Juncus bufonius

Juncus bufonius, known commonly as toad rush, is a widespread flowering plant species complex in the rush family Juncaceae.[1][2][3]

Juncus bufonius
Juncus bufonius.jpeg
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Monocots
Clade: Commelinids
Order: Poales
Family: Juncaceae
Genus: Juncus
J. bufonius
Binomial name
Juncus bufonius


Its native range is circumpolar throughout tropical, subtropical, subarctic, and temperate climate areas of the Northern Hemisphere and Southern Hemisphere.[4][1][5][6][7][8][9] It is also widely distributed as an introduced species in suitable habitats worldwide. It grows in moist and muddy places, often in wetlands and riparian areas.[10]

In habitats where it is not native and has naturalized it may be considered a weed. The relationship of North America plants to the Eurasian Juncus ranarius is weakly delineated.[3]


Juncus bufonius is an annual monocot that is quite variable in appearance. It is generally a green clumping grasslike rush, with many thin stems wrapped with few threadlike leaves.[3]

The flowers are borne in inflorescences and also in the joint where the inflorescence branches off of the stem. It is a grassy flower folded within tough bracts and sepals.[3] The blooming period is March through May.[10]


Varieties include:[10]

  • Juncus bufonius var. bufonius — North America.[11]
  • Juncus bufonius var. congestus — North America.[12]
  • Juncus bufonius var. occidentalis — North America.[13]
  • Juncus bufonius var. rechingeriSouth Asia.[7]


  1. ^ a b GRIN-Global Web v Taxonomy of Juncus bufonius
  2. ^ USDA: Juncus bufonius
  3. ^ a b c d Jepson: Juncus bufonius
  4. ^ Anderberg, Arne. "Juncus bufonius L." Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Stockholm. Retrieved 1 March 2017.
  5. ^ Efloras.org: Juncus bufonius in Flora of North America
  6. ^ Efloras.org: Juncus bufonius in Flora of China
  7. ^ a b Efloras.org: Juncus bufonius in Flora of Pakistan
  8. ^ Online Field Guide to Common Saltmarsh Plants of Queensland
  9. ^ PIER Profile: Juncus bufonius
  10. ^ a b c Calflora: Juncus bufonius
  11. ^ Calflora: Juncus bufonius var. bufonius
  12. ^ Calflora: Juncus bufonius var. congestus
  13. ^ Calflora: Juncus bufonius var. occidentalis

External linksEdit