Kuma (Russia)

The Kuma (Russian: Кума́) is a river on the Black Sea-Caspian Steppe of southern Russia. It flows northeast into the Caspian Sea. It is 802 kilometres (498 mi) long, and has a drainage basin of 33,500 square kilometres (12,900 sq mi).[1] Its source is in the Greater Caucasus, in the republic Karachay-Cherkessia, west of Kislovodsk. It flows in northeastern direction, through Stavropol Krai (towns Mineralnye Vody, Zelenokumsk, Budyonnovsk, Neftekumsk) and further east through the Caspian Depression as the natural border between Kalmykia and Dagestan. That part of the Kuma's valley forms the eastern part of the Kuma–Manych Depression, separating the East European Plain from the Caucasus region. The Kuma flows into the Kizlyar Gulf of the Caspian Sea near the border between Dagestan and Kalmykia.

Physical characteristics
MouthCaspian Sea
 • coordinates
44°36′40″N 47°15′13″E / 44.611°N 47.2536°E / 44.611; 47.2536Coordinates: 44°36′40″N 47°15′13″E / 44.611°N 47.2536°E / 44.611; 47.2536
Length802 km (498 mi)
Basin size33,500 km2 (12,900 sq mi)
Basin features
 • rightPodkumok

Most of the rivers that flow north from the Caucasus Mountains are caught by the Kuban and Terek. It rises between the basins of those two rivers so the Kuma is mainly a steppe river. It is much used for irrigation.

Construction projectsEdit

If the plans for the proposed Eurasia Canal, linking the Caspian Sea with the Black Sea, are ever implemented, it will likely follow the Kuma River valley in its eastern section.


  1. ^ Река Кума in the State Water Register of Russia (Russian)