Iyo Province

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Iyo Province (伊予国, Iyo-no kuni) was a province of Japan in the area of northwestern Shikoku.[1] Iyo bordered on Sanuki Province to the northeast, Awa to the east, and Tosa to the south. Its abbreviated form name was Yoshū (予州). In terms of the Gokishichidō system, Iyo was one of the provinces of the Nankaidō circuit. Under the Engishiki classification system, Iyo was ranked as one of the "upper countries" (上国) in terms of importance, and one of the "far countries" (遠国) in terms of distance from the capital. The provincial capital was located in what is now the city of Imabari, but its exact location is still unknown. The ichinomiya of the province is the Ōyamazumi Shrine located on the island of Ōmishima in what is now part of Imabari.[2] The people spoke Iyo dialect.

Map of Japanese provinces (1868) with Iyo Province highlighted
Hiroshige ukiyo-e "Iyo" in "The Famous Scenes of the Sixty States" (六十余州名所図会), depicting the port city of Saijō

History edit

Iyo Province was formed by the Ritsuryo reforms by combining the territories of the Iyo-no-kuni no miyatsuko (伊余国造), who ruled a territory centered on what is now the city of Iyo and town of Masaki with Kumi Province, Kazehaya Province, Touma Province, and Koichi Province each ruled by its own kuni no miyatsuko. The Geiyo Islands in the Seto Inland Sea were considered part of Aki Province into the Edo Period. During the Heian period, the coastal areas of the province were part of the stronghold of Fujiwara no Sumitomo, who led a rebellion against Imperial authority. During the Muromachi period, a branch of the Saionji family was appointed as shugo by the Ashikaga shogunate, but was constantly being invaded his more powerful and aggressive neighbors. The Saionji survived by the fluid loyalties and fierce resistance, but were eventually overcome by Chōsokabe Motochika, who was in turn overthrown by the forces of Toyotomi Hideyoshi. [3] Under the Tokugawa shogunate, the province was divided into several feudal domains.

Bakumatsu period domains
Name Clan Type kokudaka
  Iyo-Matsuyama Domain Hisamatsu-Matsudaira clan Shinpan 150,000 koku
  Uwajima Domain Date clan Tozama 100,000 koku
  Iyo-Yoshida Domain Date clan Tozama 30,000 koku
  Ōzu Domain Katō clan Tozama 66,000 koku
  Niiya Domain Katō clan Tozama 10,000 koku
  Imabari Domain Hisamatsu-Matsudaira clan Fudai 35,000 koku
  Saijō Domain Matsudaira clan Shinpan 30,000 koku
  Komatsu Domain Hitotsuyanagi clan Tozama 10,000 koku

Per the early Meiji period Kyudaka kyuryo Torishirabe-chō (旧高旧領取調帳), an official government assessment of the nation’s resources, the province had 964 villages with a total kokudaka of 434,408 koku. Iyo Province consisted of the following districts:

Districts of Iyo Province
District kokudaka villages status Currently
Uma (宇摩郡) 22,364 koku 56 villages Tenryō (18); Imabari (18), Saijō (11), Tenryō/Saijō (4), Tenryō/Imabari (1) Dissolved, now Saijō, Shikoku-chūō
Nii (新居郡) 36,694 koku 53 villages Tenryō (6); Komatsu (4), Saijō (43), Dissolved; now Saijō, Niihama
Shūfu (周敷郡) 23,142 koku 38 villages Iyo-Matsuyama (25), Komatsu (9), Saijō (2), Matsuyama/Komatsu (1), Komatsu/Saijō (1) Dissolved; now Saijō, Tōon
Kuwamura (桑村郡) 14,650 koku 29 villages Tenryō (4); Iyo-Matsuyama (23); Tenryō/Matsuyama (1) Dissolved; now Saijō
Ochi (越智郡) 46,790 koku 106 villages Tenryō (8); Imabari (83); Iyo-Matsuyama (17) merged into Ōchi District on April 18, 1896, now Imabari, Kamijima
Noma (野間郡) 16,587 koku 29 villages Iyo-Matsuyama (29) merged into Ōchi District on April 18, 1896; now Imabari
Kazahaya (風早郡) 18,351 koku 84 villages Tenryō (2); Iyo-Matsuyama (78); Ozu (4); Matsuyama/Ozu (1) Dissolved, now Matsuyama
Wake (和気郡) 16,345 koku 25 villages Iyo-Matsuyama (25) Dissolved, now Matsuyama
Onsen (温泉郡) 22,824 koku 36 villages Iyo-Matsuyama (36) Dissolved, now Matsuyama, Toon
Kume (久米郡) 17,554 koku 32 villages Iyo-Matsuyama (32) Dissolved, now Matsuyama, Toon
Ukena (浮穴郡) 38,834 koku 102 villages Iyo-Matsuyama (48); Ozu (46), Niiya (7); Matsuyama/Ozu (1); Ozu/Niiya (1) Ozu, Seiyo, Uchiko, Iyo, Matsuyama, Toon, Tobe
Iyo (伊予郡) 27,949 koku 41 villages Iyo-Matsuyama (22); Ozu (18), Niiya (2); Matsuyama/Ozu (1); Ozu/Niiya (1) Masaki, Tobe, Iyo
Kita (喜多郡) 33,491 koku 83 villages Ozu (82), Niiya (4); Ozu, Iyo, Seiyo, Naishi
Uwa (宇和郡) 98,828 koku 250 villages Uwajima (140), Iyo-Yoshida (72); Uwajima, Seiyo, Ozu, Naishi

Following the abolition of the han system in 1871, Iyo Province became Ehime Prefecture.

Gallery edit

Notes edit

  1. ^ Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2005). "Tosa" in Japan Encyclopedia, p. 988, p. 988, at Google Books.
  2. ^ "Nationwide List of Ichinomiya", p. 3.; retrieved 2011-08-09
  3. ^ Nakayama, Yoshiaki (2015). 江戸三百藩大全 全藩藩主変遷表付. Kosaido Publishing. ISBN 978-4331802946.(in Japanese)

References edit

External links edit

  Media related to Iyo Province at Wikimedia Commons