Javānmardi (literally, “youngmanliness”) is a Persian word which refers broadly to ideals within the Islamic world linked to chivalry, and particularly spiritual chivalry[1] It is a concept usually discussed within Sufi contexts. It is also referred to (primarily in Arabic) as futuwwa.

Luti and Dash mashtiEdit

The lutis (Persian: لوتیlūtī) were a unique type of masculine men with roots from the Persian Sufi brotherhoods, ayyārs, and futuwwa ideas in 15th-19th century Persia. They had distinct rites, attitudes, clothing, and traits, most notably practicing Pahlevani and zoorkhaneh rituals. Their spiritual and martial model of masculinity was javānmardi, which means the state of being javānmard.[2]

In late 19th century, a unifying national Persian masculine gender identity was gradually formed during the political and social developments and modernization/Westernization in late Qajar (1785-1925), particularly during the Persian Constitutional Revolution (1905-1911), and first Pahlavi periods (1925-1941), which came into conflict with the ideals, norms, traits, and appearance of the lutis; the latter gradually became menacing, counter-normative, deviant, anxiety-provoking, chaotic, violent, and sexually ambiguous.[2]

In popular cultureEdit

Dash Mashti was an influential subgenre of the Iranian cinema that embodied javanmardi ideals and ideas. Most of these films were produced in 1950s in Iran. The best example is considered the 1971 movie Dash Akol.[3][4][5]

In modern IranEdit

In modern times the concept indicates to an idealized configuration of masculinity in Iran. Some historical actors are considered of representing the javanmardi-ethos paradigmatically. The merchant Tayyeb Hajj Reza'i (1912-1963) is nowadays remembered as the "javanmard-e bozorg", i. e. the "great ideal man".[6]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Encyclopaedia Iranica. "Javānmardi".
  2. ^ a b Bell, Robert (27 May 2015). "Luti Masculinity in Iranian Modernity, 1785-1941: Marginalization and the Anxieties of Proper Masculine Comportment" (PDF). All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects. Retrieved 14 August 2019.
  3. ^ Atwood, Blake (2016). Reform Cinema in Iran: Film and Political Change in the Islamic Republic. Columbia University Press. p. 146. ISBN 9780231543149.
  4. ^ Naficy, Hamid (2011). A Social History of Iranian Cinema, Volume 2: The Industrializing Years, 1941–1978. Duke University Press. p. 270. ISBN 9780822347743.
  5. ^ Balslev, Sivan (2019). Iranian Masculinities: Gender and Sexuality in Late Qajar and Early Pahlavi Iran. Cambridge University Press. p. 23. ISBN 9781108470636.
  6. ^ Gölz, "Representation of the Hero Tayyeb Hajj Reza’i. Sociological Reflections on javanmardi.", In Javanmardi: The Ethics and Practice of Persianate Perfection. Edited by Lloyd Ridgeon, 263–80. Berkeley, CA: Ginkgo Press, 2018.