Lafayette Benedict Mendel (February 5, 1872 – December 9, 1935) was an American biochemist known for his work in nutrition, with longtime collaborator Thomas B. Osborne, including the study of Vitamin A, Vitamin B, lysine and tryptophan.
February 5, 1872|
Delhi, New York, United States
|Died||December 9, 1935
New Haven, Connecticut, U.S.
|Alma mater||Yale University|
|Awards||Member of National Academy of Sciences
American Institute of Chemists Gold Medal (1927)
Conné Medal from Chemist's Club of New York
|Doctoral advisor||Russell Henry Chittenden|
|Doctoral students||Florence B. Seibert
Icie Macy Hoobler
Mendel was born in Delhi, New York, son of Benedict Mendel, a merchant born in Aufhausen, Germany in 1833, and Pauline Ullman, born in Eschenau, Germany. His father immigrated to the United States from Germany in 1851, his mother in 1870.
He then began graduate work at the Sheffield Scientific School on a fellowship and studied physiological chemistry under Russell Henry Chittenden. He finished his Ph.D. 1893 after only two years; his thesis topic was the study of the seed storage protein edestin extracted from hemp seed. Upon graduation, he began as an assistant at the Sheffield School in Physiological chemistry. He also studied in Germany and was made an assistant professor on his return in 1896. He became a full professor in 1903 with appointments in the Yale School of Medicine and the Yale Graduate School as well as Sheffield.
With Chittenden, Mendel became one of the founders of the science of nutrition. Together with longtime collaborator Thomas B. Osborne he established essential amino acids. As early as 1910 he found an important growth factor...later to be known as vitamin B. In 1903, at age 31, he was appointed full professor of physiological chemistry. In promoting Mendel, Yale made him one of the first high-ranking Jewish professors in the United States. Capping his illustrious career Mendel was appointed Sterling Professor of Physiological Chemistry in 1921. Of the twenty professors to be designated Sterling professors in the decade following their inception in 1920, only two were selected before Mendel. Of the twenty, Mendel was the only Jew.
Mendel wrote over 100 papers with Osborne of the Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, where Mendel was also an appointee. In their early work, they studied the deadly poison ricin which is classified as a type 2 ribosome inactivating protein (RIP) from castor beans. He was a member of the Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences.
- Vitamin A discovery
Mendel and Osborne's most important work involved the use of carefully controlled studies on rats to study the necessary elements in a healthy diet. They discovered Vitamin A in 1913 in butter fat – independently discovered by Elmer McCollum and Marguerite Davis, who submitted their publication first, with both papers appearing in the same issue of the Journal of Biological Chemistry – as well as water-soluble vitamin B in milk. They showed, for example, that a lack of Vitamin A in the diet led to xerophthalmia. They also established the importance of lysine and tryptophan in a healthy diet.
Mendel wrote many articles and published Changes in the Food Supply and Their Relation to Nutrition (1916) and Nutrition, the Chemistry of Life (1923).
Honors and awardsEdit
Mendel received many honors during his career. He was made Sterling Professor at Yale in 1921. He was the first president of the American Institute of Nutrition. He was made a member of the National Academy of Sciences in 1913. He won the American Institute of Chemists Gold Medal in 1927 "for his outstanding contributions to chemistry". He won the Conné Medal of the Chemist's Club of New York in 1935 "for his outstanding chemical contributions to medicine".
- "Lafayette Benedict Mendel." World of Biology. Farmington Hills, Mich.: Thomson Gale. 2006.
- Arthur H. Smith, "Lafayette B. Mendel, Companion in Research", American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 12(4):261-263.
- Chittenden, Russell H. (1936). A Biographical Memoir of Lafayette Benedict Mendel: 1872–1935 (PDF). National Academy of the Sciences. Retrieved 10 March 2015.
- Dan A. Oren, "Joining the Club, A History of Jews and Yale", pages 113-114; Yale University Press, New Haven & London,1985
- Rosenfeld, Louis (April 1997). "Vitamine—vitamin. The early years of discovery". Clinical Chemistry. American Association for Clinical Chemistry. 43 (4): 680–685. Retrieved June 10, 2016.
- "Lafayette Benedict Mendel."Dictionary of American Biography, Supplements 1-2: To 1940. American Council of Learned Societies, 1944-1958. Reproduced in Biography Resource Center. Farmington Hills, Mich.: Thomson Gale. 2007.