International non-governmental organization
An international non-governmental organization (INGO) extends the concept of a non-governmental organization (NGO) to an international scope.
NGOs are independent of governments and can be seen as two types, advocacy NGOs, which aim to influence governments with a specific goal, and operational NGOs, which provide services. Examples of NGO mandates are environmental preservation, human rights promotions or the advancement of women. NGOs are typically not-for-profit, but receive funding from companies or membership fees. Many large INGOs have components of operational projects and advocacy initiatives working together within individual countries.
The technical term "international organizations" describes intergovernmental organizations (IGOs) and include groups such as the United Nations or the International Labour Organization, which are formed by treaties among sovereign states. In contrast, INGOs are defined as "any internationally operating organization which is not established by inter-governmental agreement".
An INGO may be founded by private philanthropy, such as the Carnegie, Rockefeller, Gates and Ford Foundations, or as an adjunct to existing international organizations, such as the Catholic or Lutheran churches. A surge in INGOs for economic development occurred during World War II, some of which would later become large organizations like SOS Children's Villages, Oxfam, Catholic Relief Services, CARE International and Lutheran World Relief. The number of INGOs grew from 6,000 in 1990 to 26,000 in 1999, and a 2013 report estimated about 40,000.
Aside from incorporation under national laws, no current formal legal status exists for INGOs, which can lead to complications.
In 1910, the Union of International Associations (UIA) were the first to suggest that a "super-national" status be given to international organizations with diplomatic intentions without governmental influence. The International Law Association (ILA) modified this, adding that this "super-national" organizational status may be adopted[by whom?] for associations formed for no profit.
The main focus of INGOs is to provide relief and developmental aid to developing countries. Health-related projects such as HIV/AIDS awareness, prevention and treatment, clean water, and malaria prevention—and education-related projects such as schools for girls and providing books—help to provide the social services that the country's government does not provide. International non-governmental organizations are some of the first responders to natural disasters, like hurricanes and floods, or crises that need emergency relief. Other organizations, like the International Justice Mission, are working to make judicial systems more effective and legitimate. Still others, such as those promoting micro-finance and education, directly impact citizens and communities by developing skills and human capital while encouraging citizen empowerment and community involvement.
NGOs, in general, account for over 15% of total international development aid, which is linked to economic development. As of 2007, aid (partly contributed to by INGOs) over the past thirty years is estimated to have increased the annual growth rate of the bottom billion by one percent.
Given they are usually supported by donations, a popular concern about INGOs is where the money goes and whether it is spent efficiently. High administrative costs can be an indication of inefficiency, enrichment of employees at the expense of beneficiaries, embezzlement or misdirection of funds to corrupt local officials or dictatorship. Numerous attempts have been made to remedy the accountability of INGOs surrounding where and for what their money is being used. Websites like Charity Navigator and GiveWell attempt to provide transparency as to how much goes to administrative costs, what activities money is spent on, whether more donations would be helpful, and how cost-effective the activities are compared to other charities or potential activities.
Another criticism is that many of the people benefiting from INGOs have no way to influence those activities and hold the organizations accountable. (for example by threatening to withhold donations). Some charitable organizations solicit the participation of local communities to avoid problems related to intercultural competence, and avoid unintended consequences due to lack of buy-in or lack of knowledge about local conditions.
In March 2015, the European Journal of International Relations criticized the impact of INGOs on government decision-making, claiming they are slowing integration of developing countries into the global economy.
Notable international NGOsEdit
Multiple interdisciplinary projectsEdit
- Danish Refugee Council
- Koyamada International Foundation
- Mercy Corps
- Narayan Seva Sansthan
- Save the Children
- SOS Children's Villages
- World Vision International
- Plan International
- Charity: water
- Doctors Without Borders
- Eye Care Foundation (ECF)
- The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria
- HealthRight International
Children and youthEdit
- Compassion International
- International Federation of Catholic Parochial Youth Movements (FIMCAP)
- Reggio Children Foundation
- Save the Children International
- SOS Children's Villages
- World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts (WAGGGS)
- World Organization of the Scout Movement (WOSM)
- World Vision International
- European Association of History Educators
- Junior Achievement
- The Library Project
- OpenmindProjects- INGO
- Human Rights Watch
- Amnesty International
- Commonwealth Human Rights Initiative
- Friends of Peoples Close to Nature
- Humanists International
- International Christian Concern
- International Federation for Human Rights
- Survival International
- International POPs Elimination Network
- International Union for Conservation of Nature
- World Wide Fund for Nature
Space and technologyEdit
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- Ahmed, Shamima; Potter, David M. (2006). NGOs in international politics. Bloomfield, CT: Kumarian Press. ISBN 9781565493469. OCLC 732955747.
- Ben-Ari, Rephael Harel (2013). The Legal Status of International Non-Governmental Organizations: Analysis of Past and Present Initiatives (1912-2012). Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. ISBN 9789004254367.
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- Collier, Paul. 2007. The Bottom Billion: Why the Poorest Countries are Failing and What Can Be Done About It. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. (p.100).
- Collingwood, Vivien; Logister, Louis (April 2005). "State of the Art: Addressing the INGO 'Legitimacy Deficit'". Political Studies Review. 3 (2): 175–192. doi:10.1111/j.1478-9299.2005.00022.x.
- Crack, Angela M. (2013-04-01). "INGO Accountability Deficits: The Imperatives for Further Reform". Globalizations. 10 (2): 293–308. doi:10.1080/14747731.2013.786253. ISSN 1474-7731.
- Ebrahim, A.: 2003, 'Accountability in Practice: Mechanisms for NGOs', World Development 31(5), 813-829.
- Pinheiro, Diogo; Chwieroth, Jeffrey M.; Hicks, Alexander (2014-05-21). "Do international non-governmental organizations inhibit globalization? The case of capital account liberalization in developing countries". European Journal of International Relations. 21 (1): 146–170. doi:10.1177/1354066114523656. ISSN 1354-0661.
- Atack Iain 1998. "Four Criteria of Development NGO Legitimacy," in World Development 27(5), pp. 855–864.
- Collier, Paul 2007. "Aid to the Rescue?," in The Bottom Billion: Why the Poorest Countries are Failing and What Can Be Done About It, pp. 99–123. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.
- Haugen, Gary; Boutros, Victor (2010). "And Justice for All: Enforcing Human Rights for the World's Poor". Foreign Affairs. 89 (3): 51–62.
- Singer, Peter 2009. "How Can You Tell Which Charities Do It Best?," in The Life You Can Save, pp. 82–125. New York: Random House.