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A lacustrine plain or lake plain is a plain formed due to the past existence of a lake and its accompanying sediment accumulation. Lacustrine plains can be formed through one of three major mechanisms, which are glacial drainage, differential uplift, and inland lake creation and drainage. Lake plains can have various uses depending on where and how they form.

Sediment deposition in Garfield County, Montana

Over time, in regions where a lake once existed, as water drains or evaporates from the lake, the deposited sediments are left behind, resulting in a level plain of land where the lake once existed. The soil of the plain may constitute fertile and productive farmland due to the previous accumulation of lacustrine sediments; in other cases, it may become a wetland or a desert.[1]

BackgroundEdit

Lacustrine plains are plains formed when lakes filled with sediments are drained. Drainage of the lake may occur due to various reasons, but in all cases the water in the lake is lost, leaving behind a level land of sediments. The resulting plain is an area of flat land which is often rich in fine-grained sediments. Depending on geologic and climatic factors, the once-lake region may turn into a desert or wetland. In other cases, lacustrine plains may even have agricultural value[2].

Origins of Lacustrine Plains and Their Formation MechanismEdit

The origins of lacustrine plains are lakes formed under different circumstances. Lake plains resulting from the drainage of glacial lakes are called glaciolacustrine plains, which differ from those resulting from differential uplifts and those from the creation of inland lakes.

Glacial DrainageEdit

Glaciolacustrine plains form when the lakes in the continental ice sheets drain and leave the rocky debris within behind. The most recent ice age, the Wisconsin, was a drive for glacial lake formation and the glaciolacustrine plain formation that follows[3]. Glacial lakes are grouped into categories which represent the conditions in which they form. Lake formations depending on the existence of active glaciers are different from those depending on the proximity of the lake to glaciers and those depending on glacier retreats. Regardless of the difference in those glacial lakes' formation conditions, lakes that are trapped inside ice walls drain after the ice walls melt, and the sediments in the lakes form glaciolacustrine plains.

Examples of Glaciolacustrine Plain FormationsEdit

Glaciolacustrine plain formations can be found in different places. Lake Agassiz-Ojibway Basin in northwestern Quebec, for instance, is a good example of lacustrine plain formation caused by the ice readvance and drainage of Lake Ojibway. By analyzing the varve sequences and dividing them into the Matagami section and La Reine section, researchers were able to determine the time of occurence for a major ice readvance event in the area and two drainage events in the lake. It is concluded that two drainage events separated by approximately 65 years led to the final drainage of the lake and the formation of the glaciolacustrine Agassiz-Ojibway Basin[4].

Other locations of glaciolacustrine plains include Lake Erie, Saginaw Bay in Lake Huron, and the Lake Superior lake plain.

Differential UpliftEdit

Lake plains caused by tectonic movements, or epeirogeny, constitute another type of lacustrine plain. Due to tectonic events, the uplift of crusts may occasionally lead to formations of basins. Later, as water fill the region, a lake is formed. Various factors may contribute to the drainage of the lakes formed in such fashion, and the sediments form a large, flat plain where the lakes once existed[3].

Examples of Differential Uplift Lacustrine Plain FormationsEdit

Lacustrine plains formed by differential uplift can be found in multiple locations, and they are most commonly seen in Africa. The Nile drainage system, for example, is a drainage system formed by mantle plumes activity induced tectonic uplift (Rwenzori and Virunga Mountains)[5]. This uplift led to a segmentation of the west East African Rift System and led to the difference in flowing directions of the rivers in the northwestern Main Ethiopian Rift and the eastern and western East African Rift System. The regional tectonics therefore contributed to a redirection of the rivers, causing the Paleo-lake Obweruka to break into smaller regional lakes and the drainage system to change[5].

Tectonics-induced lacustrine plain formation can also be found at the Congo Lake Plain and the Lake Plain of South Sudan.

Inland Lake Creation and DrainageEdit

While differential uplift can certainly create inland basins and lakes, many inland lakes are created due to a period of heavy and consistent rainfall that the region experiences. Like any other lake, lakes formed in inland basins are bound to face obliteration. As sediments deposit and accumulate at the bottom of the lake and as water drains due to environmental forces and geologic events, the lake gradually approaches its full state. A lacustrine plain is then formed when drainage reaches completion, and the lake becomes a plain of sediments[3].

Examples of Inland Lake Creation and DrainageEdit

One example of inland lake creation in once arid land is Lake Eyre in South Australia. The Lake Eyre North basin formed due to tectonic subsidence, and repeating glacial cycles and climatic cycles led to wet and dry cycles in the lake where the state of the lake changed drastically[6]. Lake Eyre is currently a playa, indicating that it is in a relatively arid episode. However, it was much wetter when it was in flood-dominated episodes, and it held more water than its current ephemeral state[6].

The Chad Basin Plain is also a good example of inland lacustrine plain formation. By conducting facies analysis, researchers are able to determine four lithofacies associations for Chad Basin, and thus the sequences of Chad Basin's formation[7]. Those lithofacies with little plant debris indicate a period of aridity and represent the last sequence of Chad formation where a lacustrine plain existed[7].

Other examples of inland lake creation, drainage, and lake plain formation can be found at plains near the Caspian Sea and the Lake Bonneville Plain.

The Value of Lacustrine PlainsEdit

Agriculture ValueEdit

The Great Plains in North America are examples of the agricultural values of lacustrine plains. The flat lake plain where Lake Agassiz once lied now serves as a cropland for suger beets and potatoes[8]. Beneficial to the growth of the crops, the soils of the lacustrine plains in the Great Lakes region are fertile due to prior sedimentation, and the land is so flat that crops can thrive. The remaining glacial materials also provide essential nutrients for crop growth and thus boost the farm productivity[8].

Paleoenvironmental Reconstruction ValueEdit

Lacustrine plains are also valuable in paleoenvironment and paleoclimate studies. By surveying the western lake plain of Llancanelo Lake in Argentina, researchers are able to gather geomorphological data and sedimentary evidence to reconstruct the extension of the lake in the past. It was concluded that the lake extended a larger territory in the past[9]. In the case of Llancanelo Lake, the western lacustrine plain was a crucial factor in determining the evolution of the lake. A similar use of drainage areas and lacustrine plain can be found in a research done on the Congo. Sedimentation and drainage data collected through monitoring the Congo's drainage system provide valuable insight into the glacial stages and climate periods the region had gone through[10].  

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Robert S. Tye; James M. Coleman (1989). "Depositional Processes and Stratigraphy of Fluvially Dominated Lacustrine Deltas: Mississippi Delta Plain". SEPM Journal of Sedimentary Research. Vol. 59. doi:10.1306/212f90ca-2b24-11d7-8648000102c1865d. ISSN 1527-1404.
  2. ^ Encyclopedia of world geography. Volume I, A-G. McColl, R. W. New York, NY: Facts On File. 2005. ISBN 9780816072293. OCLC 85844781.CS1 maint: others (link)
  3. ^ a b c Cole, Gerald A., 1917- (1983). Textbook of limnology (3rd ed ed.). St. Louis: Mosby. ISBN 0801610044. OCLC 8667748.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: extra text (link)
  4. ^ Godbout, Pierre-Marc; Roy, Martin; Veillette, Jean J. (2019). "High-resolution varve sequences record one major late-glacial ice readvance and two drainage events in the eastern Lake Agassiz-Ojibway basin". Quaternary Science Reviews. 223: 105942. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2019.105942.
  5. ^ a b Abdelsalam, Mohamed G. (2018-02-01). "The Nile's journey through space and time: A geological perspective". Earth-Science Reviews. 177: 742–773. doi:10.1016/j.earscirev.2018.01.010. ISSN 0012-8252.
  6. ^ a b Magee, J. W.; Bowler, J. M.; Miller, G. H.; Williams, D. L. G. (1995-01-01). "Stratigraphy, sedimentology, chronology and palaeohydrology of Quaternary lacustrine deposits at Madigan Gulf, Lake Eyre, south Australia". Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. Arid-Zone Palaeoenvironments. 113 (1): 3–42. doi:10.1016/0031-0182(95)00060-Y. ISSN 0031-0182.
  7. ^ a b Shettima, Bukar; Kyari, Aji Maina; Aji, Mallam Musa; Adams, Fatimoh Dupe (2018-07-01). "Storm and tide influenced depositional architecture of the Pliocene–Pleistocene Chad Formation, Chad Basin (Bornu Sub–basin) NE Nigeria: A mixed fluvial, deltaic, shoreface and lacustrine complex". Journal of African Earth Sciences. 143: 309–320. doi:10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2018.03.030. ISSN 1464-343X.
  8. ^ a b "Encyclopedia of the Great Plains | AGRICULTURE". plainshumanities.unl.edu. Retrieved 2019-11-21.
  9. ^ Violante, R.; Osella, A.; Vega, M. de la; Rovere, E.; Osterrieth, M. (2010). "Paleoenvironmental reconstruction in the western lacustrine plain of Llancanelo Lake, Mendoza, Argentina". Journal of South American Earth Sciences. 29 (3): 650–664. doi:10.1016/j.jsames.2009.12.001.
  10. ^ Molliex, Stéphane; Kettner, Albert J.; Laurent, Dimitri; Droz, Laurence; Marsset, Tania; Laraque, Alain; Rabineau, Marina; Moukandi N'Kaya, Guy D. (2019-01-01). "Simulating sediment supply from the Congo watershed over the last 155 ka". Quaternary Science Reviews. 203: 38–55. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2018.11.001. ISSN 0277-3791.