Kinneret (archaeological site)
Kinneret (Hebrew: כִּנֶּרֶת) is the name of an important Bronze and Iron Age city situated on the northwestern shore of the Sea of Galilee, mentioned in the Old Testament and New Testament, and in the Aqhat Epic of Ugarit. Older Bible translations name Kinneret alternatively Kinnereth or Chinnereth, and sometimes in the plural as Chinneroth. The name became Gennesaret and Ginosar (Hebrew: גִּנֵּיסַר). The remains of Kinneret have been excavated at a site called Tell el-'Oreimeh in Arabic and Tel Kinrot in Modern Hebrew.
Name: etymology and evolutionEdit
Kinneret, in the plural Kinnerot, was Grecized to Gennesaret, and Ginosar is yet another transformation of the name. According to the Jerusalem Talmud (Megillah 1:1), the name Kinneret is derived from the name of the kinnar trees which grow in its vicinity, explained by lexicographer M. Jastrow to mean the Christ's thorn jujube (Ziziphus spina-christi), and by Moses Margolies to mean cane reeds. Others say that it is so-called because its fruits are as sweet as those of the kinnara (Ziziphus spina-christi).
Wider use of the nameEdit
Due to its prominence, the city gave its name to the lake (the "Sea of Galilee") for long periods of history, as the Sea of Kinneret, Kinnerot, Gennesaret, or Ginosar. As other places around the lake rose to prominence, such as Tiberias and Qasr al-Minya, the name of the lake alsi changed to Lake Tiberias or Lake Minya.
The name has also been used for the "Plain of Gennesaret", which stretches south of the ancient city. The plain's modern names are Plain of Ginosar in Hebrew and el-Ghuweir in Arabic.
The Israeli kibbutz Ginosar derives its name from the ancient town, though it is not located on its precise site. The settlements of Moshavat Kinneret and Kvutzat Kinneret are even further south, on the southwestern shore of the lake.
Identification and locationEdit
The site of the fortified Bronze and Iron Age city of Kinneret is at the mound known in Arabic as Tell el-'Oreimeh and in modern Hebrew as Tel Kinrot, halfway between Capernaum and Magdala. Situated on an important trade route, its elevated position meant that it also overlooked and guarded the Plain of Ginosar from its northern end.
In the BibleEdit
Kinneret was a town allotted to the tribe of Naphtali (Joshua 19:35). The name appears in the singular form as "Kinneret" (Numbers 34:11, Deuteronomy 3:17) or in the plural as "Kinneroth" (Joshua 11:2, 12:3). In the New Testament the name appears changed to Gennesaret (Luke 5:1).
-  And having passed the water, they came into the country of Genesar.
-  And when the men of that place had knowledge of him, they sent into all that country, and brought to him all that were diseased.
-  And they besought him that they might touch but the hem of his garment. And as many as touched, were made whole. (Matthew 14:34-36).
Flavius Josephus, as well as the Babylonian Talmud mention the lake by the name "Sea of Ginosar" after the small fertile plain of Ginosar that lies at the foot of Tell el-'Oreimeh, ancient Kinneret. Josephus refers to the area as having very rich soil.
In modern literatureEdit
Francis Thompson's poem of apparent contradictions, The Kingdom of God, begins 'O world invisible, we view thee' and ends with the line And lo, Christ walking on the water, not of Gennesaret, but Thames!
- "Bible Hub, Chinneroth". biblehub.com. Retrieved 2018-11-06.
- Easton's Revised Bible Dictionary, "Gennesaret"
- Marcus Jastrow, Dictionary of the Targumim, the Talmud Babli and Yerushalmi, and the Midrashic Literature, Peabody, Mass. 2006, p. 651 (s.v. כנרא)
- Jerusalem Talmud, Megillah 1:1 [2b]
- Babylonian Talmud (Megillah 6a)
- Avraham Negev, Shimon Gibson, ed. (2001). Archaeological Encyclopedia of the Holy Land. New York, London: Continuum. p. 285. ISBN 0-8264-1316-1.
- Lamar Williamson 1983 Mark ISBN 0804231214 pages 129-130
- "Tel Kinrot – Kinneret Regional Project". kinneret-excavations.org. Retrieved 2018-11-06.
- Aharoni, Yochanan. The Land of the Bible, A Historical Geography. The Westminster Press, Philadelphia, 1979, p. 433.
- "עמוד ענן - המדריך השיתופי לידיעת הארץ". amudanan.co.il (in Hebrew). Retrieved 2018-11-06.
- Clément RONZON. "TWCC, The World Coordinate Converter". twcc.free.fr. Retrieved 2018-11-06.
- Matthew 14:34; Mark 6:53
- The Physical Geography, Geology, and Meteorology of the Holyand by Henry Baker Tristram 2007 ISBN 1593334826 page 11
- "Poets' Corner - Francis Thompson - Selected Works". theotherpages.org. Retrieved 2018-11-06.
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