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Khafajah or Khafaje (ancient Tutub) is an archaeological site in Diyala Province (Iraq). It was part of the city-state of Eshnunna. The site lies 7 miles (11 km) east of Baghdad and 12 miles (19 km) southwest of Eshnunna.

Khafajah
Tutub
Khafajah is located in Iraq
Khafajah
Shown within Iraq
Alternative nameKhafaje
LocationDiyala Province, Iraq
RegionMesopotamia
Coordinates33°21′16.83″N 44°33′20.71″E / 33.3546750°N 44.5557528°E / 33.3546750; 44.5557528Coordinates: 33°21′16.83″N 44°33′20.71″E / 33.3546750°N 44.5557528°E / 33.3546750; 44.5557528
Typetell

Contents

History of archaeological researchEdit

Khafajah was excavated for 7 seasons in the early 1930s primarily by an Oriental Institute of Chicago team led by Henri Frankfort with Thorkild Jacobsen and Pinhas Delougaz. For two seasons, the site was worked by a joint team of the American Schools of Oriental Research and the University of Pennsylvania.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8]

Khafajah and its environmentEdit

Khafajah lies on the Diyala River, a tributary of the Tigris. The site consists of four mounds, labeled A through D. The main one, Mound A, extends back as far as the Uruk period and contained an oval temple, a temple of the god Sin, not surely and a temple of Nintu. The Dur-Samsuiluna fort was found on mounds B and C. Mound D contained private homes and a temple for the god Sin where the archive tablets where found in two heaps.

Occupation historyEdit

Khafajah was occupied during the Early Dynastic Period, through the Sargonid Period, then came under the control of Eshnunna after the fall of the Ur III Empire. Later, after Eshnunna was captured by Babylon, a fort was built at the site by Samsu-iluna of the First Babylonian dynasty and named Dur-Samsuiluna.

Ruler Proposed reign Notes
Abdi-Erah circa 1820 BC Ruler of Eshnunna, Contemporary of Sumu-abum of Babylon
Adi-madar Ruler of Eshnunna
Sumina-arim
Iku-pi-Sin
Isme-bali
Tattanum Contemporary of Belakum of Eshnunna
Hammi-dusur circa 1800 BC Contemporary of Sumu-la-El of Babylon
Warassa Ruler of Eshnunna

Material cultureEdit

The history of Khafajah is known in somewhat more detail for a period of several decades as a result of the discovery of 112 clay tablets (one now lost) in a temple of Sin. The tablets constitute part of an official archive and include mostly loan and legal documents. The Oriental Institute of Chicago holds 57 of the tablets with the remainder being in the Iraq Museum.[9] Some Early Dynastic Sumerian statues from Khafajah are on the Oriental Institute's list of Lost Treasures from Iraq (after April 9, 2003); however, they have been housed at the Sulaymaniyah Museum since 1961 (see the gallery below).[10][11][12][13]

GalleryEdit

The Iraq Museum's Sumerian Gallery displays several Sumerian statues from the Temple of Sin and the Temple of Nintu (V and VI), including part of a hoard found at the Nintu Temple.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ [1] The Diyala Project at the University of Chicago
  2. ^ [2] OIC 13. Tell Asmar and Khafaje: The First Season's Work in Eshnunna 1930/31, Henri Frankfort, Thorkild Jacobsen, and Conrad Preusser, 1932
  3. ^ [3] OIC 16. Tell Asmar, Khafaje and Khorsabad: Second Preliminary Report of the Iraq Expedition, Henri Frankfort, 1933
  4. ^ [4] OIC 17. Iraq Excavations of the Oriental Institute 1932/33: Third Preliminary Report of the Iraq Expedition, Henri Frankfort, 1934
  5. ^ [5] OIC 19. Oriental Institute Discoveries in Iraq, 1933/34: Fourth Preliminary Report of the Iraq Expedition, Henri Frankfort with a chapter by Thorkild Jacobsen, 1935
  6. ^ [6] OIC 20. Progress of the Work of the Oriental Institute in Iraq, 1934/35: Fifth Preliminary Report of the Iraq Expedition, Henri Frankfort, 1936
  7. ^ [7] OIP 44. Sculpture of the Third Millennium B.C. from Tell Asmar and Khafajah, Henri Frankfort, 1939
  8. ^ [8] OIP 53. The Temple Oval at Khafajah, Pinhas Delougaz, with a chapter by Thorkild Jacobsen. 1940 (also as ISBN 0-226-14234-5)
  9. ^ Harris Rivkah, The Archive of the Sin Temple in Khafajah (Tutub)", Journal of Cuneiform Studies, vol. 9 no. 2, 1955
  10. ^ "Lost Treasures from Iraq". Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago. Retrieved 11 December 2018.
  11. ^ "Lost Treasures from Iraq". Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago. Retrieved 11 December 2018.
  12. ^ "Lost Treasures from Iraq". Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago. Retrieved 11 December 2018.
  13. ^ Amin, Osama S. M. "Lost Treasures from Iraq: Revisited and Identified". Ancient History Encyclopedia. Retrieved 11 December 2018.

Further readingEdit

  • Old Babylonian Public Buildings in the Diyala Region: Part 1 : Excavations at Ishchali, Part 2 : Khafajah Mounds B, C, and D (Publication Series 98), Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, 1990, ISBN 0-918986-62-1

External linksEdit