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Korean fortresses are fortifications constructed by Koreans since the Three Kingdoms of Korea period. Koreans developed a unique and distinct fortress tradition.[1] Korea, beginning with Goguryeo,[2][3][4] has been called "a country of fortresses";[1][5][6][7] almost 2,400 mountain fortress sites have been found in Korea.[1][5]

Contents

TypesEdit

There are numerous types of Korean fortresses, including sanseong (mountain fortress), eupseong (city fortress), pyeongjiseong, gwanseong, jangseong, chaekseong, and more.[2]

HistoryEdit

Korean fortresses were based on a stone culture and built with stones on natural mountainous terrain; therefore, they are conceptually completely different compared to Chinese fortresses, which were based on an earth culture and built with bricks and stamped earth on flat land.[5][8] Korean fortresses were invented by Goguryeo and spread to Baekje and Silla,[9] and then inherited and further developed by Goryeo and then Joseon.[5]

SitesEdit

Almost 2,400 mountain fortress sites have been found in Korea.[1][5]

Goguryeo fortress ruins have been found in about 170 sites to date, including in China;[3] one of the most notable among them is Ansi Fortress, which successfully defended against Tang Taizong during the Goguryeo–Tang War.[10][11] Goguryeo fortress ruins have also been found in present-day Mongolia.[12][13][14]

Korean-style fortresses can be found in Japan, which were constructed and supervised by immigrants of Baekje origin.[5]

UNESCOEdit

Hwaseong Fortress and Namhansanseong are UNESCO World Heritage Sites.[15][16]

GalleryEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d "Korea's fortresses reflect the past and Koreans' respect for the environment". Korea.net : The official website of the Republic of Korea. Korean Culture and Information Service (KOCIS). Retrieved 20 September 2016.
  2. ^ a b "'산성의 나라' 고구려". 민족21. Archived from the original on 2016-06-25. Retrieved 20 September 2016.
  3. ^ a b Su-il, Jeong. The Silk Road Encyclopedia. Seoul Selection. ISBN 9781624120763. Retrieved 20 September 2016.
  4. ^ "사진을 통해 본 고구려 성곽". 동북아역사넷. Retrieved 20 September 2016.
  5. ^ a b c d e f "Ancient Mountain Fortresses in Central Korea". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. United Nations. Retrieved 20 September 2016.
  6. ^ Cultural Heritage Administration (South Korea). World Heritage in Korea. 길잡이미디어. p. 65. ISBN 9788981241773. Retrieved 20 September 2016.
  7. ^ The Korea Foundation (23 February 2015). "Koreana - Winter 2014 (English): Korean Culture & Arts". 한국국제교류재단. Retrieved 20 September 2016.
  8. ^ Chʻa, Yong-gŏl; Hakhoe, Hanʼguk Sŏnggwak. Mountain Fortresses in Central Inland Korea: Deokju Sanseong Mountain Fortress. Korea Fortress Academy. p. 36. Retrieved 20 September 2016.
  9. ^ Chʻa, Yong-gŏl; Hakhoe, Hanʼguk Sŏnggwak. Mountain Fortresses in Central Inland Korea: Deokju Sanseong Mountain Fortress. Korea Fortress Academy. p. 33. Retrieved 20 September 2016.
  10. ^ Kim, Li-na. Koguryo tomb murals. ICOMOS-Korea. p. 100. Retrieved 20 September 2016.
  11. ^ Kim, Jinwung. A History of Korea: From "Land of the Morning Calm" to States in Conflict. Indiana University Press. p. 50. ISBN 0253000246. Retrieved 20 September 2016.
  12. ^ 김운회. "한국과 몽골, 그 천년의 비밀을 찾아서". Pressian. Korea Press Foundation. Retrieved 11 October 2016.
  13. ^ 成宇濟. "고고학자 손보기 교수". 시사저널. Retrieved 11 October 2016.
  14. ^ "[초원 실크로드를 가다](14)초원로가 한반도까지". 경향신문. The Kyunghyang Shinmun. Retrieved 11 October 2016.
  15. ^ "Hwaseong Fortress". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Retrieved 22 September 2016.
  16. ^ "Namhansanseong". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Retrieved 22 September 2016.

External linksEdit