A landscape zodiac (or terrestrial zodiac) is a map of the stars on a gigantic scale, formed by features in the landscape, such as roads, streams and field boundaries. Perhaps the best known alleged example is the Glastonbury Temple of the Stars, situated around Glastonbury in Somerset, England. The temple is thought by some to depict a colossal zodiac.
The theory was first put forward in 1935 by Katherine Maltwood, an artist who "discovered" the zodiac in a vision, and held that the "temple" was created by Sumerians about 2700 BC. Interest was re-ignited in 1969 by Mary Caine in an article in the magazine Gandalf's Garden.
The idea was examined by two independent studies, one by Ian Burrow in 1975  and the other in 1983 by Tom Williamson and Liz Bellamy, using the standard methods of landscape historical research. Both studies concluded that the evidence contradicted the idea. The eye of Capricorn identified by Maltwood was a haystack. The western wing of the Aquarius phoenix was a road laid in 1782 to run around Glastonbury, and older maps dating back to the 1620s show the road had no predecessors. The Cancer boat (not a crab as would be expected) is made up of a network of eighteenth century drainage ditches and paths. There are some Neolithic paths preserved in the peat of the bog formerly comprising most of the area, but none of the known paths match the lines of the zodiac features. There is no support for this theory, or for the existence of the "temple" in any form, from conventional archaeologists or mainstream historians.
List of landscape zodiacsEdit
Beside the Glastonbury arrangement, despite scientific scepticism, further zodiacs have been "discovered" in Britain in following years including:
- Kingston upon Thames Zodiac
- The Lizard Zodiac, Cornwall
- Bodmin Moor Zodiac
- The Pumpsaint Zodiac
- Nuthampstead Terrestrial Zodiac
- The Sheffield Zodiac, South Yorkshire
There is rarely a strong scientific case for these discoveries. Their nebulous existence is in many ways similar to urban myths, ufology, or ley lines. They seem to play a part in personal belief systems, possibly as fictional devices; for example "The Brighton Zodiac" - created by Sally Hurst, based on the streets of that town - features as a plot device in Robert Rankin's novel "The Brightonomicon". Mark Valentine has compiled a checklist of 'The Literature of Terrestrial Zodiacs in Britain' in 'The Network of Ley Hunters' Newsletter'().
Landscape zodiacs and psychogeographyEdit
In 2006, artist Nigel Ayers began to develop the idea of the Bodmin Moor Zodiac as a form of spatial detournement. This was an idea derived from developments in land art  and locational media, influenced however by urban-based Situationist and Letterist theory. Over the course of a year, Ayers carefully explored the outlines of zodiac figures perceived and plotted on large-scale maps and aerial photographs of the moor. The newly-drawn 2006 figures are remarkable and make a break from earlier mooted terrestrial zodiacs on Bodmin Moor and elsewhere as they actually resemble a conventional zodiac as outlined on a star map. 
- Ian Burrow, Somerset's Planning Department staff archeologist, concluded that "while the outlines of the effigies may be plotted today, their antiquity is illusory" 
- Tom Williamson, Liz Bellamy, Ley Lines In Question, pages 162-168. (Tadworth, UK: World's Work, 1983). ISBN 0-437-19205-9
- Iain Sinclair, London Orbital (Penguin Books, London, 2005), ISBN 0-14-101474-1
- Sinclair, Alison. "The Glastonbury Zodiac of Katharine Maltwood". Retrieved September 23, 2015.
- "The Bodmin Moor Zodiac". brainwashed.com/. Retrieved 2015-09-23.
- Brinsley le Poer Trench(1962) Temple of the Stars
- Katherine E. Maltwood (1935) A Guide to Glastonbury's Temple of the Stars
- Peter James and Nick Thorpe (1999) Ancient Mysteries, Ballantine Books, New York, pp 298–304
- Iain Sinclair (2005) London Orbital, Penguin Books, London, ISBN 0-14-101474-1
- Nigel Ayers (2007) The Bodmin Moor Zodiac ASIN B0029JFOKQ
- Mary Caine(1978) The Glastonbury Giants
- Mary Caine (2001) The Kingston Zodiac Capall Barn Publishing ISBN 1-86163-111-1
- Lewis Edwards, The Welsh Temple of the Zodiac (undated mimeographed pamphlet)
- Ian Hemming (2000) The Pumpsaint Zodiac Lampeter: Mindwarp Press
- John Michell (1975) The Earth Spirit - Its Ways, Shrines and Mysteries
- John Michell (1979) Simulacra - with 196 Illustrations of Faces and Figures in Nature London: Thames & Hudson
- Sheila Jeffries (1996) Cornwall's Landscape Zodiac St.Keverne:Elderberry Books
- Robert Coon (1986) Voyage to Avalon - An Immortalist's Introduction to the Magick of Glastonbury Glastonbury: Griffin Gold
- R. Nichols (1993)Great Zodiac of Glastonbury Mandrake Press, Thame England
- Oliver L. Reiser (1975) This Holyest Erthe: Glastonbury Zodiac and King Arthur's Avalon TRSP Publications ISBN 0-900588-10-1
- Taylor Jeremy (2009) Seven Wonders : Suffolk's Ancient Sites - A Vision of an Arcane Landscape ASIN: B00262QC84
- Caroline Hall Hovey (1985) The Somerset Sanctuary, Merlin Books LTD, Devon, ISBN 0-86303-197-8