K-factor (fire protection)

In fire protection engineering, the K-factor formula is used to calculate the discharge rate from a nozzle. Spray Nozzles can be fire sprinklers or water mist nozzles, hose reel nozzles, water monitors and deluge fire system nozzles.

K-Factors calculated in Metric units;

The flow rate of a nozzle is given by ,[1][2] where q is the flow rate in litres per minute ( l/m ), p is the pressure at the nozzle in Bar and K is the K-factor is given in units of .

K-Factors have also been calculated and published in US units of PSI and GPM. Within the United States, only US measurements (PSI, and US-Gallons per minute) are used.

Care should be exercised not to intermix K-factors from Metric and Imperial/US units as the resulting factors are not equivalent or interchangeable.


  1. ^ "K-Factor formula". Canute LLP. 18 Jan 2009. Retrieved 2009-01-18.
  2. ^ "How can I use sprinkler K factor information in Pipe Flow Expert?". PipeFlow. n.d. Retrieved 2019-06-06.


External linksEdit

  • k-factor calculator Calculate k-factor for a set of fittings, bends, valves etc. in a piping system.

  1. ^ Sources using US K-Factor for fire protection; Engineermate; http://engineermate.com/Hydraulics/FlowTest/KfactorConvert.htm Building codes; http://buildingcoderesourcelibrary.com/ Sprinkler manufacturer who lists both types of K-Factor; http://www.hdfire.com/products/spray_nozzels/medium_velocity_spray_nozzle.htm