Karl August Fritz Schiller (24 April 1911 – 26 December 1994) was a German economist and politician of the Social Democratic Party (SPD). From 1966 to 1972, he was Federal Minister of Economic Affairs and from 1971 to 1972 Federal Minister of Finance. He was the inventor of the magic square, depicting Economic equilibrium, and of the Concerted activity (Konzertierte Aktion) to reflate the German market. He is thus seen as one of the most influential German economists beside Ludwig Erhard.
|Minister of Finance|
13 May 1971 – 7 July 1972
|Preceded by||Alexander Möller|
|Succeeded by||Helmut Schmidt|
|Minister of Economic Affairs|
1 December 1966 – 7 July 1972
|Preceded by||Kurt Schmücker|
|Succeeded by||Helmut Schmidt|
Karl August Fritz Schiller
11 April 1911
Breslau, Prussia, German Empire
|Died||26 December 1994 (aged 83)|
|Political party||Social Democratic Party of Germany|
|Alma mater||University of Heidelberg|
Education and careerEdit
Schiller was born in Breslau. From 1931, after passing the Abitur, he studied economics and law at Kiel, Frankfurt, Berlin and Heidelberg. In 1935, he finished his studies and got his doctorate in politics. From 1935 to 1941, he researched at the Institut für Weltwirtschaft in Kiel. In 1939, Schiller made his habilitation. After taking part in World War II as a soldier from 1941 to 1945, he became professor at the University of Hamburg, where he became principal from 1956 to 1958. In the meantime, from 1948 to 1966, he was a member of the scientific advisory board of the Federal Ministry for Economics.
From 1966 to 1969, he was Federal Minister of Economic Affairs in the grand coalition under Bundeskanzler Kurt Georg Kiesinger, and worked together with Franz Josef Strauß, then Federal Minister of Finance, in the Concerted activity. In this time, they were known as Plisch und Plum after figures invented by Wilhelm Busch.
In the first cabinet of Willy Brandt, Schiller continued to serve in the previous position, and was also Federal Minister of Finance from 1971 to 1972 after the demission of Alex Möller. On 7 July 1972 Schiller demissioned, thus protesting against Brandt's economic decisions. After stepping down, he soon left the SPD as well. In 1972, he participated together with Ludwig Erhard in a CDU campaign, whereby both acted as defenders of market economy. In 1980 he returned to the SPD. He died in Hamburg.
In 1991, Schiller was honoured with the Bundesverdienstkreuz (Grand Cross with Star and Sash).
Karl-Schiller Berufskolleg is a vocational college in Dortmund named after Schiller. The school was renamed for Schiller in 1999.
- Gunnar Take: Forschen für den Wirtschaftskrieg. Das Kieler Institut für Weltwirtschaft im Nationalsozialismus, Berlin: de Gruyter, 2019, p. 225-236
- Sinn, H.W. (2007). Can Germany Be Saved?: The Malaise of the World's First Welfare State. MIT Press. p. 182. ISBN 9780262195584. Retrieved 6 September 2015.
- "Schulgeschichte" (in German). Karl-Schiller Berufskolleg Dortmund (KSBK-DO). 2020.
- Lütjen, Torben (2007). Karl Schiller (1911-1994): 'Superminister' Willy Brandts (in German). Dietz. ISBN 978-380124172-8.
- Take, Gunnar: Forschen für den Wirtschaftskrieg. Das Kieler Institut für Weltwirtschaft im Nationalsozialismus, Berlin: de Gruyter, 2019. ISBN 978-3-11-065457-8.
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