Individual savings account

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An individual savings account (ISA; /ˈsə/) is a class of retail investment arrangement available to residents of the United Kingdom. First introduced in 1999, the accounts have favourable tax status. Payments into the account are made from after-tax income, then the account is exempt from income tax and capital gains tax on the investment returns, and no tax is payable on money withdrawn from the scheme. Cash and a broad range of investments can be held within the arrangement, and there is no restriction on when or how much money can be withdrawn.[1] Since 2017, there are four types of account: cash ISA, stocks & shares ISA, innovative finance ISA (IFISA) and lifetime ISA. Each taxpayer has an annual investment limit (£20,000 as of 2019–20) which can be split among the four types as desired. Additionally, children under 18 may hold a junior ISA, with a different annual limit.

Until the lifetime ISA was introduced in 2017, ISAs were not a specific retirement investment, but any type can be a useful tool for retirement planning alongside pensions.[2][3]

OriginsEdit

ISAs were introduced on 6 April 1999, replacing the earlier personal equity plans (PEPs; very similar to a Stocks and Shares ISA) and Tax-Exempt Special Savings Accounts (TESSAs; very similar to a Cash ISA). Other tax-advantaged savings that predate ISAs include many offered by National Savings and Investments, a state-owned institution which has in the past offered a range of other tax-free accounts, in addition to its own ISAs.

Junior ISAs, introduced in 2011, replaced the Child Trust Fund.[4][5]

With a few exceptions, such as from an employee share ownership plan, all investor contributions must be in cash, not kind. Adult ISAs are available to UK residents aged over 16, provided that they have a National Insurance number, but individuals between 16 and 18 are only permitted to use the adult cash component or can use a Junior ISA.

There are four broad types of adult ISA: cash, stocks and shares, innovative finance (including peer-to-peer lending) and lifetime.

Cash ISAEdit

An account which enjoys tax free status, usually deposit accounts with £85,000 Financial Services Compensation Scheme (FSCS) protection (but client money with £50,000 protection or unprotected money is also permitted; the providers are required to make the protection clear).[6] These are normally offered by banks and building societies but investment firms can also offer them. It is mandatory that money held in a cash ISA be made available on request within 15 days but it is permitted to have a loss-of-interest penalty for this, and this is how term deposits are typically made available.[7]

Help to buy ISAEdit

A help to buy ISA, introduced in 2015, is a form of cash ISA that receives a government bonus if the money is used in paying the deposit on a first home purchase.[8][9] The usual rule that any number of accounts can be held with the same ISA manager applies, and many providers offered the ability to hold both HTB and other cash ISA accounts with current year money in them. However, only one HTB ISA in total could be held so if it was desired to put current year money into the HTB ISA, all other cash ISA current year money also had to be paid into a cash ISA with the same provider.

The Lifetime ISA, announced in March 2016, replaces the HTB ISA. HTB accounts could be opened until 30 November 2019 and contributions can continue until 30 November 2029.[10] An account holder can also have a Lifetime ISA, although the government bonus from only one of the accounts per person can be used for a purchase. Transfers from HTB to Lifetime ISA were allowed from the 2017-18 tax year, with transitional arrangements for that year only.[11][12]

Help to buy ISAs have been criticised:

  • Some accounts were promoted with the implication that the bonus could be put towards the deposit on a house purchase, but the bonus is only available on completion of the sale,[10] and thus normally has the effect of reducing the size of the buyer's mortgage.[13]
  • It was reported that the scheme – which by mid-2017 had cost taxpayers some £10 billion – had done little to increase the supply of new-build homes, and instead housebuilders had increased prices and thus their profits.[14]

Stocks and shares ISAEdit

Investors' money is invested in 'qualifying investments', which are:[15]

It is mandatory that money held in a stocks and shares ISA be made available on request within 30 days but it is permitted to have a loss-of-interest penalty for this.[7]

Innovative finance ISAEdit

Innovative finance ISAs (IF ISAs or IFISAs) became available from 6 April 2016.[17] They are similar to cash and S&S ISAs but designed to be used for peer-to-peer lending investments, which were not previously eligible to be held in an ISA. Only platforms with full FCA authorisation (and ISA manager status) are eligible to offer IF ISAs; at launch this barred all major existing platforms because they were awaiting authorisation, leaving just eight at the time relatively minor platforms available and 86 awaiting approval.[18] Equity-based crowdfunding, although similar to peer-to-peer lending, is not included in the eligible products for this type of ISA.[19]

From 1 November 2016 many transferable debentures including debt securities and bonds became eligible for inclusion provided they are issued by a company or charity. They can be included whether offered via a P2P platform or not.[20][21]

The same rules with respect to subscription limits and transfers are applicable to the IF ISA as other adult ISAs, including the restrictions of current year money going to only one ISA manager, and an unrestricted number of managers for past year money.[22]

Lifetime ISAEdit

In the 2016 Budget it was announced that a lifetime ISA would be introduced from 6 April 2017 as a more flexible way to save for both home purchase and retirement. Only those aged 18 to 40 can open an account, and at the end of the tax year (or when used for purchase) a 25% bonus on contributions of up to £4,000 a year will be paid. The £4,000 is part of the overall ISA annual allowance, not in addition to it. On reaching age 50, no more money can be added to the account and eligibility for the 25% bonus ceases, but the account will still earn interest or investment returns.[23]

Permitted investments are as for cash or S&S ISAs, and as for them any number of accounts is allowed, but only one account can hold current year money. After the account has been open for at least 12 months, the money can be used for a first home purchased with a mortgage and priced up to £450,000; the money is paid to the conveyancer and can be returned to the ISA if the sale does not complete.

Money can be withdrawn on buying a first home, or after reaching age 60. A person who is diagnosed with a medical condition giving a life expectancy of under one year can withdraw the full amount including bonus without penalty at any age, using the definition in the similar pension law. Any other withdrawal, including transfers to another type of ISA, incurs a 25% charge.[23] The accounts have the same inheritance tax treatment as other ISAs.[24]

Junior ISAsEdit

Junior ISAs were introduced on 1 November 2011 with an initial subscription limit of £3,600, which was increased to £4,368 by the time of the 2019-20 tax year.[25] At age 18 the JISA converts to an adult ISA.[26] Like adult ISAs, JISAs are available in both cash and stocks and shares types. Money cannot be withdrawn until age 18 unless a terminal illness claim is agreed or following closure of the account after the death of the child. A child can open their own account from age 16, otherwise a person with parental responsibility can do it. They are available to those who are:

  • under age 18 and
  • were born on or after 3 Jan 2011 or do not have a CTF account, and
  • are resident and ordinarily resident in the UK, or are a UK Crown servant, married to or in a civil partnership with a Crown servant, or a dependent of a Crown servant.

Unlike an adult ISA a child can only hold a total of one cash ISA and one stocks and shares ISA, including for all money from past years, but transfers of these two accounts can be carried out between providers as for adult accounts. Up to the full JISA limit can be used for any combination of cash and stocks and shares ISA subscriptions. An additional adult cash ISA can be held between 16 and 18. In the year in which a child becomes 18 the full adult and child ISA limits can both be used. Unlike adult ISAs a JISA allows transfers from the S&S form to the cash form.

Each child ISA has a single registered contact, a person with parental responsibility. From age 16 a child can register to be their own contact and this registration cannot normally be reversed. Except in that case and adoptive parents registering, the previous registered contact will be contacted to obtain their consent to a change of contact.

Subscription limitsEdit

There are restrictions on investing in ISAs in each tax year (6 April to the following 5 April) which affect the type of ISA that may be opened and the cumulative amount of investment during the course of that year. The key restrictions are:

  • The limits are per ISA, not per account, so you can have many accounts with current year money at one manager, all within the same overall ISA. This is sometimes called a "split ISA".
  • No more than the annual amount limit can be paid in and the amount that can be in cash used to be restricted in an adult ISA. Any amount not used for cash can be used in other types of ISA.
  • Newly subscribed (paid in) money in the current tax year can only be held in one Individual Savings Account of each type.
    For example, current year cash ISA subscription money can be held in a help to buy account, instant access accounts, fixed rate accounts, variable rate accounts and deposit accounts with the same cash ISA manager in the same overall ISA even though this is five or more accounts. None could be held in any accounts within another cash ISA elsewhere. The introduction of the help to buy cash ISA made this flexibility within one ISA more significant because it can't use the full cash limit.
  • Provided the annual contribution limits are not exceeded significantly HMRC can be expected to forgive one transgression using too many ISA managers/accounts and merely post a letter reminding about the rules after the annual returns from ISA providers reveal the problem.[27] This should not be relied upon, as it is at HMRC's discretion.

These restrictions only apply to money paid in during the current tax year. For adult ISAs an unlimited number of ISA managers' accounts can hold money from past years and it can be freely moved between managers using ISA transfer requests.

Tax year Adult limit (cash, S&S & IF combined) Lifetime ISA limit Junior limit
2015/2016 £15,240 N/A £4,080
2016/2017[28] £15,240 N/A £4,080
2017/2018[29] £20,000 £4,000 £4,128
2018/2019[30] £20,000 £4,000 £4,260
2019/2020[31] £20,000 £4,000 £4,368

Transfer rulesEdit

Transfers between providers are allowed. A transfer from a Cash ISA to another Cash ISA must usually be completed within 15 business days. Any other type of account transfer must usually be completed within 30 days.[32] There are a range of restrictions and workarounds:

  • The transfer must be carried out by the managers. If a saver withdraws the money from the existing manager, the subsequent reinvestment will be treated as a new ISA subscription and is subject to the current year's subscription limit. HMRC allows a single cash ISA self-transfer by withdrawing and redepositing per year. All current year money must be removed from the source account.[33]
  • When transferring it is still necessary to comply with the rule that you can have only one cash ISA manager and one S&S ISA manager in use at the same time with money paid in from the current tax year. Transfer of cash ISA money paid in during the current year must be all of the money if it is to another cash ISA manager. If the transfer is from cash to another type the transfer can be partial but must be to either the first ISA of the year of that type or to the one already used for current year money. After the transfer to the other type the money counts against its limit, not the cash limit.[33]
  • Before transferring stocks from one ISA manager/platform/provider to another it is worth checking that the new provider will accept all the stocks held in your ISA. Providers have different criteria for deciding if a particular stock can or cannot qualify for ISA status within their platform and you may have little choice but to liquidate that stock or withdraw it from the ISA wrapper.
  • For current year money you can transfer from a cash ISA to a S&S ISA then withdraw the money from the S&S ISA and redeposit some or all the money into another cash ISA, subject to the annual contribution limit. This allows you to circumvent "new money only" restrictions imposed by some cash ISAs that will not accept transfers in, provided you have sufficient annual allowance available.
  • Older products:
    • Whether the original contributions were made to a maxi ISA or a mini ISA has no effect on transfer.
    • Cash within a TOISA (TESSA-only ISA) is treated as a cash component, and can be transferred to a "normal" cash ISA.

Flexible ISA FeaturesEdit

The Flexible ISA Features are optional add-on feature introduced from 6 April 2016 for any adult ISA type that allow withdrawing cash and redepositing it in the same tax year. Providers are not required to implement the flexibility features and do not have to implement them all if they allow some. A person can withdraw an unlimited amount of money from an account and return up to that amount within the same tax year without it counting against the annual subscription limit. A person with £100,000 of past year money could withdraw say £90,000 on 15 April and redeposit it as desired within the tax year. If a transfer is done the firm receiving the transfer is told only the amount of current year allowance available to be used, if any.[34]

If current year money is withdrawn, that money can be used to subscribe to a different type of ISA in the current year without having to replace it into the flexible ISA it was withdrawn from. This is particularly useful if both current and past year money were withdrawn from the same account. Otherwise all past year money would have to be replaced before any current year money would count as being replaced, due to the rules that current year money is the first withdrawn and last replaced. Past year money does have to be replaced before being transferred in the usual ISA transfer way, it must not be directly placed into the new account or it would count as a new current year subscription instead of a replacement.

Tax treatmentEdit

Interest on cash held in an ISA, including stocks and shares ISAs,[35] is not subject to income tax.[36]

Dividends are not subject to additional tax, interest on bonds is not taxed, and capital gains are not taxed (nor may capital losses be used to offset other gains).

There is no need to report interest or other income, capital gains, or trades to HMRC as it is not taxable income. This is a considerable paperwork reduction for active traders or those who may otherwise be required to report their trades because they have total sales value exceeding four times the annual CGT allowance, which outside a tax wrapper would require that all trades be reported even if there is no capital gains tax to pay.

Since the income is not taxable it did not count for age-related personal income tax allowance reduction when that extra allowance existed.

Death of investorEdit

Cash or investments held in ISAs are ordinarily subject to Inheritance Tax when the account holder dies, if their estate is valued above the IHT nil-rate band. Since August 2013 it became possible to hold AIM-listed shares in a stocks and shares ISA, some of which qualify for business relief;[37] in this way a stocks and shares ISA portfolio consisting of these securities can be gifted without being subject to Inheritance Tax, provided the qualifying securities have been held for at least two years upon death.[38]

For deaths of ISA investors on or after 3 December 2014, the surviving spouse or civil partner can apply for an increased ISA allowance in the form of an Additional Permitted Subscription.[39] This allowance is separate from the normal annual allowance, and is based on the value of the deceased's ISA; it is available whether or not the surviving spouse or civil partner inherited the ISA assets.[40]

Fund supermarkets and self-select ISA providersEdit

There is no legal distinction between a fund supermarket and a self-select ISA provider. These are merely marketing terms used by stocks and shares ISA providers to distinguish the type of business that they tend to seek. Firms favouring collective investment business will often call themselves fund supermarkets, while firms who focus on share dealing will often call themselves self-select ISA providers. A firm can freely offer all types of permitted investment, regardless of its name, and many do. Others choose to offer only collective investment funds. An individual may not be the provider for their own ISA.[15]

Except for fund houses, it is usual for providers to offer the facility to hold funds managed by many different organisations.

Prior to the effect of the Retail Distribution Review it was normal for S&S providers to be paid by fund managers out of their usual charges, though some may have both explicit dealing charges and collect the commission while others may make charges and refund all commission. This is now prohibited for new customers who must be charged a fee instead. In the current transition period existing customers may be able to hold a mixture of commission paying investments and the "clean" versions that do not pay commission, perhaps paying a platform fee only for the clean portion. Some providers have chosen to be clean only. Some commission may be rebated to customers but this is not required.

Examples of ISA providers that have been identified as good by The Lang Cat and Investors Chronicle[41] are in order of mention Hargreaves Lansdown's Vantage Service, AJ Bell Youinvest, Charles Stanley Direct, Bestinvest's Online Investment Service, Barclays Stockbrokers, TD Direct Investing (since bought by Interactive Investor), Alliance Trust Savings, Interactive Investor and The Share Centre.

ChargesEdit

The ISA cash component normally has no disclosed charges. The company can make money from the differences between its deposit and lending rates, fees, differences between wholesale and retail deposit rates or other means. For example, Hargreaves Lansdown quoted a 0.8% profit margin on cash held in its Vantage platform in spring 2014. Some providers charge a fee for transferring to another provider.

The built-in annual "re-registering" of an ISA may attract a fee which may be automatically extracted from an account, though this is normally done only by firms specialising in share deals, not those using funds or both funds and shares.

Stocks and shares ISA fund supermarkets often reduce some or all of the initial and annual charges made by fund houses to below the level paid when purchasing direct from the fund provider, often to zero initial charge. Some providers levy dealing charges even for fund transactions, typically firms desiring direct share investments more than fund investments. Dealing charges for shares are normal even from providers that do not charge for fund transactions. Firms that primarily focus on fund transactions tend to have higher share dealing charges than providers specialising in share transactions.

HistoryEdit

Past subscription limitsEdit

Tax year Cash limit Stocks & shares limit Total subscription limit Junior ISA limit
1999/2000 to
2007/2008 (mini)
£3,000 £4,000 £7,000 not available
1999/2000 to
2007/2008 (maxi)
£3,000 £7,000 £7,000 not available
2008/2009[42] £3,600 £7,200 £7,200 not available
2009/2010 £3,600 (£5,100 for over 50s from 6 Oct 2009[43]) £7,200 £7,200 (£10,200 for over 50s) not available
2010/2011[44] £5,100 £10,200 £10,200 not available
2011/2012[45] £5,340 £10,680 £10,680 £3,600[26]
2012/2013[26] £5,640 £11,280 £11,280 £3,600
2013/2014 £5,760 £11,520 £11,520 £3,720
2014/2015[46]
From 1 July 2014
£5,940
£15,000
£11,880
£15,000
£11,880
£15,000
£3,840
£4,000
2015/2016 to
2016/17
£15,240 £15,240 £15,240 £4,080
2017/2018 £20,000 £20,000 £20,000 £4,128
2018/2019 £20,000 £20,000 £20,000 £4,260

In the March 2010 Budget the then Chancellor of the Exchequer Alistair Darling announced that in future years the limits would rise annually with inflation,[47] rounded to the nearest £120, to ease the arithmetic for those using monthly payment schemes. From 2013–14 the inflation index used was changed from RPI to CPI.

The Chancellor of the Exchequer George Osborne announced in the March 2014 Budget that the adult ISA limit would be increased to £15,000 from 1 July 2014, and the Junior ISA limit to £4,000. From that date savers were allowed to invest the full amount as cash or stocks and shares, or a mix of both. Savers are also able to switch stocks and shares ISAs to cash ISAs.[48]

Restrictions removed from July 2014Edit

Many restrictions were significantly relaxed from 1 July 2014[32] and the branding[49] "New ISA" was introduced for this batch of changes:

  • There was a ban on transferring from S&S ISA to cash ISA. Cash to S&S was allowed from 2008/2009. A JISA could always go in both directions.
  • Interest on cash in a S&S ISA is no longer subject to a 20% charge. All cash in a S&S ISA is subject to the FCA client money rules and cash ISA providers can opt in if they wish.[6]
  • Cash can now be held in a S&S ISA even when not intended for investment. There was no specific time limit on how long cash could be held under the old rules, just whether the ISA manager believed the money was being held for future investment.
  • The S&S ISA had a five years remaining at time of purchase restriction on public debt securities such as government, corporate bonds, debentures and Eurobonds. Conditional redemption, such as that based on possible future market performance, was acceptable, as was the borrowing company or government redeeming the security early or exercising of options if there are defaults, insolvency risks or covenant breaches.
  • The S&S ISA had a requirement for a credible possibility of losing at least 5% of the investment, called the 5% test.[50] Investments that failed the test had to be held in a cash ISA instead:
    A cash ISA can still hold qualifying investments that failed the 5% test for holding within a stocks and shares ISA[50] before 1 July 2014[51] when the test was removed but this facility was rarely, if ever, made available by a cash ISA provider. Such investments would not be deposits and would not have the deposit FSCS protection, they may have the £50,000 investment protection instead, the provider must make the situation clear.

Transition and older types of ISAEdit

PEPs became stocks and shares ISAs, with an exemption that allowed them to continue to hold investments that could not be held in a stocks and shares ISA, provided that the investment met the pre-2001 PEP rules.

For some time there were Mini ISAs, Maxi ISAs and TESSA-only ISAs. A Mini ISA could hold cash OR stocks, potentially many if operated by a fund house or platform, while a Maxi ISA could hold cash AND stocks. Any UK resident individual aged 18 or over could invest in one 'maxi' ISA per year, with both components provided by a single financial institution. Alternatively, a person could invest in two 'mini' ISAs, one for each component. The two mini ISAs could be with two different providers if the investor wished.

The TESSA-only ISA was a type of cash ISA funded from a TESSA, another predecessor of the ISA. New TESSAs could not be created after 5 April 1999, so the required five-year term of all TESSAs ended by 5 April 2004. TOISAs were created to allow the original capital (excluding interest) invested in a TESSA (up to £9,000) to be reinvested in a tax-free form.

In the March 2007 Budget the limits for the 2008/9 tax year were increased.[42] From tax year 2008/2009 the distinction between a Mini and Maxi ISA was abolished.

An insurance component was available in both Maxi and Mini ISAs until the 2005/06 tax year. Collective investment funds that once qualified for this component were reclassified as qualifying for either the Cash or Stocks & Shares component.

CAT standardsEdit

In April 1999, the Government introduced a voluntary CAT standard for ISAs (standing for "Charges, Access, and Terms") to make them easier for inexperienced customers to understand and with the intention that lower costs would attract more investors. The standard does not guarantee the investment performance or that investors would buy or be sold the right type of investment.

Many equity funds also meet the CAT standards, but the restriction on costs generally means that these funds are index funds, which require little management and simply follow a given index, such as the FTSE 100 Index.

CAT standards were discontinued by the Treasury on 6 April 2005 following the introduction of the stakeholder product suite, although existing CAT standard ISAs continued on the same terms and conditions.[52]

Similar schemes in other countriesEdit

Non-pension products:

  • Tax-Free Savings Account (TFSA) (Canada)
  • Plan d'épargne en actions [fr] (PEA) (France) has a lifetime contribution limit of €140,000. The tax advantages are lost if money is withdrawn in the first 5 years[53]
  • Livret A (France)
  • Tax-Free Savings Account (TFSA) (South Africa) has an annual contribution limit of ZAR 30,000 and a lifetime contribution limit of ZAR 500,000[54]
  • Индивидуальный инвестиционный счет [ru] (Individual Investment Account, Russia) has an annual contribution limit of RUB 1,000,000. The tax advantages are lost if the account is closed in the first three years. Investments are restricted to securities listed on Russian exchanges. Investors can choose between a 13% tax deduction on contributions to the account or tax-free withdrawal on account closure.[55]
  • Piano Individuale di Risparmio [it] (Individual Savings Plan, PIR) (Italy) has an annual contribution limit of €30,000 and a lifetime contribution limit of €150,000. The tax advantages are lost if money is withdrawn within 5 years. 70% of the investment must be in shares of companies with a presence in Italy and within that, 30% must be in shares of small or medium enterprises; these requirements can be addressed by investing in a PIR-compliant fund. The PIR was introduced in 2017[56]
  • Investeringssparkonto [sv] (ISK) (Sweden) is not completely tax-free as there is a 30% income tax on a (low) deemed income, for which the rate is set annually; for example, for 2020 the tax rate will be 0.375% of assets in the account[57].
  • Aksjesparekonto [no] (Share Savings Account, ASK) (Norway) allows gains and (since 2019) dividends on shares in EEA-domiciled companies and mutual funds to compound tax-free within the account, with tax payable on withdrawals[58].
  • Aktiesparekonto (Share Savings Account, ASK) (Denmark) was introduced in 2019. It had an initial annual contribution limit of DKK 50,000, rising to DKK 200,000 in 2022 and is taxed at a reduced rate of 17% on distributions and on capital gains (realised and unrealised).[59].
  • Osakesäästötili (Equity Savings Account) (Finland) was introduced in 2020. It has a lifetime contribution limit of EUR 50,000 and it is tax free[60].

Pensions:

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "ISAs: Guidance Notes for ISA Managers" (PDF). HM Revenue and Customs. Retrieved 2 June 2014. 4.30... ISA investments ... must not be used as security for a loan
  2. ^ "Isas versus Pensions". Money Observer. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 2 June 2014. personal pensions are more tax-efficient than individual savings accounts (Isas), but Isas are more flexible. However, a good retirement strategy will include both types of tax wrapper
  3. ^ "Should you invest in an Isa, a pension, or both? How to use tax breaks to boost your returns". This is Money. Retrieved 2 June 2014. the Isa vs pension debate is not an all-or-nothing affair. As such, having a balance between the two is probably the best option.
  4. ^ "Child trust fund savings can be moved to Junior Isas". Retrieved 29 May 2015. The schemes were replaced by Junior Isas in November 2011, which across the board offer better interest rates and a far wider selection of investments.
  5. ^ "Child Trust Fund - GOV.UK". www.gov.uk. Retrieved 29 May 2015.
  6. ^ a b "PS14/10: Client money held in Individual Savings Accounts and feedback to CP14/9 and final rules". Financial Conduct Authority. Retrieved 2 June 2014. requiring all investment firms who hold any money within stocks and shares ISAs to hold these sums as client money ... allowing investment firms that manage cash ISAs to opt into the CASS regime and elect to hold money in cash ISAs as client money
  7. ^ a b "Client money held in Individual Savings Accounts: Feedback to CP14/9 and final rules" (PDF). Financial Conduct Authority. Retrieved 2 June 2014. the ISA regulations require customers to be able to withdraw or transfer savings within 15 or 30 days (for cash ISAs or stocks and shares ISAs, respectively)
  8. ^ Shoffman, Marc (20 November 2015). "With two weeks to go, where are the Help to Buy Isa deals?". This is Money. Retrieved 22 January 2020.
  9. ^ "ISA Manager Bulletin 65". HM Revenue and Customs. Retrieved 16 March 2016. From autumn 2015, savers can receive a bonus payment from the government towards their deposit for a first home if they satisfy certain conditions and have saved in a Help to Buy: ISA ... Where an ISA manager’s systems offer a number of products within a single ISA wrapper/account, HMRC do not expect the Help to Buy: ISA rules to prevent a customer using the rest of their annual ISA allowance in other cash ISA products available within the same cash ISA wrapper.
  10. ^ a b "Help to Buy - How does it work?". GOV.UK. Retrieved 22 January 2020.
  11. ^ "Budget 2016". HM Treasury. Retrieved 16 March 2016. 3.12 The Lifetime ISA ... from 6 April 2017 any adult under 40 will be able to open a new Lifetime ISA. They can save up to £4,000 each year and will receive a 25% bonus from the government on every pound they put in. Contributions can continue to be made with the bonus paid up to the age of 50. Funds can be used to buy a first home with the government bonus at any time from 12 months after opening the account, and can be withdrawn from the Lifetime ISA with the government bonus from age 60 for use in retirement. The government will set the limit for property purchased using Lifetime ISA funds at £450,000. ... People can continue to open a Help to Buy: ISA until November 2019, as planned. They can also choose to open a Lifetime ISA, but will only be able to use the government bonus from one of their accounts to buy their first home. During the 2017-18 tax year, those who already have a Help to Buy: ISA will be able to transfer the savings they have built up into the Lifetime ISA and still save an additional £4,000.
  12. ^ "The new lifetime ISA" (PDF). HM Treasury. Retrieved 16 March 2016. Help to Buy: ISA will be open for new savers until 30 November 2019, and open to new contributions until 2029. Savers will be able to save into both a Help to Buy: ISA and a Lifetime ISA ... During the 2017-18 tax year only, those who already have a Help to Buy: ISA will be able to transfer these funds into a Lifetime ISA and receive the government bonus on those savings.
  13. ^ Murray, Amelia (23 August 2016). "Help to Buy Isa shambles: so are these accounts still worth it?". The Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 22 January 2020.
  14. ^ Collinson, Patrick (21 October 2017). "Help to buy has mostly helped housebuilders boost profits". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 22 January 2020.
  15. ^ a b "ISAs: Guidance Notes for ISA Managers" (PDF). HM Revenue and Customs. Retrieved 23 October 2011.
  16. ^ Hyde, Dan (17 July 2013). "Investors free to put Aim shares into ISAs from August". Telegraph.
  17. ^ "Income Tax: Innovative Finance Individual Savings Account and peer to peer loans". Gov.uk. 8 December 2015. Retrieved 14 April 2016.
  18. ^ "Statement on peer-to-peer applications for full authorisation". Financial Conduct Authority. Retrieved 19 April 2016. As at 30 March 2016, eight firms have been fully authorised to operate P2P platforms. There are a further 86 firms awaiting a decision, of which 44 have interim permission
  19. ^ "Draft legislation: Innovative Finance Individual Savings Account and peer to peer loans". HM Revenue and Customs. Retrieved 11 January 2016. a new Innovative Finance Individual Savings Account (ISA) from 6 April 2016 where interest and gains from qualifying peer to peer loans will be eligible for ISA tax advantages ... Peer to peer lending platforms are regulated by the Financial Conduct Authority (FCA) where they carry out activities detailed in Article 36H of the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000 (Regulated Activities) Order 2001 (S.I 2001/544)
  20. ^ "Treasury to allow bonds and other 'debt securities' for Innovative Finance ISA". altfi news. Retrieved 22 August 2016. Investors will be able put their cash into bonds and other debt securities made through p2p and crowdfunding sites within the tax efficient Individual Savings Account (ISA) wrapper from 1 November 2016 ... the ‘debenture’ i.e the bond must be a “transferable” security issued by a company or a charity
  21. ^ "Draft legislation: Innovative Finance Individual Savings Account and debt based crowdfunding". HMRC. Retrieved 22 August 2016. from 1 November 2016 to provide that certain debentures issued by companies and charities and offered via an electronic system (including those offered via a crowdfunding platform) can be held in an innovative finance ISA where they satisfy certain conditions.
  22. ^ "How will transferring old ISA funds into a new IFISA work?". LendingWorks. 2 March 2016. Retrieved 14 April 2016.
  23. ^ a b "Lifetime ISA". GOV.UK. Retrieved 22 January 2020.
  24. ^ "The new lifetime ISA" (PDF). HM Treasury. Retrieved 16 March 2016. 1.18 Where people are diagnosed with terminal ill health, they will be able to withdraw all of the funds (including the bonus) tax-free, regardless of the individual’s age. The definition of terminal ill health will be based on that used for pensions. ... 1.19 The Lifetime ISA will have the same inheritance tax treatment as all ISAs. Upon the death of the account holder, the funds will form part of the estate for inheritance tax purposes. Their spouse or civil partner can also inherit their ISA tax advantages and will be able to invest as much into their own ISA as their spouse used to have, on top of their usual allowance. ... 1.22 The government will also explore with the industry whether there should be the flexibility to borrow funds from the Lifetime ISA without incurring a charge if the borrowed funds are fully repaid; for example, some US retirement plans allow 50% to be borrowed up to a maximum of $50,000.
  25. ^ "Junior Individual Savings Accounts (ISA)". UK Government. Retrieved 9 April 2019.
  26. ^ a b c "HM Treasury confirms higher ISA limits for 2012–13". HM Treasury. 18 October 2011. Retrieved 23 October 2011. subscription limits for Individual Savings Accounts (ISAs) from April 2012 will increase to £11,280 (up to half of which can be saved in cash) ... JISAs will be available from 1 November 2011. Children will be able to have one cash and one stocks and shares JISA at any time, with an overarching annual contribution limit of £3,600
  27. ^ "ISA Bulletin 14: HMRC compliance". HM Revenue and Customs. Retrieved 2 April 2013. those who over-subscribe for one year, but not significantly in excess of the annual subscription limits, receive a letter drawing their attention to the ISA rules and advising them no action will be taken unless they over-subscribe in a later tax year
  28. ^ https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/tax-and-tax-credit-rates-and-thresholds-for-2016-17/tax-and-tax-credit-rates-and-thresholds-for-2016-17#tax-free-savings-account
  29. ^ https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/tax-and-tax-credit-rates-and-thresholds-for-2017-18/tax-and-tax-credit-rates-and-thresholds-for-2017-18#tax-free-savings-account
  30. ^ https://www.gov.uk/individual-savings-accounts
  31. ^ https://www.gov.uk/individual-savings-accounts
  32. ^ a b "The New ISA - Frequently Asked Questions" (PDF). HM Revenue and Customs. Retrieved 2 June 2014. The Government is changing the name to reflect the significantly increased limits and flexibility that will be available to account holders
  33. ^ a b "Could you cash in on this ISA loophole?". Moneywise. Archived from the original on 18 November 2010. Retrieved 24 November 2010. This process of closing one cash ISA and withdrawing the money in order to open a second ISA is known as a self-transfer. Patrick O'Brien, spokesman for HMRC, says: “A single self-transfer is allowed within the ISA rules so this is not a breach at all.” ... when you transfer your current year’s cash ISA subscription into a stocks and shares ISA, that sum of money is treated for tax purposes as if it had always been put into a stocks and shares ISA. This means that you are considered to have not subscribed to a cash ISA in that tax year – leaving you free to open a new cash ISA
  34. ^ "ISA manager bulletin 68". HM Revenue and Customs. Retrieved 11 January 2016. allow ISA savers to replace cash they have withdrawn from their account earlier in a tax year, without this replacement counting towards the annual ISA limit for that year. [also see the draft guidance notes linked from actual bulletin text]
  35. ^ "Five important new ISA rules explained". HL.co.uk. Retrieved 17 January 2017.
  36. ^ "How ISAs work". gov.uk. Retrieved 17 January 2017.
  37. ^ "Business Relief for Inheritance Tax". GOV.UK. Retrieved 13 February 2020.
  38. ^ "AIM IHT ISAs – tax savings". wealthclub.co.uk. Retrieved 17 January 2017.
  39. ^ "Additional Permitted Subscription (APS)". Hargreaves Lansdown. Retrieved 13 February 2020.
  40. ^ "Guidance for ISA managers: additional permitted subscriptions into an ISA". GOV.UK. 19 July 2018. Retrieved 13 February 2020.
  41. ^ "Hargreaves Lansdown: Not perfect but worth it". Investors Chronicle. Retrieved 28 January 2016. ALL ROUNDERS Good: Hargreaves Lansdown ... AJ Bell Youinvest ... SMALL PORTFOLIOS Good: Charles Stanley Direct ... Bestinvest ... Barclays Stockbrokers ... TD Direct Investing ... LARGE PORTFOLIOS: Alliance Trust Savings ... Interactive Investor ... The Share Centre
  42. ^ a b "Rule changes from April 2008". HM Revenue and Customs. Retrieved 24 January 2008.
  43. ^ http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20100407215313/http://www.hm-treasury.gov.uk/d/budget2010_pressnotice2.pdf
  44. ^ "Complete Budget 2009 Report" (PDF). HM Treasury. 22 April 2009. p. 159. Retrieved 22 April 2009. With effect from 6 October 2009, Individual Savings Accounts (ISA) limits will rise to £10,200, up to £5,100 of which can be saved in cash, for those aged 50 and over. The ISA limits will rise to these levels for all individuals with effect from 6 April 2010
  45. ^ http://www.scopulus.co.uk/taxsheets/isa.htm
  46. ^ https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/tax-and-tax-credit-rates-and-thresholds-for-2014-15/tax-and-tax-credit-rates-and-thresholds-for-2014-15
  47. ^ Gammell, Kara (25 March 2010). "Budget 2010: ISA limits will rise with inflation". The Telegraph. Retrieved 2 April 2013. The annual limit on individual savings accounts (ISAs) will rise from £7,200 to £10,200 from next month and the limits will increase each year in line with inflation
  48. ^ Peachey, Kevin (19 March 2014). "Budget 2014: What it means for you". BBC News. Retrieved 27 March 2014.
  49. ^ "It seems an ISA is nicer than a NISA – so we're going to call them ISAs". MoneySavingExpert.com. Retrieved 11 January 2015. HMRC tells us "ISA is the correct term to use in line with HMT Regulations and HMRC Guidelines. NISA is purely a marketing/product/publicity term." ... So from now [14 November 2014], I’ve decided MoneySavingExpert.com is going to revert back to calling it the good old ISA ... and we suspect gradually over the next year to see everyone else who called it a NISA to retrench too
  50. ^ a b "ISA Bulletin 2: Qualifying investments – db x-trackers – Sterling Money Market ETF". HM Revenue and Customs. Retrieved 24 November 2010. investors could be certain (or near certain) of getting back 95 per cent or more of their initial investment. The fund therefore fails the 5 per cent test and is a qualifying investment for cash ISAs, not stocks and shares ISAs
  51. ^ "ISA manager bulletin 57" (PDF). HM Revenue and Customs. Retrieved 28 January 2016. Any investments which did not satisfy the 5 per cent ‘cash-like’ test before 1 July 2014 and are held in a Cash ISA can continue to be held in a Cash NISA after 1 July 2014
  52. ^ "CAT standards". HM Treasury. Archived from the original on 14 July 2009. Retrieved 27 October 2009.
  53. ^ "Plan d'épargne en actions (PEA)". service-public.fr (in French). Retrieved 29 December 2019.
  54. ^ "TFSA Media Statement" (PDF). National Treasury (South Africa). Retrieved 20 December 2019.
  55. ^ "Individual Investment Accounts" (PDF). Moscow Exchange. Retrieved 29 December 2019.
  56. ^ "Piani individuali di risparmio (PIR) - Quello che conta" (in Italian). Comitato per la programmazione e il coordinamento delle attività di educazione finanziaria. Retrieved 20 December 2019.
  57. ^ "Investeringssparkonto - Skatteverket" (in Swedish). Swedish Tax Agency. Retrieved 20 December 2019.
  58. ^ "Share Savings Account (ASK) - The Norwegian Tax Administration". Norwegian Tax Administration. Retrieved 21 December 2019.
  59. ^ "Faktaark aktiesparekonto" (PDF) (in Danish). Ministry of Taxation (Denmark). Retrieved 30 December 2019.
  60. ^ "Parliament approves proposal for new equity saving accounts". Helsinki Times. Retrieved 30 December 2019.

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