He studied at Halle, and taught at Weimar and Hanau. In 1813 he became chief counselor on education in Frankfurt, in 1815 a member of the Coblence consistory, and in 1818 referendary to the Prussian Ministry of Education in Berlin, a post he kept until 1840, and one in which his great work of reforming the educational methods in the higher schools of Prussia was performed. In 1849 he was appointed director of the Department of Education, an office he resigned ten years afterwards.
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- Conrad Varrentrapp, Johannes Schulze und das höhere preussische Unterrichtswesen (Leipzig, 1889)