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Inverness Burghs (UK Parliament constituency)

Inverness Burghs was a district of burghs constituency of the House of Commons of the Parliament of Great Britain (at Westminster) from 1708 to 1801 and of the Parliament of the United Kingdom (also at Westminster) from 1801 to 1918. It elected one Member of Parliament (MP).

Inverness Burghs
Former District of burghs constituency
for the House of Commons
Major settlementsInverness, Fortrose, Forres, Nairn
17081918
Number of membersOne
Replaced byInverness, Moray and Nairn and Ross and Cromarty
Created fromInverness, Forres, Fortrose and Nairn

There was also, 1708 to 1918, the Inverness-shire constituency, which was, as its name implies, a county constituency.

Contents

CreationEdit

The British parliamentary constituency was created in 1708 following the Acts of Union, 1707 and replaced the former Parliament of Scotland burgh constituencies of Inverness, Forres, Fortrose and Nairn.

BoundariesEdit

As first used in the 1708 general election Inverness Burghs consisted of four burghs: Inverness in the county of Inverness, Fortrose in the county of Ross, Forres in the county of Elgin and Nairn in the county of Nairn.

For the 1832 general election, as a result of the Representation of the People (Scotland) Act 1832, the boundaries of burghs for parliamentary election purposes ceased to be necessarily those for other purposes.

For the 1918 general election, as a result of the Representation of the People Act 1918, the component burghs of Inverness Burghs were merged into three different county constituencies: Inverness into the Inverness constituency, Forres and Nairn into the Moray and Nairn constituency and Fortrose into the Ross and Cromarty constituency. By this date, the county of Elgin had become the county of Moray and the county of Ross had been merged with the county of Cromarty to form the county of Ross and Cromarty.

Members of ParliamentEdit

Election resultsEdit

The original electoral system for this constituency gave each of the four burghs one vote, with an additional casting vote (to break ties) for the burgh where the election was held. The place of election rotated amongst the burghs in successive Parliaments. The vote of a burgh was exercised by a burgh commissioner, who was elected by the burgh councillors.

The first direct election in Inverness Burghs was in 1832. The votes from qualified electors, in each burgh, were added together to establish the result.

Unless otherwise indicated, the primary source for the results was Craig. Candidates identified by Craig as Conservatives, in the 1832-1835 Parliament, are listed as Tories. In results for elections before the formal creation of the Liberal Party, shortly after the 1859 general election, candidates identified by Craig as Liberals are divided into Whigs and Radicals following Stooks Smith. Craig's registered electorate and vote figures are sometimes different from those of Stooks Smith, but Craig's figures are used below. For details of the books of Craig and Stooks Smith, see the Reference section below.

In terms of change in % votes and swing, the Conservative candidate in 1835 is related to his performance as the Tory candidate in the 1833 by-election. As there were two Tory candidates in 1832, no swing figure was calculated for the 1833 by-election.

1760s1830s1840s1850s1860s1870s1880s1890s1900s1910s

Elections in the 1760sEdit

This is an example of a contested election, before the extension of the franchise in 1832. The election took place in Fortrose, so that burgh's commissioner had the casting vote which decided the election.

General Election 11 April 1768: Inverness Burghs (election at Fortrose)[3]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Non Partisan Hector Munro 3
Fortrose, Nairn
60.0 N/A
Non Partisan Alexander Grant 2
Forres, Inverness
40.0 N/A
Majority 1 20.0 N/A
Turnout 5 (4 electors) 100.0 N/A
Non Partisan hold Swing N/A

Elections in the 1830sEdit

General Election 1832: Inverness Burghs
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Tory John Baillie 250 36.1 N/A
Whig John Stewart 243 35.1 N/A
Tory Charles Cumming-Bruce 193 27.9 N/A
Radical Robert Fraser 6 0.9 N/A
Majority 7 1.0 N/A
Turnout 692 96.8 N/A
Registered electors 715
Tory hold Swing N/A
  • Death of Baillie in April 1833
By-Election 17 May 1833: Inverness Burghs
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Tory Charles Cumming-Bruce 357 55.2 +27.3
Whig John Stewart 290 44.8 +9.7
Majority 67 10.4 +9.4
Turnout 647 90.5 -6.3
Registered electors 712
Tory hold Swing N/A
General Election 1835: Inverness Burghs
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Charles Cumming-Bruce 344 50.3 -4.9
Whig Edward Ellice 340 49.7 +4.9
Majority 4 0.6 -9.8
Turnout 684 90.4 -0.1
Registered electors 757
Conservative hold Swing -4.9 (W to C)
General Election 1837: Inverness Burghs
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Whig Roderick Macleod 336 51.5 +1.8
Conservative James J.R. Mackenzie 317 48.5 -1.8
Majority 19 2.9 N/A
Turnout 653 93.4 +3.0
Registered electors 699
Whig gain from Conservative Swing -1.8 (W to C)

Elections of the 1840sEdit

  • Resignation of Macleod in March 1840
By-Election 4 March 1840: Inverness Burghs
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Whig James Morrison 353 53.5 +2.0
Conservative John Fraser 307 46.5 -2.00
Majority 46 7.0 +4.1
Turnout 660 87.2 -6.2
Registered electors 757
Whig hold Swing -2.0 (W to C)
General Election 1841: Inverness Burghs
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Whig James Morrison Unopposed N/A N/A
Registered electors 757
Whig hold Swing N/A
General Election 1847: Inverness Burghs
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Whig Alexander Matheson 280 58.5 N/A
Radical Richard Hartley Kennedy 199 41.5 N/A
Majority 81 16.9 N/A
Turnout 479 62.1 N/A
Registered electors 771
Whig hold Swing N/A

Elections of the 1850sEdit

General Election 1852: Inverness Burghs[4]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Whig Alexander Matheson Unopposed
Registered electors 825
Whig hold
General Election 1857: Inverness Burghs[4]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Whig Alexander Matheson 382 53.3 N/A
Conservative Alexander Campbell 335 46.7 N/A
Majority 47 6.6 N/A
Turnout 717 84.0 N/A
Registered electors 854
Whig hold Swing N/A
General Election 1859: Inverness Burghs[4]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Alexander Matheson 410 57.2 +3.9
Conservative Alexander Campbell 307 42.8 −3.9
Majority 103 14.4 +7.8
Turnout 717 82.0 -2.0
Registered electors 874
Liberal hold Swing +3.9

Elections of the 1860sEdit

General Election 1865: Inverness Burghs[4]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Alexander Matheson Unopposed
Registered electors 1,022
Liberal hold
General Election 1868: Inverness Burghs[4]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Aeneas Mackintosh Unopposed
Registered electors 1,995
Liberal hold

Elections of the 1870sEdit

General Election 1874: Inverness Burghs[4]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Independent Liberal Charles Fraser-Mackintosh[5] 1,134 55.9 N/A
Liberal Aeneas William Mackintosh 879 43.3 N/A
Conservative Angus Mackintosh[6] 16 0.8 N/A
Majority 255 12.6 N/A
Turnout 2,029 83.9 N/A
Registered electors 2,419
Independent Liberal gain from Liberal Swing N/A

Elections in the 1880sEdit

General Election 1880: Inverness Burghs[4]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Charles Fraser-Mackintosh Unopposed
Registered electors 2,990
Liberal gain from Independent Liberal
General Election 1885: Inverness Burghs[7]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Robert Finlay 1,709 52.5 N/A
Independent Liberal (Crofters) Walter McLaren 1,546 47.5 N/A
Majority 163 5.0 N/A
Turnout 3,255 91.5 N/A
Registered electors 3,556
Liberal hold Swing N/A
  • Note (1886): Shortly before the 1886 general election, the Liberal Party split. Finlay joined the new Liberal Unionist Party.
General Election 1886: Inverness Burghs[7]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Unionist Robert Finlay 1,619 54.6 N/A
Liberal Robert Peel 1,346 45.4 -7.1
Majority 273 9.2 N/A
Turnout 2,965 83.4 -8.1
Registered electors 3,556
Liberal Unionist gain from Liberal Swing N/A

Elections of the 1890sEdit

General Election 1892: Inverness Burghs[7]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Gilbert Beith 1,615 50.8 +5.4
Liberal Unionist Robert Finlay 1,562 49.2 -5.4
Majority 53 1.6 N/A
Turnout 3,177 85.3 +1.9
Registered electors 3,724
Liberal gain from Liberal Unionist Swing +5.4
General Election 1895: Inverness Burghs[7]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Unionist Robert Finlay 1,846 53.6 +4.4
Liberal Henry Bell 1,596 46.4 -4.4
Majority 250 7.2 N/A
Turnout 3,442 86.6 +1.3
Registered electors 3,974
Liberal Unionist gain from Liberal Swing +4.4
Inverness Burghs by-election, 1895[7]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Unionist Robert Finlay Unopposed
Liberal Unionist hold

Elections of the 1900sEdit

General Election 1900: Inverness Burghs
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Unionist Robert Finlay 1,829 55.5 +1.9
Liberal J.A. Duncan 1,469 44.5 -1.9
Majority 360 11.0 +3.8
Turnout 3,298 80.7 -5.9
Registered electors 4,085
Liberal Unionist hold Swing +1.9
  • Note (1900): Change and swing figures are calculated from the 1895 general election.
General Election 1906: Inverness Burghs
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal John Annan Bryce 2,304 56.9 +12.4
Liberal Unionist Robert Finlay 1,746 43.1 -12.4
Majority 558 13.8 N/A
Turnout 4,050 89.1 +8.4
Registered electors 4,547
Liberal gain from Liberal Unionist Swing +12.4

Elections of the 1910sEdit

General Election January 1910: Inverness Burghs
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal John Annan Bryce 2,440 59.7 +2.8
Liberal Unionist Torrance McMicking 1,650 40.3 -2.8
Majority 790 19.4 +5.6
Turnout 4,090 89.9 +0.8
Liberal hold Swing +2.8
General Election December 1910: Inverness Burghs
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal John Annan Bryce 2,367 56.6 -3.1
Liberal Unionist P.J. Ford 1,812 43.4 +3.1
Majority 555 13.2 -6.2
Turnout 4,179 88.6 -1.3
Liberal hold Swing -3.1
  • Constituency abolished (1918)

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Smith, Henry Stooks (1842). The Register of Parliamentary Contested Elections (Second ed.). Simpkin, Marshall & Company. pp. 204–204. Retrieved 2 September 2018.
  2. ^ "The Local Elections". Forres Elgin and Nairn Gazette, Northern Review and Advertiser. 3 August 1847. p. 2. Retrieved 2 September 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)).
  3. ^ The House of Commons 1754-1790
  4. ^ a b c d e f g Craig, F. W. S., ed. (1977). British Parliamentary Election Results 1832-1885 (e-book)|format= requires |url= (help) (1st ed.). London: Macmillan Press. ISBN 978-1-349-02349-3.
  5. ^ "The General Elections". Paisley Herald and Renfrewshire Advertiser. 14 February 1874. p. 1. Retrieved 1 January 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)).
  6. ^ "Inverness Burghs". Dundee Courier. 20 April 1874. p. 2. Retrieved 1 January 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)).
  7. ^ a b c d e Craig, FWS, ed. (1974). British Parliamentary Election Results: 1885-1918. London: Macmillan Press. ISBN 9781349022984.

ReferencesEdit

  • Boundaries of Parliamentary Constituencies 1885-1972, compiled and edited by F.W.S. Craig (Parliamentary Reference Publications 1972)
  • British Parliamentary Election Results 1832-1885, compiled and edited by F.W.S. Craig (Macmillan Press 1977)
  • British Parliamentary Election Results 1885-1918, compiled and edited by F.W.S. Craig (Macmillan Press 1974)
  • The House of Commons 1754-1790, by Sir Lewis Namier and John Brooke (HMSO 1964)
  • The Parliaments of England by Henry Stooks Smith (1st edition published in three volumes 1844-50), second edition edited (in one volume) by F.W.S. Craig (Political Reference Publications 1973)
  • Who's Who of British Members of Parliament: Volume I 1832-1885, edited by M. Stenton (The Harvester Press 1976)
  • Who's Who of British Members of Parliament, Volume II 1886-1918, edited by M. Stenton and S. Lees (Harvester Press 1978)
  • Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs – Constituencies beginning with "I"

See alsoEdit