John Bennet Lawes
Sir John Bennet Lawes, 1st Baronet, FRS (28 December 1814 – 31 August 1900) was an English entrepreneur and agricultural scientist. He founded an experimental farm at his home at Rothamsted Manor that eventually became Rothamsted Research, where he developed a superphosphate that would mark the beginnings of the chemical fertilizer industry.
Sir John Bennet Lawes, Bt
|Born||28 December 1814|
|Died||31 August 1900 (aged 85)|
|Awards||Albert Medal (1893)|
John Bennet Lawes was born at Rothamsted in modern-day Harpenden near St Albans, Hertfordshire, on 28 December 1814, the only son of John Bennet Lawes, owner of the Rothamsted estate and lord of the manor of Rothamsted. His father died when he was eight years old, so he was raised mostly by his mother Marianne. He was educated at Eton College and at Brasenose College, Oxford, although he didn't graduate. Even before leaving Oxford in 1832, Lawes had begun to interest himself in growing various medicinal plants on the Rothamsted estates, which he inherited from his father upon his death in 1822. Around 1837, he began to experiment on the effects of various manures on plants growing in pots, and a year or two later the experiments were extended to crops in the field in order to free farmers from relying on animals to produce fertilizer. In 1839, an ostrich belonging to him escaped Rothamsted and caused a bit of property damage, although the only person it hurt was the first one to try and capture it. In 1842, he patented a manure formed by treating phosphates with sulphuric acid, and thus initiated the artificial manure industry. In the succeeding year he enlisted the services of Joseph Henry Gilbert, with whom he experimented for more than half a century in raising crops and feeding animals, activities which have rendered Rothamsted famous to scientific agriculturists. In 1854, he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society, which in 1867 bestowed a Royal Medal on Lawes and Gilbert jointly, and in 1882 he was awarded the title of baronet. He died in 1900, passing his manor to his son Charles, and is buried in the churchyard of St Nicholas Church, Harpenden with his wife Caroline (née Fountaine) Lawes (1822-1895).
In 1889, Lawes took measures to ensure the continued existence of the Rothamsted experimental farm by setting aside money solely for that purpose and constituting the Lawes Agricultural Trust. Rothamsted Experimental Station is the oldest agricultural research facility in the world.
- "Sir John Bennet Lawes". Columbia University Press. Retrieved 22 May 2014.
- Holden, Margaret. "A Brief History of Rothamsted Experimental Station from 1843 to 1901". Community Sites. Retrieved 26 May 2014.
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- "School history". Sir John Lawes School & Chris Wright Systems. Retrieved 26 May 2014.
- Anonymous (6 March 1989). "The Story of the Manor of Rothamsted". IACR Rothamsted Experimental Station. Retrieved 26 May 2014.
- "Lawes (entry 44970)". Queensland Place Names. Queensland Government. Retrieved 6 November 2014.
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Lawes, Sir John Bennet". Encyclopædia Britannica. 16 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 300.
- Antonio Saltini, Storia delle scienze agrarie, vol. III, L'età della macchina a vapore e dei concimi industriali, Edagricole, Bologna 1989, 67–97
- Dyke, G.V. John Bennet Lawes: the record of his genius. Taunton, Research Studies Pr.,1991, 482p.
- Dyke, G.V. John Lawes of Rothamsted: pioneer of science, farming and industry. Harpenden, Hoos Press, 1993, 234p.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to John Bennet Lawes.|
- LAWES, John Bennett Sir – DNB entry
- Archive material held by Rothamsted Library
- Correspondence of John Bennet Lawes and Joseph Henry Gilbert 1846 to 1900
- Royal Society citation
- History of Rothamsted Research
- Lawes Agricultural Trust
- Timeline of the life of Sir John Bennet Lawes
|Baronetage of the United Kingdom|