Jalali Castle

The Jalali Castle is located in Kashan, Iran.

Jalali Castle
Kashan, Iran
قلعه جلالی 2.png
Jalali Castle is located in Iran
Jalali Castle
Jalali Castle
Coordinates33°58′22″N 51°26′25″E / 33.9729°N 51.4404°E / 33.9729; 51.4404Coordinates: 33°58′22″N 51°26′25″E / 33.9729°N 51.4404°E / 33.9729; 51.4404
TypeCastle
Site information
ConditionRuins
Site history
Built11. century
Built byMajd ed-Din Abolghassem Kashani[1]
MaterialsCob, mudbrick and brick

HistoryEdit

The walls around Kashan were built originally by Zobeyde Khatun, Harun al-Rashid's wife. She sponsored many developmental activities in the different cities of Islamic countries. Early in the Seljukid era, Malik-Shah I ordered the repair of the walls and the strengthening of two of its castles and that the Jalali castle be built in the western part of the city. According to some historical documents there was a moat around the castle in that time. The castle, tower and ramparts around the city of Kashan have protected its people very well down the centuries. For example, in 1138, Malek-Seljuk sieged Kashan for three months, but because of the strong fortification of Kashan, he could not capture the city and only destroyed some of the neighbouring villages. In 1198, Miajegh, the khwarazmid commander launched a military campaign against Kashan, but after four months ineffective siege of the city, he could only plunder the nearby villages, as Malek Seljuk had done. During these sieges the tower and ramparts were damaged severely because of stones and fire pots thrown by the mangonels of the invaders, but the destruction was repaired each time. In the early Safavid era, the castle was used by outlaws and bandits as their cover and base. Therefore, Ismail I ordered the destruction of the castle, but for unknown reasons the order was not executed, instead a few developmental measures were taken and repairs to the castle were carried out making it stronger and more impregnable. According to the historical documents, the walls of the castle were 4 m thick and 6 m high at that time.[2]

The consequence of the impregnability of the walls was the riot of Mohammad Khan Torkaman in the Safavid era, who misused the weakness of then-government in the time of Mohammad Khodabanda and rebelled and used this strong shelter as his base. Under the cover of the castle, Mohammad Khan Torkaman was a nightmare for the defenseless people of Kashan and the villages around it for 12 years. Torkaman's wickedness even reached the Safavid house and Khayr al-Nisa Begum, the mother of Abbas I, was killed by one of the Torkaman's men in Isfahan. After that Abbas I. put on the royal crown, he immediately suppressed the rebellion and killed Torkaman and his men. After the quelling of the riot, because of peace and stability in the era of Abbas I until the late Safavid age, the inner structures of the castle were destroyed gradually and only the thick wall, towers and Yakhchals, which were built with mudbricks, remained.[2]

The gradual destruction of the castle was not the only historical misfortune of this defense structure. After the Afghans invaded, they damaged the castle severely, but in the era of Nader Shah, it was partly repaired.[2]

The earthquake of 1778 in Kashan destroyed the towers and ramparts of Jalali castle even more, but by the order of Karim Khan the castle was repaired again by the governor of Kashan, Abdolrazzagh Khan and two gates were added to the five gates of the castle. The moat, which was dug again around the castle was the most important cause of Agha Mohammad Khan's failure for capturing the city.[2]

The last battle of the castle was during the Persian Constitutional Revolution in the time of Nayeb Hossein Khan Kashi's bandits and his sons.[2]

The most important gate of the castle was the Dolat gate. It was important because of the neighboring buildings like the bazaar and a caravansary.[2]

Because of the contemporary expansion of the city, the neighboring buildings have been destroyed.[2]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Website written in a non-Latin alphabet
  2. ^ a b c d e f g 'Hosseyn Yaghoubi (2004). Arash Beheshti (ed.). Rāhnamā ye Safar be Ostān e Esfāhān(Travel Guide for the Province Isfahan) (in Persian). Rouzane. p. 169. ISBN 964-334-218-2.

External linksEdit