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Ivan Mikhailovich Chistyakov
|Born||27 September 1900|
Otrubnevo, Slavkovskoy volost, Kashinsky Uyezd, Tver Governorate, Russian Empire
|Died||7 March 1979 (aged 78)|
Moscow, Soviet Union
|Years of service||1918–1968|
|Awards||Hero of the Soviet Union|
He served as a division and army commander during World War II. He began his military career fighting for the Bolsheviks against the White Movement. He became a major general in January 1942 and a lieutenant general in January 1943. As part of the 1st Baltic Front, he participated in the campaign to free Lithuania from Nazi occupation.
Early life and Russian Civil WarEdit
Chistyakov was born on 27 September 1900 in the village of Otrubnevo, Slavkovskoy volost, Kashinsky Uyezd, Tver Governorate. During the Russian Civil War, he joined the Red Army on 1 May 1918, serving as a Red Army man and junior commander in the 1st Tula Volunteer Regiment. With the regiment, Chistyakov fought in the suppression of an uprising in Yazkovskoy volost, Tula Governorate, and from November fought against the White forces of Anton Denikin and Pyotr Krasnov in Voronezh Governorate. Between April and July 1919 he was on leave due to illness before being appointed a Red Army man in the 11th Reserve Battalion at Saratov. Chistyakov studied at the Commanders' Machine Gun School at Saratov from December 1919; the school was transferred to Novocherkassk in March 1920. Upon graduation in June, Chistyakov was sent to the 1st Reserve Regiment of the Reserve Brigade in Rostov-on-Don.
Transferred to the 124th Rifle Regiment of the 14th Rifle Division in August, he successively served with the latter as an assistant platoon commander, platoon starshina, and platoon commander. With the regiment, he fought as part of the 9th Army in the North Caucasus. From November, the regiment fought in the suppression of the uprising of Najmuddin Gotsinsky in Dagestan, participating in heavy fighting near the aul of Aymaki and on the Botlikh direction.
Chistyakov was assigned to accompany the staff of the Caucasian Front during the relocation of the latter from Rostov-on-Don to Tiflis in May 1921, then transferred to became a platoon commander with the 1st Dagestan Brigade, stationed in Temir-Khan-Shura, in late June. The brigade was subsequently reorganized as a regiment and became the 37th Rifle Regiment of the 13th Dagestan Rifle Division in July 1922. Chistyakov served with the latter for roughly fifteen years, as a platoon commander, head of the regimental machine gun detachment, machine gun company commander, machine gun battalion commander, and assistant to the regimental commander for drill units. During this period, he was repeatedly sent to various Commanders' Improvement Courses: between June and July 1922 the 13th Rifle Division commanders' refresher courses, the midlevel commanders' refresher department at the Vladikavkaz Infantry School from September 1924 to August 1925, machine gun training at the Kuskovo testing ground, and the Vystrel course between November 1929 and May 1930.
Chistyakov was a major by August 1936, when he was sent to the Far East to serve as head of the 1st staff department of the 92nd Rifle Division of the Special Red Banner Far Eastern Army. He took command of the division's 275th Rifle Regiment in December 1936, a position made permanent in January 1938. After commanding the 105th Rifle Division of the 1st Separate Red Banner Army from June of the latter year, Chistyakov temporarily served as assistant commander of the army's 39th Rifle Corps from July 1939. He became head of the Vladivostok Infantry School in February 1940, then commanded the 39th Rifle Corps from March 1941. The latter transferred to the newly formed 25th Army in June.
World War IIEdit
After Operation Barbarossa, the German invasion of the Soviet Union, began in late June, Chistyakov remained in the Far East with the corps, covering the Soviet-Manchurian border in Primorye. Sent to the Western Front in November, he was appointed commander of the 64th Separate Rifle Brigade, transferring to command the 8th Guards Rifle Division in January 1942. Chistyakov led both units during the Battle of Moscow and in April 1942 took command of the 2nd Guards Rifle Corps, part of the Northwestern and then Kalinin Fronts. He was appointed commander of the 1st Guards Army of the Don Front in September, but quickly transferred to command the 21st Army in October.
Chistyakov led the 21st Army in the Battle of Stalingrad. The army was converted into the 6th Guards Army for its actions in the battle; he would command it for the rest of the war in Europe. On 28 June 1944 he was promoted to colonel general. He was made a Hero of the Soviet Union on 22 July 1944.
After the end of the war, Chistyakov continued to command the 25th Army. He transferred to command the 5th Army in the Primorsky Military District during February 1947, and studied at Higher Academic Courses at the Voroshilov Higher Military Academy from 20 April 1948 to 1 April 1949. After commanding the 28th Army of the Belorussian Military District after his completion of the course, Chisyakov transferred to the Group of Soviet Occupation Forces in Germany to command the 8th Guards Army in December 1953. He became first deputy commander of the Transcaucasian Military District in September 1954, and transferred to the Ground Forces Inspectorate of the Main Inspectorate of the Ministry of Defense as a general-inspector in July 1957. He retired on 4 July 1968, and lived in Moscow until his death on 7 March 1979.
Awards and honorsEdit
Chistyakov received the following awards and decorations:
- Hero of the Soviet Union
- Two Orders of Lenin
- Five Orders of the Red Banner
- Three Orders of Suvorov (Two 1st class, one 2nd class)
- Two Orders of Kutuzov, 1st class
- Foreign orders and medals
- Beloborodov, Afanasy, ed. (1963). Военные кадры Советского государства в Великой Отечественной войне 1941 – 1945 гг [Military Leaders of the Soviet State in the Great Patriotic War 1941–1945] (in Russian). Moscow: Voenizdat.
- Tsapayev, D.A.; et al. (2014). Великая Отечественная: Комдивы. Военный биографический словарь [The Great Patriotic War: Division Commanders. Military Biographical Dictionary] (in Russian). 5. Moscow: Kuchkovo Pole. ISBN 978-5-9950-0457-8.
- Vozhakin, Mikhail Georgievich, ed. (2005). Великая Отечественная. Командармы. Военный биографический словарь [The Great Patriotic War: Army Commanders: Military Biographical Dictionary] (in Russian). Moscow: Kuchkovo Pole. ISBN 5860901135. pp 261–262
- Герои и подвиги. — М.: Воениздат, 1986. — Кн. 8.
- Герои Советского Союза: Краткий биографический словарь / Пред. ред. коллегии И. Н. Шкадов. — М.: Воениздат, 1988. — Т. 2 /Любов — Ящук/. — 863 с. — 100 000 экз. — ISBN 5-203-00536-2.
- Галицкий К. Н. Годы суровых испытаний. 1941—1944 (записки командарма) — М.: Наука, 1973.
- Чистяков Иван Михайлович on the website of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation