reportedly granted witness immunity in exchange for their testimony regarding the illegal payments.
In response, Trump said that he only knew about the payments "later on"; Trump also said regarding the payments: "They didn't come out of the campaign, they came from me."
The Wall Street Journal reported on November 9, 2018, that federal prosecutors have evidence of Trump's "central role" in payments to Stormy Daniels and Karen McDougal that violated campaign-finance laws.
In a December 7, 2018 sentencing memorandum for Cohen, federal prosecutors implicated Trump in directing Cohen to commit the campaign finance law felonies for which Cohen had pleaded guilty. Shortly after the memorandum court filing, Trump tweeted, “Totally clears the president. Thank you!” Cohen was sentenced to three years in federal prison.
On December 13, 2018, Trump denied directing Cohen to make hush payments. That same day, NBC News reported that Trump was present in an August 2015 meeting with Cohen and David Pecker when they discussed how American Media could help counter negative stories about Trump's relationships with women, confirming previous reporting by The Wall Street Journal.
Lawsuits over congressional subpoenasEdit
In April 2019, Trump (along with his children Eric, Ivanka and Donald Jr, as well as the Trump Organization) sued Deutsche Bank, bank Capital One, his accounting firm Mazars USA, and House Oversight Committee chairman Elijah Cummings, in an attempt to prevent congressional subpoenas revealing information about Trump's finances. On May 20, 2019, DC District Court judge Amit Mehta ruled that Mazars must comply with the subpoena. Trump's attorneys filed notice to appeal to the Court of Appeals for the DC Circuit the next day. On May 22, 2019, judge Edgardo Ramos of the federal District Court in Manhattan rejected the Trump suits against Deutsche Bank and Capital One, ruling the banks must comply with congressional subpoenas.
Special Counsel investigationEdit
The Special Counsel investigation is a United States law enforcement investigation of Donald Trump's 2016 presidential campaign and any Russian (or other foreign) interference in the election, including exploring any possible links or coordination between Trump's campaign and the Russian government, "and any matters that arose or may arise directly from the investigation." Since May 2017, the investigation has been led by a United States Special Counsel, Robert Mueller, a former Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). Mueller's investigation took over several FBI investigations including those involving former campaign chairman Paul Manafort and former National Security Advisor Michael Flynn.
It has been noted that Trump has experienced a high turnover with respect to the attorneys handling this matter, as well as a large number of prominent lawyers and law firms publicly declining offers to join Trump's legal team.
On March 22, 2019, Mueller concluded his investigation and gave the final report to Attorney General William Barr. On March 24, Barr sent a four-page letter to Congress summarizing the findings of the report. Barr said that the special counsel found did not find that Trump colluded with Russia. On the question of obstruction of justice, Barr stated that Mueller did not reach a conclusion; he quotes the special counsel as saying "while this report does not conclude that the President committed a crime, it also does not exonerate him." Barr wrote, "The special counsel's decision to describe the facts of his obstruction investigation without reaching any legal conclusions leaves it to the attorney general to determine whether the conduct described in the report constitutes a crime," adding that he and Rosenstein "concluded that the evidence developed during the special counsel's investigation is not sufficient to establish that the president committed an obstruction-of-justice offense."
Journalists David Cay Johnston and Wayne Barrett, the latter of whom wrote an unauthorized 1992 Trump biography, have claimed that Trump and his companies did business with New York and Philadelphia families linked to the Italian-American Mafia. A reporter for The Washington Post writes, "he was never accused of illegality, and observers of the time say that working with the mob-related figures and politicos came with the territory."
Trump helped a financier for the Scarfo family get a casino license, and constructed a casino using firms controlled by Nicodemo Scarfo. Trump also bought real estate from Philadelphia crime family member Salvatore Testa, and bought concrete from companies associated with the Genovese crime family and the Gambino crime family. Trump Plaza paid a $450,000 fine leveled by the Casino Gaming Commission for giving $1.6 million in rare automobiles to Robert LiButti, the acquaintance of John Gotti already mentioned.
Starting in 2003, the Trump Organization worked with Felix Sater, who had a 1998 racketeering conviction for a $40 million stock fraud scheme orchestrated by the Russian mafia, and who had then become an informant against the mafia. Trump's attorney has said that Sater worked with Trump scouting real estate opportunities, but was never formally employed.
Use of bankruptcy lawsEdit
Trump has never filed for personal bankruptcy, but hotel and casino businesses of his have been declared bankrupt four times between 1991 and 2009 to re-negotiate debt with banks and owners of stock and bonds. Because the businesses used Chapter 11 bankruptcy, they were allowed to operate while negotiations proceeded. Trump was quoted by Newsweek in 2011 saying, "I do play with the bankruptcy laws – they're very good for me" as a tool for trimming debt.
According to a report by Forbes in 2011, the four bankruptcies were the result of over-leveraged hotel and casino businesses in Atlantic City: Trump's Taj Mahal (1991), Trump Plaza Hotel (1992), Trump Hotels and Casino Resorts (2004), and Trump Entertainment Resorts (2009). Trump said "I've used the laws of this country to pare debt.... We'll have the company. We'll throw it into a chapter. We'll negotiate with the banks. We'll make a fantastic deal. You know, it's like on The Apprentice. It's not personal. It's just business." He indicated that many "great entrepreneurs" do the same.
In 1991, Trump Taj Mahal was unable to service its debt and filed Chapter 11 bankruptcy. Forbes indicated that this first bankruptcy was the only one where Trump's personal financial resources were involved. Time, however, maintains that $72 million of his personal money was also involved in a later 2004 bankruptcy.
On November 2, 1992, the Trump Plaza Hotel filed Chapter 11 bankruptcy, and Trump lost his 49 percent stake in the luxury hotel to Citibank and five other lenders. In return Trump received more favorable terms on the remaining $550+ million owed to the lenders, and retain his position as chief executive, though he would not be paid and would not have a role in day-to-day operations.
By 1994, Trump had eliminated a large portion of his $900 million personal debt through sales of his Trump Taj Mahal and Trump Plaza assets, and significantly reduced his nearly $3.5 billion in business debt. Although he lost the Trump Princess yacht and the Trump Shuttle (which he had bought in 1989), he did retain Trump Tower in New York City and control of three casinos in Atlantic City, including Trump's Castle. Trump sold his ownership of West Side Yards (now Riverside South, Manhattan) to Chinese developers including Hong Kong's New World Development, receiving a premium price in exchange for the use and display of the name "Trump" on the buildings.
Donald Trump's third corporate bankruptcy was on October 21, 2004, involving Trump Hotels & Casino Resorts, the publicly traded holding company for his three Atlantic City casinos and some others. Trump lost over half of his 56% ownership and gave bondholders stock in exchange for surrendering part of the debt. No longer CEO, Trump retained a role as chairman of the board. In May 2005 the company emerged from bankruptcy as Trump Entertainment Resorts Holdings. In his 2007 book, Think BIG and Kick Ass in Business and Life, Trump wrote: "I figured it was the bank's problem, not mine. What the hell did I care? I actually told one bank, 'I told you you shouldn't have loaned me that money. I told you the goddamn deal was no good.'"
Trump's fourth corporate bankruptcy occurred in 2009, when Trump and his daughter Ivanka resigned from the board of Trump Entertainment Resorts; four days later the company, which owed investors $1.74 billion against its $2.06 billion of assets, filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy. At that time, Trump Entertainment Resorts had three properties in Atlantic City: Trump Taj Mahal, Trump Plaza Hotel and Casino (closed in 2014), and Trump Marina (formerly Trump's Castle, sold in 2011). Trump and some investors bought the company back that same year for $225 million. As part of the agreement, Trump withdrew a $100 million lawsuit he had filed against the casino's owners alleging damage to the Trump brand. Trump re-negotiated the debt, reducing by over $1 billion the repayments required to bondholders.
In 2014, Trump sued his former company to remove his name from the buildings since he no longer ran the company, having no more than a 10% stake; he lost the suit. Trump Entertainment Resorts filed again for bankruptcy in 2014 and was purchased by billionaire philanthropist Carl Icahn in 2016, who acquired Trump Taj Mahal in the deal.
According to a New York state report, Trump circumvented corporate and personal campaign donation limits in the 1980s – although he did not break any laws – by donating money to candidates from 18 different business subsidiaries, rather than giving primarily in his own name. Trump told investigators he did so on the advice of his lawyers. He also said the contributions were not to curry favor with business-friendly candidates, but simply to satisfy requests from friends.
The New York Times reported in December 2018 that federal prosecutors in Manhattan and Brooklyn are investigating whether Middle Eastern foreigners sought to buy influence over American policies by using straw donors to illegally funnel donations to Trump's inaugural committee and a pro-Trump Super PAC.
The Trump inaugural committee received a subpoena from federal prosecutors on February 4, 2019. The SDNY subpoena demanded a comprehensive array of documents involving the committee's donors, finances, attendees and activities. The subpoena reportedly covered allegations of conspiracy to defraud the United States government, money laundering, false statements, mail and wire fraud, disclosure violations and prohibitions against contributions by foreign nations.
Donald J. Trump FoundationEdit
During the 2016 U.S. presidential election, media began reporting in detail on how the Donald J. Trump Foundation was funded and how Donald Trump used its funds. The Washington Post in particular reported several cases of possible mis-use, self-dealing and possible tax evasion.  
Regarding the various irregularities in the Trump Foundation, former head of the Internal Revenue Service's Office of Exempt Organizations Division Marc Owens told The Washington Post: "This is so bizarre, this laundry list of issues.... It's the first time I've ever seen this, and I've been doing this for 25 years in the IRS, and 40 years total. When interviewed for the Post's article, Trump spokesperson Boris Epshtein said that Trump did not knowingly violate any tax laws.
Controversy over tax returnsEdit
In October 2016, The New York Times published some tax documents from 1995. Trump claimed on his tax returns that he lost money, but did not recognize it in the form of canceled debts. Trump might have performed a stock-for-debt swap. This would have allowed Trump to avoid paying income taxes for at least 18 years. An audit of Trump's tax returns for 2002 through 2008 was "closed administratively by agreement with the I.R.S. without assessment or payment, on a net basis, of any deficiency." Tax attorneys believe the government may have reduced what Trump was able to claim as a loss without requiring him to pay any additional taxes. It is unknown whether the I.R.S. challenged Trump's use of the swaps because he has not released his tax returns. Trump's lawyers advised against Trump using the equity for debt swap, as they believed it to be potentially illegal.
Destruction of documentsEdit
In June 2016, a USA Today article reported that Donald Trump and his companies have been deleting emails and other documents on a large scale, including evidence in lawsuits, sometimes in defiance of court orders and under subpoena since as early as 1973. In October 2016, Kurt Eichenwald published new research findings in Newsweek. The findings were first published by Paul Singer on June 13, 2016 and gained larger attention after a new report in Newsweek on October 31, 2016. According to Newsweek, Trump and his companies "hid or destroyed thousands of documents" involving several court cases from as early as 1973.
Over the course of decades, Donald Trump's companies have systematically destroyed or hidden thousands of emails, digital records and paper documents demanded in official proceedings, often in defiance of court orders.... In each instance, Trump and entities he controlled also erected numerous hurdles that made lawsuits drag on for years, forcing courtroom opponents to spend huge sums of money in legal fees as they struggled—sometimes in vain—to obtain records.— Kurt Eichenwald, Donald Trump's Companies Destroyed Emails in Defiance of Court Orders Newsweek, October 31, 2016
In 1973 Trump, his father and their company were in court for civil charges for refusing to rent apartments to African Americans. After their lawyers had delayed court requests for documents for several months, Trump, then being under subpoena, said his company had destroyed corporate records of the past six months "for saving space". In a court case beginning in 2005 against Power Plant Entertainment, LLC, an affiliate of real estate developer Cordish Cos., it was revealed that Trump's companies had deleted the data requested by court. Cordish Cos. had built two American Indian casinos in Florida under the Hard Rock brand and Donald Trump accused them of cheating him out of that deal. Nonetheless, Trump's lawyers had refused to instruct workers to keep all records related to the case during litigation. Trump had established a procedure to delete all data from their employees' computers every year at least since 2003, despite knowing at least since 2001 that he might want to file a lawsuit. Even after the lawsuit was filed, Trump Hotels disposed of a computer of a key witness without having made a backup of the data. A former general counsel of the Trump casino unit confirmed that all data were deleted from nearly all companies' computers annually. Trump and his lawyers claimed they were not keeping records and digital data although it was revealed that Trump had launched his own high-speed internet provider in 1998 and an IBM Domino server had been installed for emails and digital files in 1999.
- "Exclusive: Trump's 3,500 lawsuits unprecedented for a presidential nominee". USA Today. June 2, 2016. Retrieved June 2, 2016.
- Stockman, Rachel (February 16, 2016). "We Investigated, Donald Trump is Named in at Least 169 Federal Lawsuits". Law Newz by Dan Abrams. Retrieved March 9, 2016.
- "Case Search, Business Name, Trump". Clerk of the Circuit and County Courts, Broward County. Retrieved March 11, 2016.
- "Trump brags about winning record in lawsuits". The Hill. June 2, 2016.
- Brody Mullins; Jim Oberman (March 13, 2016). "Trump's Long Trail of Litigation". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved March 14, 2016.
Litigation isn't unusual for resolving business disputes or enforcing contracts, particularly in the real-estate industry. It is difficult to determine whether Mr. Trump files more lawsuits than others with similarly broad business interests. The Republican Party has long argued that excessive litigation in the U.S. increases the costs of goods and services and limits job creation. Republican leaders have pushed, in particular, for medical-malpractice changes, to reduce fraud in the asbestos-claims process and to cut down on what they see as frivolous litigation in general. Mr. Trump's political opponents have cited his pattern of litigiousness to buttress their contention that he isn't a true conservative.
- Isikoff, Michael (August 30, 2015). "How Trump could turn the presidency into a 'litigation circus'". Yahoo! Politics. Retrieved August 31, 2015.
He is a litigation magnet who has been the target (and the initiator) of hundreds of civil suits over the past several decades.... Indeed, Trump's penchant for litigation – and punching back against his critics in court – has shown no signs of abating while he is on the campaign trail.
- Steve Eder, Donald "Trump Agrees to Pay $25 Million in Trump University Settlement", The New York Times (November 18, 2016).
- Kessler, Glenn (February 29, 2016). "A trio of truthful attack ads about Trump University". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 1, 2016.
- Resnick, Gideon (December 15, 2015). "DOJ: Trump's Early Businesses Blocked Blacks". The Daily Beast. Retrieved March 2, 2016.
- "Donald Trump Was Once Sued By Justice Department For Not Renting To Blacks". The Huffington Post. Retrieved June 16, 2015.
- Dunlap, David W. (July 30, 2015). "1973 Meet Donald Trump". The New York Times. Retrieved March 10, 2016.
- Elliott, Justin (April 28, 2011). "Donald Trump's racial discrimination problem". Salon. Retrieved March 10, 2016.
- David W. Dunlap, "Meet Donald Trump", The New York Times, July 30, 2015. Retrieved August 10, 2015
- Leonhardt, David (October 17, 2016). "Donald Trump's Playbook for Smearing". The New York Times.
- Baram, Marcus (July 29, 2011). "Donald Trump Was Once Sued By Justice Department For Not Renting To Blacks". The Huffington Post. Retrieved March 10, 2016.
Trump, who emphasized that the agreement was not an admission of guilt, later crowed that he was satisfied because it did not require them to 'accept persons on welfare as tenants unless as qualified as any other tenant'.
- Tuccille, Jerome (1985). Trump: The Saga of America's Most Powerful Real Estate Baron. Beard Books. p. 138. ISBN 9781587982231. Retrieved March 10, 2016.
- Schanberg, Sydney H. (March 9, 1985). "New York; Doer and Slumlord Both". The New York Times. Retrieved March 14, 2016.
- Rozhon, Tracie (March 26, 1998). "A Win by Trump! No, by Tenants!; Battle of the 80's Ends, With Glad-Handing All Around". The New York Times. Retrieved March 14, 2016.
- Rowley, James (April 5, 1988). "Trump Agrees To Pay $750,000 Penalty To Settle Antitrust Lawsuit". Associated Press. Retrieved March 10, 2016.
- "Analyst Settles Trump Lawsuit". The New York Times. Reuters. June 11, 1991. Retrieved May 27, 2011.
- Henriques, Diana (March 27, 1990). "Analyst Who Criticized Trump Casino Is Ousted". The New York Times. Retrieved May 27, 2011.
- Hylton, Richard (November 17, 1990). "Trump, $47 million Short, Gives Investors 50% of His Prize Casino". The New York Times. Retrieved May 27, 2011.
- Johnston, David (October 4, 1991). "Analyst Gets Last Laugh On Trump". The Philadelphia Inquirer. Retrieved March 16, 2016.
- Johnston, David (March 2, 1991). "Trump Files Suit Over Crash That Killed Executives". The Philadelphia Inquirer. Retrieved March 14, 2016.
- Kathy Brennan; Darryl Figueroa (October 11, 1989). "Deaths Leave Fond Memories 'The Mood Here Is Really Sad'". The Philadelphia Inquirer. Associated Press. Retrieved March 15, 2016.
- David Johnston; Michael Ruane; Mike Shurman; John Way Jennings; Bill Sokolic (October 11, 1989). "Three Top Trump Casino Executives, Two Others Die In Helicopter Crash". The Philadelphia Inquirer. Associated Press.
- Hanley, Robert (October 11, 1989). "Copter Crash Kills 3 Aides Of Trump". The New York Times. Retrieved March 14, 2016.
- Asseo, Laurie (October 5, 1992). "Court Won't Revive Trump Suit in Employee Deaths". Associated Press. Retrieved March 14, 2016.
- Isikoff, Michael (March 7, 2016). "Trump challenged over ties to mob-linked gambler with ugly past". Yahoo! News. Retrieved March 7, 2016.
- Johnston, David (April 9, 1991). "N.j. Agency Says Trump Loan Illegal". The Philadelphia Inquirer. Retrieved March 10, 2016.
- Henriques, Diana (July 29, 1993). "Trump Sues Pritzker As a Feud Goes Public". The New York Times. Retrieved March 10, 2016.
- Henriques, Diana (March 29, 1994). "COMPANY NEWS; Pritzker vs. Trump, and Vice Versa". The New York Times. Retrieved March 10, 2016.
- Henriques, Diana (May 6, 1995). "COMPANY NEWS; Trump Agrees To End Feud Over Hotel". The New York Times. Retrieved March 10, 2016.
- Herszenhorn, David M. (July 21, 1998). "Widowed Homeowner Foils Trump in Atlantic City". The New York Times. Retrieved May 10, 2018.
- "Homeowner Drops Trump Suit Vera Coking; Accepted a $90,000 Settlement From the Casino Mogul's Contractor, For Damages to Her Home. She's Still Fighting to Keep the House".
- Writer, LYNDA COHEN, Staff. "Asking price drops on house Vera Coking refused to sell to Trump". Press of Atlantic City.
- "One-time Trump nemesis, 91, is moving on". www.cbsnews.com.
- "Actions Taken by the Commission". Indiana Gaming Commission. 1997. Retrieved October 3, 2017.
The Complaint alleges that both casinos failed to hire the promised percentages of minority Lake County residents.
- Feiden, Douglas (June 10, 1996). "Trump Hit with Race Suit; Blacks: Don Dealt Us out of Casino Jobs". New York Daily News. Retrieved October 3, 2017.
The suit also alleged that [Trump] hasn't honored his commitments to steer sufficient contracts to minority-owned businesses in Gary
- "Mirage Sues Trump on Atlantic City Plan". The New York Times. September 10, 1997. Retrieved March 14, 2016.
- Kershaw, Sarah (March 15, 1997). "Trump Sues on Casino Road". The New York Times. Retrieved March 14, 2016.
- Anastasia, George (March 12, 2000). "Donald Trump Vs. Steve Wynn In A Real-life Spy Tale A Recent Battle Between The Casino Moguls Is Filled With Claims Of Money-laundering, Double Agents And High-level Secret Snooping". The Philadelphia Inquirer. Retrieved March 14, 2016.
- Baumgold, Julie. "Fighting Back: Trump Scrambles off the Canvas", New York, pp. 36, 40 (November 9, 1992): "He suffered over her few weeks on the best-seller list and finally won his gag order...."
- "Justices Won't Consider Lifting Ivana's Gag Order". Deseret News. October 23, 1992. Retrieved March 14, 2016.
- Lacher, Irene (April 26, 1992). "Ivana's New Trump Card : The Donald's History, but His Ex Is Conquering Other Worlds, Including Price Club". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved March 14, 2016.
- "Trumps Get Divorce; Next, Who Gets What?". The New York Times. December 12, 1990.
- Internist, Melissa Bartick; School, an Assistant Professor in Medicine at Harvard Medical; Alliance, Cambridge Health (September 14, 2016). "Trump's Criminal History Should Be Front and Center". The Huffington Post.
- Collins, Eliza, "Ivana Trump denies accusing Donald Trump of rape", Politico (July 28, 2015): "Donald and I are the best of friends and together have raised three children that we love and are very proud of. I have nothing but fondness for Donald and wish him the best of luck on his campaign. Incidentally, I think he would make an incredible president."
- Benjamin Ketish (October 14, 2016). "Donald Trump will face child rape charges in court, says lawyer for alleged victim". The Independent. Retrieved October 20, 2018.
- David Mikkelson (November 4, 2016). "Lawsuit Charges Donald Trump with Raping a 13-Year-Old Girl". Snopes. Retrieved October 20, 2018.
- News, Lisa Bloom Legal analyst for NBC; Avvo; attorney; Author, Bestselling (June 29, 2016). "Why The New Child Rape Case Filed Against Donald Trump Should Not Be Ignored". The Huffington Post.
- Papenfuss, Mary (July 21, 2016). "Woman who accused Donald Trump of sexual assault in 1997 lawsuit speaks out for first time". International Business Times.
- Mahoney, Joe (October 5, 2000). "For Trump, 250G Fine in Lobbying". New York Daily News. Retrieved March 10, 2016.
- Dicker, Fredric U. (July 17, 2000). "Trump Probed in Casino Lobbying Blitz". New York Post. Retrieved March 10, 2016.
- "Donald Trump's German Flop". Handelsblatt Global Edition. April 5, 2016. Retrieved October 29, 2016.
- "SEC Brings First Pro Forma Financial Reporting Case". SEC. January 16, 2002. Retrieved April 10, 2011.
- "SEC cites Trump Hotels". CNN/Money. January 16, 2002. Retrieved March 10, 2016.
Trump Hotels & Casino Resorts Inc. has consented to a Securities and Exchange Commission cease-and-desist order after being accused by regulators of making misleading statements in the company's third-quarter 1999 earnings release.
- Tully, Shawn (March 14, 2016). "When Donald Trump Got in Trouble with the SEC". Fortune. Retrieved March 16, 2016.
- "Trump Wants Helmsley, Rats Out Of Empire State". Orlando Sentinel. February 18, 1995.
- Johnston, David Cay (May 31, 1995). "Helmsley, in a Countersuit Against Trump, Alleges a Conspiracy as Big as the Empire State". The New York Times.
- Lewis, Mark (March 19, 2002). "Soap Opera Ends As Trump Sells Out". Forbes.
- DiCarlo, Lisa (September 27, 2001). "Tale Of The Tape". Forbes.
- "Donald Trump's castles in the German sky". Deutsche Welle. November 21, 2016.
- "Marseille-Kliniken AG verklagt Trump Organization auf Kaufpreis 2 Mio. EUR" [Marseille-Kliniken AG sued Trump Organization for a purchase price of EUR 2 million] (Press release) (in German). MK-Kliniken AG. January 5, 2005. Archived from the original on October 29, 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "Pressemitteilung der Marseille-Kliniken AG vom 20. April 2005, 20:15 Uhr" [Press Release of Marseille-Kliniken AG on April 20, 2005, 20:15 hrs] (Press release) (in German). April 20, 2005. Archived from the original on October 29, 2016. Retrieved January 29, 2017. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- Eamon Javers; Amy Borrus; David Polek (December 11, 2005). "Trump's Angry Apprentice". Bloomberg Business. Retrieved March 11, 2016.
- Peer, Melinda (May 29, 2008). "The Donald vs. The Richard". Forbes. Retrieved March 11, 2016.
- "Trump in Trouble? The Donald resigns from Trump Entertainment board as bankruptcy rumors loom". Bloomberg News. February 16, 2009. Retrieved March 11, 2016.
- Musgrove, Martha (October 27, 2015). "Donald Trump always claims victory; will he actually get this one?". Sun Sentinel. Retrieved March 11, 2016.
- Parry, Wayne (March 20, 2009). "Donald Trump's Casino Company Files For Bankruptcy". Archived from the original on March 4, 2013. Retrieved March 11, 2016.
- "Court Records: Trump Hotels & Casino Resorts vs. Richard T Fields, et al". Broward County Clerk of Courts. Retrieved March 11, 2016.
- Bagli, Charles V. (December 17, 2007). "Real Estate Executive With Hand in Trump Projects Rose From Tangled Past". The New York Times. Retrieved March 11, 2016.
- Sallah, Michael (March 25, 2012). "From the Herald archives: Donald Trump's tower of trouble". The Miami Herald. Retrieved March 11, 2016.
- Michael Sallah; Michael Vasquez (March 13, 2016). "Failed Donald Trump tower thrust into GOP campaign for presidency". Tampa Bay Times. Retrieved March 16, 2016.
- Cerabino, Frank (September 5, 2015). "Trump's War With Palm Beach". Politico. Retrieved March 10, 2016.
- Norris, Floyd (December 4, 2008). "Trump Sees Act of God in Recession". The New York Times. Retrieved March 10, 2016.
- The Editors (March 20, 2013). "The Lawsuits of Donald Trump". The Atlantic. Retrieved March 10, 2016.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
- Kim, Victoria (December 20, 2008). "Trump sues city for $100 million". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 28, 2015.
- Pamer, Melissa (January 11, 2011). "Trump loses round in a local lawsuit". Pasadena Star-News. Archived from the original on September 24, 2015. Retrieved August 28, 2015. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- Mooradian, Nicole (September 12, 2012). "RPV, Trump Settle $100M Lawsuit". Palos Verdes Patch. Retrieved August 28, 2015.
- Gross, Benjamin (January 15, 2015). "Donald Trump Will Not Build Luxury Houses on His Rancho Palos Verdes Driving Range". Curbed L.A. Retrieved August 28, 2015.
- Stone, Peter (May 5, 2011). "Donald Trump's lawsuits could turn off conservatives who embrace tort reform". The Center for Public Integrity. Retrieved March 14, 2016.
- Jones, Ashby (July 22, 2009). "The Donald Effusive After Settlement With Law Firm". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved March 14, 2016.
- "Trump Baja venture leaves buyers high and dry". Los Angeles Times. March 7, 2009. Retrieved September 13, 2015.
- Barbaro, Michael (May 12, 2011). "Buying a Trump Property, or So They Thought". The New York Times. Retrieved August 31, 2015.
- "Donald Trump settles lawsuit over Baja condo resort that went bust". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved September 13, 2015.
- Flynn, Alexis (December 16, 2015). "Trump Loses Battle to Stop Wind Farm Near His Scottish Golf Resort". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved March 14, 2016.
- "Donald Trump loses wind farm legal challenge", BBC News (December 16, 2015).
- "Woman on Trump: 'Somebody had to stand up to him'". Boston Herald. Retrieved October 21, 2016.
- Matt Sedensky (January 13, 2015). "Trump sues for $100M, says air traffic targets him". USA Today. Retrieved February 23, 2015.
- Wilson, David McKay (September 3, 2015). "Trump seeks 90 percent tax cut at Westchester golf club". The Journal News. Retrieved March 12, 2016.
- Swaine, Jon (March 12, 2016). "How Trump's $50m golf club became $1.4m when it came time to pay tax". The Guardian. Retrieved March 12, 2016.
- Kalinowski, Tess (October 13, 2016). "Ontario appeal court ruling sides with Trump Tower investors". Toronto Star., reporting on Singh v Trump 2016 ONCA 747 at par. 150 (13 October 2016)
- Donald John Trump Sr, et al v Sarbjit Singh, et al 2017 CanLII 12224 (9 March 2017), Supreme Court (Canada)
- Dmitrieva, Katia (October 27, 2016). "Trump Hotel Toronto building set to be sold after developer defaults". Bloomberg News.
- "Sale Procedure" (PDF). FTI Consulting. January 4, 2017.
- Reuters (March 6, 2017). "No bidders make offers to buy Trump tower in Toronto". The Globe and Mail.
- Goodman, Peter S. (July 15, 2009). "Trump Suit Claiming Defamation Is Dismissed". The New York Times. Retrieved August 4, 2015.
- Cohan, William D. (March 20, 2013). "The Lawsuits of Donald Trump". The Atlantic. Retrieved August 4, 2015.
- Gardner, Eriq (September 8, 2011). "Donald Trump Loses Libel Suit Over Being Called A 'Millionaire'". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved August 4, 2015.
- Zadrozny, Brandy; Mak, Tim (July 31, 2015). "Trump Lawyer Bragged: I 'Destroyed' a Beauty Queen's Life". The Daily Beast. Retrieved August 2, 2015.
- Finn, Natalie (July 5, 2013). "Sheena Monnin Loses Donald Trump Appeal: Ex-Miss Pennsylvania Says She's Glad Truth is Out, Solicits Donations for Legal Fees". E!. Retrieved August 2, 2015.
- Twohey, Megan (January 17, 2017). "Former 'Apprentice' Contestant Files Defamation Suit Against Trump". The New York Times. Retrieved January 17, 2017.
- McCoy, Kevin (July 29, 2011). "Donald Trump faces lawsuits over business deals". USA Today. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
- Clarke, Katherine (April 12, 2013). "Donald Trump Says Checks He Signed On Payments For His Clothing Line Were A Mistake". Business Insider. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
- Marsh, Julia (April 13, 2013). "Trump's hot under collar". New York Post. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
- Marsh, Julia (April 20, 2013). "Trump triumph in license suit". New York Post. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
- "Trump wins partial victory against AG in real estate school suit". New York Real Estate News, February 1, 2014.
- "Lawsuit Alleges Trump Defrauded 'Students' In Seminars Meant To Teach Investing Wisdom". Forbes. August 26, 2013.
- Glenn Blain (September 17, 2013). "Donald Trump accused of stalling on $40M fraud case against Trump University". New York Daily News.
- Karen Freifeld (October 16, 2014). "New York judge finds Donald Trump liable for unlicensed school". Reuters. Retrieved February 20, 2015.
- Blauvelt, Christian (May 21, 2011). "Trump Debunked: We fact-check The Donald's outrageous claims". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved August 29, 2015.
- Cohan, William D. (January 2014). "Big Hair on Campus". Vanity Fair. Retrieved August 31, 2015.
- Barbaro, Michael; Eder, Steve (March 11, 2016). "At Trump University, Students Recall Pressure to Give Positive Reviews". The New York Times. Retrieved March 12, 2016.
- Fire Ant. "Donald Trump to Face Fraud, Racketeering Claims in California Class Actions. New York Fraud Case Continues". New Times Broward-Palm Beach. Retrieved June 16, 2015.
- Virtanen, Michael (August 31, 2015). "NY ethics board drops Trump's complaint about attorney general during university investigation". Associated Press. Retrieved August 31, 2015.
- Kearn, Rebekah (April 30, 2015). "$798,000 Award Against Trump University". Courthouse News Service. Archived from the original on September 23, 2015. Retrieved August 31, 2015. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- Ax, Joseph (February 11, 2013). "Donald Trump Drops Bill Maher Lawsuit". Reuters.
- Allen, Michael E. (February 6, 2013). "Donald Trump Sues Bill Maher for Calling Him the Son of an Orangutan". Forbes. Retrieved August 18, 2015.
- Lee, Kristen A. (November 1, 2012). "Trump puts kibosh on $5M offer to Obama". New York Daily News. Retrieved August 19, 2015.
- Ax, Joseph (April 3, 2013). "Trump withdraws 'orangutan' lawsuit against comic Bill Maher". Reuters. Retrieved August 4, 2015.
- Matthew Mosk; Brian Ross; Randy Kreider (March 10, 2016). "Trump Model: Felt Like 'Slave' Working for Donald's Agency". ABC News. Retrieved August 31, 2015.
- Torres, Analisa. "Memorandum and Order". Docket Alarm. Retrieved January 2, 2017.
- "Model sues Donald Trump's agency, saying she was cheated out of $75G salary". New York Daily News. October 17, 2014.
- "Trump agency stiffed Jamaican model out of $200K: suit". New York Post. Retrieved June 16, 2015.
- Blake Ellis; Melanie Hicken (March 10, 2016). "Trump's modeling agency broke immigration laws, attorneys say". CNN/Money. Retrieved March 10, 2016.
- Cam, Deniz (March 23, 2016). "Trump Model Management Lawsuit Dismissed By Federal Judge". Forbes. Retrieved May 24, 2016.
- Tan, Avianne (June 30, 2015). "Donald Trump Files $500M Lawsuit Against Univision Over Miss USA Pageant". ABC News. Retrieved March 9, 2016.
- Stelter, Brian (February 11, 2016). "Donald Trump settles with Univision over Miss USA Pageant". CNN Money. Retrieved March 9, 2016.
- Heil, Emily (July 31, 2015). "Trump sues José Andrés for $10M for backing out of restaurant deal". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 1, 2015.
- Robert J. Terry, "José Andrés will face challenges in lawsuit against Donald Trump", Washington Business Journal (May 2, 2016).
- Bennett, Kate; Strauss, Daniel (July 31, 2015). "Donald Trump delivers on promise to sue chef José Andrés". Politico. Retrieved August 19, 2015.
- Matthew Perlman, "It's Trump Who Owes $8M In Restaurant Spat, Chef Says", Law360 (October 8, 2015).
- Sidman, Jessica (August 5, 2015). "Trump Sues Celebrity Chef Geoffrey Zakarian For Backing Out of Hotel Restaurant Deal". Washington City Paper. Retrieved August 26, 2015.
- Cooper, Rebecca (February 17, 2016). "Trump will have to show up for D.C. hotel lawsuit". Washington Business Journal. Retrieved March 4, 2016.
- Larson, Erik (April 11, 2017). "Trump Settles Second Suit Against Chef Who Ditched D.C. Hotel". Bloomberg News. Retrieved April 13, 2017.
- Swalec, Andrea (March 7, 2016). "Trump SoHo Hotel Stiffed Caterers Out of Tips, Lawsuit Charges". DNA Info. Archived from the original on March 18, 2016. Retrieved March 17, 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "Donald Trump modeling agency 'encouraged models to work in US illegally'". The Independent. August 30, 2016.
- "Trump's Personal Driver for 25 Years Sues for Unpaid Overtime". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved July 9, 2018.
- "Trump being sued for allegedly stiffing his ex-chauffeur". New York Post. July 9, 2018. Retrieved July 9, 2018.
- Diamond, Jeremy (September 9, 2015). "Protesters sue Trump after violent encounter with security". CNN. Retrieved March 14, 2016.
- Jackson, Lucas; Flitter, Emily; Shumaker, Lisa (September 9, 2015). "Trump security guards assaulted protesters on NY sidewalk, lawsuit claims". Reuters. Retrieved March 14, 2016.
- Mike Heuer, "Trump Hotel Las Vegas Takes Unions to Court", Courthouse News Service (October 19, 2016).
- Tau, Byron (November 1, 2016). "Judge Orders Republican National Committee to Disclose Any Poll Watching Activities". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved November 8, 2016.
- Emma Green (November 1, 2016). "The Disturbing Details of Trump's Alleged Voter-Intimidation Efforts". The Atlantic. Retrieved November 1, 2016.
- "Nevada Democrats sue, say Trump backers intimidating voters"[permanent dead link]. Casper Stgar-Tribune. Retrieved November 1, 2016.[dead link]
- "Democrats accuse GOP, Donald Trump of voter intimidation in four states". November 1, 2016. CBS News. Associated Press. Retrieved November 1, 2016.
- "Two Precinct Clerks Fired, Two Poll Watchers Removed From South Florida Precinct". CBS Miami. November 8, 2016.
- "Two Precinct Clerks Fired, Two Poll Watchers Removed From South Florida Precinct". The Miami Herald. November 8, 2016.
- "Trump sues to challenge early voting in Las Vegas area, which had big Latino turnout". Los Angeles Times. November 8, 2016.
- "Nevada judge denies Trump request to separate early voting ballots". CNN. November 8, 2016.
- "Update: Judge throws out Trump lawsuit in Clark County". Reno Gazette-Journal. Associated Press. November 8, 2016.
- "Trump loses round in legal fight over Nevada county early voting extension". Politico. November 8, 2016.
- "Lawsuit Filed Against Trump Over Violence at Kentucky Rally". NBC News. Retrieved April 2, 2017.
- Right Side Broadcasting Network (March 1, 2016), Full Speech: Donald Trump Holds Rally in Louisville, KY (3-1-16), retrieved April 2, 2017
- Conservative Outfitters (March 2, 2016), Senior Citizen Veteran Fights Protester at Louisville Trump Rally, retrieved April 2, 2017
- "Judge to Trump: No protection for speech inciting violence". AP News. Retrieved April 2, 2017.
- "Analysis | A judge rules Trump may have incited violence … and Trump again has his own mouth to blame". Washington Post. Retrieved April 2, 2017.
- "PressTV-Trump incited violence in 2016 rally: Judge". Retrieved April 2, 2017.
- Schneider, Grace (April 1, 2017). "Judge: Lawsuit against Trump, supporters can proceed". Courier Journal. Retrieved May 28, 2017.
- Zucchino, David (May 27, 2017). "A Trump Campaign Rally Led to Shoving, and Legal Wrangling, Too". The New York Times. Retrieved May 28, 2017.
- Luckhurst, Toby. "The Stormy Daniels-Donald Trump story explained". BBC News. Retrieved March 11, 2018.
- Tatum, Sophie; Cuomo, Chris (February 14, 2018). "Trump's lawyer says he paid $130,000 to porn star ahead of election". CNN. Retrieved March 16, 2018.
- Fitzpatrick, Sarah (March 8, 2018). "Trump lawyer Michael Cohen tries to silence adult-film star Stormy Daniels". NBC News. Retrieved March 16, 2018.
- Nelson, Louis (March 7, 2018). "White House on Stormy Daniels: Trump 'denied all these allegations'". Politico. Retrieved March 16, 2018.
- Carter, Brandon (March 6, 2018). "Stormy Daniels files lawsuit against Trump". The Hill.
Daniels, whose legal name is Stephanie Clifford, claims in her suit filed Tuesday that the nondisclosure agreement is not valid because Trump never signed the deal, according to documents revealed publicly by her attorney, Michael Avenatti.
- Fitzpatrick, Sarah; Connor, Tracy (March 16, 2018). "Trump tries to move Stormy Daniels lawsuit to federal court, claims she owes him $20 million". NBC News. Retrieved March 17, 2018.
- Tatum, Sophie; DiCarlo, Patricia (March 17, 2018). "Attorneys for Trump and Cohen file to move Stormy Daniels lawsuit to federal court". CNN. Retrieved March 17, 2018.
- "Trump breaks his silence on payment to porn star Stormy Daniels". April 6, 2018. Retrieved May 3, 2018.
- "Trump sued for 'defamatory' tweet". BBC News. April 30, 2018. Retrieved April 30, 2018.
- "Trump Acknowledges Financial 'Liability' For Stormy Daniels Payment". NPR.org. Retrieved May 16, 2018.
- "Michael Cohen trial: Trump accused of directing hush money". BBC News. Retrieved August 22, 2018.
- "Ex-Trump lawyer Michael Cohen pleads guilty, implicates president". Al Jazeera. Retrieved August 22, 2018.
- Palazzolo, Joe; Rothfeld, Michael; Alpert, Lukas (November 4, 2016). "National Enquirer Shielded Donald Trump From Playboy Model's Affair Allegation". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved February 17, 2018.
- Weprin, Alex (November 4, 2016). "Report: National Enquirer bought rights to Trump affair story, but never published". Politico.
- Farrow, Ronan (February 16, 2018). "Donald Trump, the Playboy Model Karen McDougal, and a System for Concealing Infidelity". The New Yorker. Retrieved February 16, 2018.
- Sherman, Gabriel. ""Holy shit, I thought Pecker would be the last one to turn": Trump's National Enquirer allies are the latest to defect". Vanity Fair. Retrieved August 25, 2018.
- Ballhaus, Rebecca; Hong, Nicole. "Allen Weisselberg, Longtime Trump Organization CFO, Testified and Was Granted Immunity in Cohen Probe". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved August 25, 2018.
- Singman, Brooke. "Trump insists he learned of Michael Cohen payments 'later on,' in 'Fox & Friends' exclusive". Fox News. Retrieved August 23, 2018.
- Ballhaus, Joe Palazzolo, Nicole Hong, Michael Rothfeld, Rebecca Davis O’Brien and Rebecca. "Donald Trump Played Central Role in Hush Payoffs to Stormy Daniels and Karen McDougal". Retrieved November 9, 2018.
- Full access to WSJ article via Twitter> https://twitter.com/rebeccaballhaus/status/1060956637211570176
- "Court filings directly implicate Trump in efforts to buy women's silence, reveal new contact between inner circle and Russian". Washington Post.
- Hymes, Clare; Reid, Paula; Watson, Kathryn (December 12, 2018). "Former Trump lawyer Michael Cohen sentenced to 3 years in prison — live updates". ABC News. Retrieved December 12, 2018.
- "Trump denies directing Michael Cohen to break the law to buy the silence of Playboy playmate and porn star". Washington Post.
- "Trump was in the room during hush money discussions with tabloid publisher". NBC News.
- Palazzolo, Joe; Hong, Nicole; Rothfeld, Michael; O’Brien, Rebecca Davis; Ballhaus, Rebecca (November 9, 2018). "Donald Trump Played Central Role in Hush Payoffs to Stormy Daniels and Karen McDougal" – via www.wsj.com.
- "Trump sues Deutsche Bank and Capital One over Democrat subpoenas". BBC News. April 30, 2019. Retrieved May 1, 2019.
- Fahrenthold, David; Bade, Rachael; Wagner, John (April 22, 2019). "Trump sues in bid to block congressional subpoena of financial records". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 1, 2019.
- Savage, Charlie (May 20, 2019). "Accountants Must Turn Over Trump's Financial Records, Lower-Court Judge Rules" – via NYTimes.com.
- "Trump's appeal to keep finances away from Democrats goes to court headed by Merrick Garland". Newsweek. May 21, 2019.
- "Judge rejects Trump's request to halt congressional subpoenas for his banking records". Washington Post.
- Flitter, Emily (May 22, 2019). "Deutsche Bank Can Release Trump Records to Congress, Judge Rules" – via NYTimes.com.
- Rosenstein, Rod (May 17, 2017). "Rod Rosenstein's Letter Appointing Mueller Special Counsel". The New York Times. Archived from the original on May 18, 2017. Retrieved May 18, 2017. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- Kranish, Michael (June 6, 2017). "Trump's legal dream team falters as D.C. heavyweights take a pass". The Washington Post.
- Isikoff, Michael (June 6, 2017). "Four top law firms turned down requests to represent Trump". Yahoo News.
- Breuninger, Kevin (March 22, 2019). "Mueller probe ends: Special counsel submits Russia report to Attorney General William Barr". CNBC. Retrieved March 22, 2019.
- Barr, William P. "Letter". Retrieved March 24, 2019 – via Scribd.
- Pramuk, Jacob; Kimball, Spencer (March 24, 2019). "Attorney General Barr to release Mueller Russia probe report findings". CNBC. Retrieved March 24, 2019.
- Schmidt, Michael S.; Savage, Charlie (March 24, 2019). "Barr Goes Beyond Mueller in Clearing Trump on Obstruction, Drawing Scrutiny". The New York Times.
- Farrell, Greg (March 24, 2019). "Mueller Leaves Obstruction Question to Barr, Who Clears Trump". Bloomberg News.
- Johnston, David Cay (July 10, 2015). "21 Questions For Donald Trump". The National Memo. Retrieved August 5, 2015.
- Frates, Chris (July 31, 2015). "Donald Trump and the mob". CNN. Retrieved August 4, 2015.
- O'Harrow, Jr., Robert (October 16, 2015). "Trump swam in mob-infested waters in early years as an NYC developer". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 16, 2015.
- "Organized Crime in Bars Part II" (PDF). New Jersey State Commission of Investigation. 1995. Retrieved March 9, 2016.
- Horwitz, Jeff (December 4, 2015). "Q&A on Trump real estate adviser accused of a $40M stock fraud scheme and ties to the mob". Associated Press. Retrieved December 5, 2015.
- "Who is Felix Sater and what's his role in Michael Cohen's plea deal?". www.cbsnews.com.
- Horwitz, Jeff (December 4, 2015). "Trump picked stock fraud felon as senior adviser". Associated Press. Retrieved December 4, 2015.
- Hood, Bryan (June 29, 2015). "4 Times Donald Trump's Companies Declared Bankruptcy". Vanity Fair. Retrieved January 17, 2016.
- Hao Li (April 12, 2011). "Donald Trump Questioned on His Bankruptcies". International Business Times. Retrieved February 19, 2015.
- Kurtz, Howard (April 24, 2011). "Kurtz: The Trump Backlash". Newsweek. Retrieved March 14, 2016.
- Clare O'Connor (April 29, 2011). "Fourth Time's A Charm: How Donald Trump Made Bankruptcy Work For Him". Forbes. Retrieved February 19, 2015.
- James Hirby. "How is Donald Trump Able to File for Bankruptcy So Many Times?". The Law Dictionary. Retrieved February 19, 2015.
- Amy Bingham (April 21, 2011). "Donald Trump's Companies Filed for Bankruptcy 4 Times". ABC News. Retrieved February 20, 2015.
- Claire Suddath (April 29, 2011). "The Bankruptcies". Time. Retrieved February 19, 2015.
- "The Donald's Trump Card". Bloomberg Businessweek. March 22, 1992. Retrieved February 20, 2015.
- "Trump Plaza Hotel Bankruptcy Plan Approved". The New York Times. December 12, 1992. Retrieved May 22, 2008.
- "Donald Trump". Magazine USA. Retrieved May 22, 2008.
- Timothy L. O'Brien (January 27, 2016). "How Trump Bungled the Deal of a Lifetime". BloombergView.
- "Trump casinos file for bankruptcy". MSNBC. November 22, 2004. Retrieved May 22, 2008.
- "Company news: Trump delays emergence from bankruptcy by a week". The New York Times. May 5, 2005. Retrieved May 22, 2008.
- "Indiana Gaming Commission on Trump Resorts' Bankruptcy" (PDF). Indiana Gaming Commission. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 27, 2007. Retrieved July 7, 2007.
- Hedegaard, Erik (May 11, 2011). "Donald Trump Lets His Hair Down". Rolling Stone. Retrieved January 9, 2016.
- Stewart, Emily (September 15, 2015). "The Backstory on Donald Trump's Four Bankruptcies". TheStreet. Retrieved March 15, 2016.
- Peterson, Kyle (February 17, 2009). "Trump Entertainment files for bankruptcy". Reuters. Retrieved April 21, 2011.
- Parry, Wayne. "Trump: Plaza and Taj Mahal to shabby to bear his name anymore". Philadelphia Daily News. Associated Press. Retrieved August 23, 2014.
- "Trump Entertainment Resorts Files For Bankruptcy". The Huffington Post. Reuters. September 9, 2014. Retrieved February 19, 2015.
- Parry, Wayne (February 26, 2016). "Trump Taj Mahal Casino Out of Bankruptcy, Into Carl Icahn's Hands". Associated Press. Archived from the original on March 8, 2016. Retrieved March 7, 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- Goldstock, Ronald (January 1, 1991). "Corruption and Racketeering in the New York City Construction Industry: Final Report to Governor Mario M. Cuomo". New York State Organized Crime Task Force: 120. ISBN 9780814730348. Retrieved March 9, 2016.
- "Restoring the Public Trust: A Blueprint for Government Integrity". New York State Commission on Government Integrity. 18 (2 Article 3): 177–79. 1990. Retrieved March 9, 2016.
- LaFraniere, Sharon; Haberman, Maggie; Goldman, Adam (December 13, 2018). "Trump Inaugural Fund and Super PAC Said to Be Scrutinized for Illegal Foreign Donations" – via NYTimes.com.
- Haberman, Maggie; Protess, Ben (February 4, 2019). "Trump Inaugural Committee Ordered to Hand Over Documents to Federal Investigators" – via NYTimes.com.
- Sciutto, Jim (February 4, 2019). "According to the subpoena, the investigation covers allegations of conspiracy against the US, false statements, mail fraud, wire fraud, money laundering, inaugural committee disclosure violations, & laws prohibiting contributions by foreign nations.https://www.cnn.com/2019/02/04/politics/sdny-subpoena-trump-inauguration-committee/index.html …". External link in
- "Federal prosecutors issue sweeping subpoena for documents from Trump inaugural committee, a sign of a deepening criminal probe". Washington Post.
- "A big, dirty secret from Donald Trump's tax returns has been exposed". The Washington Post. November 1, 2016. Retrieved November 2, 2016.
- "How a Simple Tax Rule Let Donald Trump Turn a $916 Million Loss Into a Plus". The New York Times. October 4, 2016. Retrieved November 2, 2016.
- "Avoiding Taxes, Trump-Style". The New York Times. November 2, 2016. Retrieved November 2, 2016.
- Stein, Jeff. "Lawsuits show that Donald Trump's companies regularly delete emails and other records". Vox. Retrieved November 1, 2016.
- "Donald Trump's companies destroyed or hid documents in defiance of court orders". Newsweek. Retrieved November 1, 2016.
- Lanktree, Graham (October 31, 2016). "Trump email cover up: Presidential nominee's companies defied court orders and destroyed documents". International Business Times UK. Retrieved November 1, 2016.
- Papenfuss, Mary (June 14, 2016). "Just like Hillary, Trump is accused of wiping out important emails". International Business Times UK. Retrieved November 4, 2016.
- "Paul Singer". USA Today. Retrieved November 4, 2016.
- "Trump was accused of destroying email evidence in lawsuit 10 years ago". USA Today. Retrieved November 1, 2016.
- "Trump Companies 'Systematically' Destroyed or Hid Thousands of Emails and Records: Report". NBC News. Retrieved November 1, 2016.
- Lanktree, Graham (October 31, 2016). "Trump email cover up: Presidential nominee's companies defied court orders and destroyed documents". International Business Times UK. Retrieved November 4, 2016.
- Hensch, Mark (June 13, 2016). "Lawsuit accused Trump company of deleting emails". The Hill. Retrieved November 4, 2016.
- "Donald Trump has his own history of deleting emails". AOL. Retrieved November 4, 2016.