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A male kumbhāṇḍa (left) and female Kumbhāṇḍakā (right).

A kumbhāṇḍa (Sanskrit) or kumbhaṇḍa (Pāli) is one of a group of dwarfish, misshapen spirits among the lesser deities of Buddhist mythology.

Translations of
Kumbhāṇḍa
Paliकुम्भण्ड
(Kumbhaṇḍa)
Sanskritकुम्भाण्ड
(IAST: Kumbhāṇḍa)
Chinese鳩槃荼 or 鳩盤拏
(PinyinJiūpántú or Jiūpánná)
Japanese鳩槃荼
(rōmaji: kubanda)
Korean구반다
(RR: gubanda)
Tibetanགྲུལ་བུམ་
Wylie: grul bum
THL: drulbum
Thaiกุมภัณฑ์
VietnameseCưu bàn trà
Glossary of Buddhism

Kumbhāṇḍa was a dialectal form for "gourd", so they may get their name from being thought to resemble gourds in some way, e.g. in having big stomachs. But kumbhāṇḍa can also be interpreted as "pot-egg"; since "egg" (aṇḍa) was a common euphemism for "testicle", the kumbhāṇḍas were imagined having testicles "as big as pots".

The terms kumbhāṇḍa and yakṣa are sometimes used for the same person; yakṣa in these cases is the more general term, including a variety of lower deities.

The kumbhāṇḍas are classed among the Cāturmahārājika deities, and are subject to the Great King Virūḍhaka, Guardian of the South. One of their chiefs is called Kumbhīra.