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Kapiti was a New Zealand parliamentary electorate, from 1972 to 1996. A bellwether electorate, it frequently changed between National and Labour.

Contents

Population centresEdit

Since the 1969 election, the number of electorates in the South Island was fixed at 25, with continued faster population growth in the North Island leading to an increase in the number of general electorates. There were 84 electorates for the 1969 election,[1] and the 1972 electoral redistribution saw three additional general seats created for the North Island, bringing the total number of electorates to 87.[2] Together with increased urbanisation in Christchurch and Nelson, the changes proved very disruptive to existing electorates. [2] In the South Island, three electorates were abolished, and three electorates were newly created.[3] In the North Island, five electorates were abolished, two electorates were recreated, and six electorates were newly created (including Kapiti).[4]

The main population centres in the electorate were Paraparaumu, Otaki, Raumati and Waikanae, north of Wellington on the Kapiti Coast.[5] The 1977 electoral redistribution saw the electorate move south, and Otaki and Waikanae transferred to the newly created Horowhenua electorate.[6] Waikanae came back to the Kapiti electorate through the 1987 electoral redistribution.[7]

In 1996 with the introduction of mixed-member proportional (MMP) representation, Paraparaumu south of the airport and Raumati went into the Mana electorate, while Waikanae and the rest of Paraparaumu went into the Ōtaki electorate.

HistoryEdit

The electorate changed between National and Labour several times. National's Allan McCready had represented the Otaki electorate since 1960 and when Otaki was abolished in 1972 and the Manawatu electorate moved towards the south and included the town of Levin, McCready transferred to Manawatu.[8][9] Frank O'Flynn of the Labour Party won the 1972 election against National's Barry Brill, but Brill in turn defeated Flynn in 1975.[10] Brill served until 1981 when he was beaten by Labour's Margaret Shields.[11] Shields had initially been declared the winner of the 1978 election but she lost by 83 votes on a magisterial recount.[12]

Shields was defeated by National's Roger Sowry in the 1990 election.[12][13]

The Kapiti electorate was abolished in 1996, and most of its area went to the re-established Otaki electorate. Sowry stood for Otaki, was defeated by Labour's Judy Keall, but remained in Parliament as a list MP.[13]

Members of ParliamentEdit

Key

 Labour    National  

Election Winner
1972 election Frank O'Flynn
1975 election Barry Brill
1978 election
1981 election Margaret Shields
1984 election
1987 election
1990 election Roger Sowry
1993 election
(Electorate abolished in 1996, see Otaki and Mana)

Election resultsEdit

1993 electionEdit

1993 general election: Kapiti[14]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
National Roger Sowry 9,241 38.83 -9.94
Labour Rob Calder 8,203 34.47
Alliance Mike Smith 4,182 17.57
NZ First David Craig Stevenson 1,431 6.01
Christian Heritage John Halsted 506 2.12
McGillicuddy Serious Anthony Church 153 0.64
Natural Law Barbara Stumbles 78 0.32
Majority 1,038 4.36 -2.56
Turnout 23,794 88.96 +0.42
Registered electors 26,745

1990 electionEdit

1990 general election: Kapiti[15]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
National Roger Sowry 11,262 48.77 +6.96
Labour Margaret Shields 9,663 41.84 -12.66
NewLabour Robert Hawke 1,219 5.27
Democrats L F Manning 433 1.87
McGillicuddy Serious S Buchanan 319 1.38
Social Credit K R Squire 195 0.84
Majority 1,599 6.92
Turnout 23,091 88.54 -2.39
Registered electors 26,079

1987 electionEdit

1987 general election: Kapiti[16]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Margaret Shields 11,854 54.50 +4.12
National Roger Sowry 9,094 41.81
Democrats R E Carpenter 656 3.01
McGillicuddy Serious P. Consuela Gunn 143 0.65
Majority 2,760 12.69 -7.80
Turnout 21,747 90.93 -3.11
Registered electors 23,914

1984 electionEdit

1984 general election: Kapiti[16]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Margaret Shields 11,098 50.38 +5.93
National June Oakley 6,584 29.89
NZ Party Robin Harris 3,712 16.85
Social Credit L F Manning 632 2.86
Majority 4,514 20.49 +18.18
Turnout 22,026 94.04 +1.65
Registered electors 23,420

1981 electionEdit

1981 general election: Kapiti[16]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Margaret Shields 9,491 44.45 +1.47
National Barry Brill 8,996 42.13 -0.97
Social Credit Don Briggs 2,861 13.40
Majority 495 2.31
Turnout 21,348 92.39 +18.88
Registered electors 23,106

1978 electionEdit

1978 general election: Kapiti[16]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
National Barry Brill 8,211 43.10 -7.11
Labour Margaret Shields 8,188 42.98
Social Credit R J Collins 2,345 12.31 +6.65
Values V M Harward 305 1.60
Majority 23 0.12 -9.96
Turnout 19,049 73.51 -13.68
Registered electors 25,910

1975 electionEdit

1975 general election: Kapiti[16]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
National Barry Brill 11,068 50.21 +5.77
Labour Frank O'Flynn 8,846 40.13 -8.52
Social Credit R J Collins 1,248 5.66
Values Joan Beaufort 881 3.99 +1.83
Majority 2,222 10.08
Turnout 22,043 87.19 -2.26
Registered electors 25,279

1972 electionEdit

1972 general election: Kapiti[16]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Frank O'Flynn 8,161 48.65
National Barry Brill 7,455 44.44
Social Credit John Harold Arnott 732 4.36
Values Joan Beaufort 363 2.16
New Democratic John Robert Vincent 62 0.36
Majority 706 4.20
Turnout 16,773 89.45
Registered electors 18,751

NotesEdit

  1. ^ McRobie 1989, p. 111.
  2. ^ a b McRobie 1989, p. 115.
  3. ^ McRobie 1989, pp. 112, 116.
  4. ^ McRobie 1989, pp. 111, 115.
  5. ^ McRobie 1989, p. 114.
  6. ^ McRobie 1989, pp. 114–119.
  7. ^ McRobie 1989, pp. 122, 126f.
  8. ^ McRobie 1989, pp. 110, 114.
  9. ^ Wilson 1985, p. 214.
  10. ^ Wilson 1985, pp. 185, 224.
  11. ^ Wilson 1985, pp. 185, 234.
  12. ^ a b "Dame Margaret Shields dead". Radio New Zealand. 3 June 2013. Retrieved 23 May 2015.
  13. ^ a b Tunnah, Helen (14 July 2004). "Sowry decides it's time to try a new career". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 17 February 2010.
  14. ^ Part 1: Votes recorded at each polling place (Technical report). New Zealand Chief Electoral Office. 1993. p. 52.
  15. ^ Part 1: Votes recorded at each polling place (Technical report). New Zealand Chief Electoral Office. 1990. p. 53.
  16. ^ a b c d e f Norton 1988, p. 259.

ReferencesEdit

  • McRobie, Alan (1989). Electoral Atlas of New Zealand. Wellington: GP Books. ISBN 0-477-01384-8.
  • Wilson, James Oakley (1985) [First ed. published 1913]. New Zealand Parliamentary Record, 1840–1984 (4th ed.). Wellington: V.R. Ward, Govt. Printer. p. 266. OCLC 154283103.
  • Norton, Clifford (1988). New Zealand Parliamentary Election Results 1946–1987: Occasional Publications No 1, Department of Political Science. Wellington: Victoria University of Wellington. ISBN 0-475-11200-8.