Indigenous movements in the Americas
Indigenous people under the nation-state have experienced exclusion and dispossession. With the rise in globalization, material advantages for indigenous populations have diminished. At times, national governments have negotiated natural resources without taking into account whether or not these resources exist on indigenous lands. In this sense for many indigenous populations, the effects of globalization mirror the effects of the conquest in the mid 16th century.
In response, indigenous political movements have emerged in various countries in North and South America. These movements share similarities. Many seek specific rights for indigenous populations. These rights include the right to self-determination and the right to preserve their culture and heritage. Aims differ. One of the main differences is the way in which they organize themselves to meet their objectives. There have been movements in Latin America to unite indigenous populations separated by national borders. The following are examples of groups that have organized in order to be heard on a transnational level. These movements call for indigenous rights to become a universal right to be acknowledged by all countries with indigenous populations.
Coordinator of Indigenous Organizations of the Amazon River Basin (COICA)Edit
This organization coordinates the following nine national Amazonian indigenous organizations:
- Interethnic Association for the Development of the Peruvian Rainforest (AIDESEP)
- Amerindian People’s Association of Guyana (APA)
- Confederation of Indigenous people of Bolivia (CIDOB)
- Coordination of the Indigenous Organizations of the Brazilian Amazon (COIAB)
- Confederation of Indigenous Nationalities of the Ecuadorian Amazon (CONFENIAE)
- Regional Organization of Indigenous Towns of the Amazon
- Federation des Organisations Amerindiennes de Guyane
- Organization Van Inheemsen in Suriname
- Organization of the Indigenous Towns of the Colombian Amazonia
Indian Council of South America (CISA)Edit
The Indian Council of South America was founded in 1980. It is a non-governmental organization that works in consultation with the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations. This council also seeks to maintain relations with international agencies such as UNESCO, FAO, and WHO. One of CISA’s objectives is to promote respect for the right to life, justice, development, peace, and autonomy of the indigenous peoples and Nations. CISA also coordinates an exchange of knowledge, experiences and projects between indigenous peoples and nations in respect to development that will improve their welfare.
International Maya LeagueEdit
One of the most important goals for the Maya League is to return to the Mayan balance that was interrupted with the Spanish conquest of 1524. This group, similar to COICA, works to preserve and inform people about the culture of the Mayan people. This group has reached out to other states like Costa Rica and some of the states in the United States in order to carry out activities in the areas of teaching, research, and services. One of the defining factors about this group is that it does not have any formal leadership roles appointed to any one person. Rather, the Mayan League sticks to its ancestral beliefs that all can participate in decision making activity. Some of the problems that the Maya League seeks to combat are racism, repression, marginalization, and poverty. Currently, there is a large population of Maya living in Guatemala.
Mexico has the most adapted modern Maya peoples today; they are from Mayan Yucatec branch, most of them totally integrated into the Mexican economy, from peasants, retail, handcraft or "Maquiladora" factory workers to doctors, engineers and politicians.
Indigenous organizations according to countryEdit
- Indigenous Association of the Republic of Argentina (AIRA)
- National Organization of Indigenous Peoples of Argentina (ONPIA)
- Belize Indigenous Training Institute
- Caribbean Organization of Indigenous Peoples (COIP)
- Confederation of Indigenous people of Bolivia, previously known as Indigenous Confederation of the East, Chaco, and Bolivian Amazon (CIDOB)
- Sole Syndical Confederation of Rural Workers of Bolivia (CSUTCB)
- National Council of Ayllus and Markas of Qollasuyu (CONAMAQ)
- Organization of Aymara Women of Kollasuyo
- Coordination of the Indigenous Organizations of the Brazilian Amazon (COIAB)
- Coordinating Council of Indigenous Peoples and Organizations of Brazil (CAPOIB)
- Indianist Missionary Council (CIMI)
- Indigenous Council of Roraima
- Pro-Yanomami Commission (CCPY)
- Union of Indigenous Nations of Acre and South of the Amazon (UNI-AC)
- Articulation of Indigenous Peoples of the South Region - Arpin-South
- Assembly of First Nations
- Métis National Council
- Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami
- Native Women's Association of Canada
- Confederation of Aboriginal People of Canada
- Centre for Indigenous Sovereignty
- Congress of Aboriginal Peoples
- First Peoples National Party of Canada
- National Centre for First Nations Governance
- Council of All the Mapuche Lands (CTLTM)
- Nehuen-Mapu Mapuche Association
- Nankuchew Indigenous Association of Nag-Che Territory
- Development and Communications Organization, Xeg-Xeg Mapuche
- National Indigenous Organization of Colombia (ONIC)
- Movement of Indigenous Authorities of Colombia (AICO)
- Organization of Indigenous Peoples of the Colombian Amazon (OPIAC)
- Authorities of Traditional U’wa Indigenous of Boyaca
- Council of Embera Katio Alto Sinu
- Regional Indigenous Counsel of Cauca (CRIC)
- Indigenous Organization of Antioquia
- National Indigenous Table of Costa Rica
- Regional Aboriginal Association of Dikes (ARADIKES)
- Bribri Cabagra Indigenous Association
- Confederation of Indigenous Nationalities of Ecuador (CONAIE)
- Confederation of Indigenous Nationalities of the Ecuadoran Amazon (CONFENIAE)
- Confederation of Peoples of Kichua National of Ecuador (ECUARUNARI)
- National Confederation of Campesino, Indigenous, and Black Organizations (FENOCIN)
- Ecuadorian Federation of Evangelical Indigenous (FEINE)
- Scientific Institute of Indigenous Cultures
- Coordinating Association of Indigenous Communities of El Salvador
- National Salvadoran Indigenous Association
- National Indigenous Coordinating Council of El Salvador
- Coordination of Organizations of the Maya People of Guatemala Saqb’ichill (COPMAGUA)
- National Coordination of Widows of Guatemala (CONAVIGUA)
- National Indigenous and Campesino Coordination (CONIC)
- Maya Defenders
- Rigoberta Menchu Tum Foundation
- Federation of Amerindian Organizations of Guyana (FOAG)
- Amerindian Peoples’ Association of Guyana (APA)
- Civic Council of Popular and Indigenous Organizations of Honduras (COPINH)
- Confederation of Autochthonous Peoples of Honduras (CONPAH)
- National Pluralistic Indigenous Assembly for Autonomy
- National Indigenous Congress (CNI)
- National Coordination of Indigenous Women
- National Confederation of Coffee Grower Organizations (CNOC)
- Organization of Traditional Indigenous Doctors and Midwives of Chiapas (COMPITCH)
- Guerreran Counsel 500 Years of Indigenous Resistance
- Tepeyac Human Rights Center of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec
- Union of Indigenous Communities in the Northern Zone of the Isthmus (UCIZONI)
- Zapatista Army of National Liberation (EZLN)
- Popular Indigenous Council of Oaxaca "Ricardo Flores Magón"
- Communitarian Miskito Nation
- Association of Indigenous Women on the Atlantic Coast (AMICA)
- Indigenous Movement of Jinotega (MIJ)
- National Coordination of Indigenous Peoples of Panama (COONAPIP)
- General Congress of Kuna Culture (CGCK)
- Institute for the Integral Development of Kuna Yala (IDIKY)
- Movement of Kuna Youth (of the General Kuna Congress)
- Ngobe-Bugle General Congress
- Coordination of Indigenous Peoples of the Cuenca of Pilcomayo River
- Native League for Autonomy, Justice, and Ethics
- Permanent Coordination of Indigenous Peoples of Peru (COPPIP)
- Interethnic Association of Development of the Peruvian Jungle (AIDESPEP)
- Native Federation of Madre de Dios River and Streams (FENAMAD)
- El Moviniento Indio Taino de Boriken
- United Confederation of Taino People (UCTP)
- Taino Tribal Nation of Boriken
- Turabo Aymaco Taino Tribe of Puerto Rico
- Consejo General de Tainos Boricanos
- Concilio Taíno Guatu-Ma-cu A Borikén
- Organization of the Indigenous of Suriname
- National Indian Council Venezuela (CONIVE)
- Regional Organization of Indigenous Amazonian Peoples (ORPIA)
Indigenous movements in Latin America by countryEdit
Latin America is primarily known[by whom?] for their growing indigenous rights movement. Groups within countries have done work to publicize indigenous rights in their respective countries.
Transnational movements have helped publicize the indigenous rights movement in Latin America. Trans-national movements regarding indigenous rights could be seen[by whom?] as the whole being greater than the sum of its parts. Many political related movements regarding the rights of indigenous peoples have taken hold particularly in the 1990s due to "time and allies." Political collaboration has been integral for the progress of indigenous peoples. Multilateral agencies and NGO's have been helping to increase leverage for indigenous peoples rights. The first Peruvian president of indigenous origin, Alejandro Toldeo, was elected in 2001. This marked the first time that someone of Indian descent was the ruler since the 1930s. Transnational organizations have been credited for contributing to Cué's victory in Mexico. The Front of Binational Organizations (FIOB), one of the most active indigenous organizations, is credited for this feat. Trans-national movements like the FIOB "represents a broad network of relationships, organizational structures, and cultural traditions." Solidarity is one of the main attributes for the success of trans-national movements.
Global trans-national movements also influence regional movements. For example, since the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous People was passed, there has been progress made for the indigenous rights movement. Trans-national movements aim to enforce these policies through their work with domestic movements throughout the Americas.
Transnational movements have shifted their focus towards environmental rights. As deforestation occurs in areas such as the Amazon, many movements aim to work in solidarity to bring these secondary issues to light. Amazon Watch is one non-governmental organization that aims to publicize the plight of deforestation in the Amazon in regards to the lives of indigenous peoples. Oil drilling is one issue that Amazon Watch fights against. A pipeline spill in the Peruvian Amazon highlights the plight of indigenous protests. Five indigenous communities sought to remediate the polluted sites and gain compensation for damages to their land. This shift has helped to gain more awareness as environmental protection becomes more important in the rights for indigenous peoples. The Dakota Access Pipeline protests is one example of the fight for indigenous rights to sacred land in the United States. More than 40% of the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe live below the poverty line and this pipeline could negatively affect both the environment and well-being of the tribe.
Indigenous rights have largely been ignored throughout Brazil's history. They were considered "second-class citizens" and much of their land was taken away for economic development. Brazilian is also historically known for the "physical and cultural extermination of the indigenous peoples." However, the indigenous movement in Brazil has largely grown since the 1980s. Although policies have been changed to include the rights of the indigenous peoples, it ignores the collective right to their land.
The 2002 Xucuru case in Brazil highlights the role of the state in the struggle of present-day indigenous peoples in Brazil. The Inter-American Commission on Human Rights was asked to safeguard Marcos de Araújo, after they received death threats regarding their right to indigenous land. The state rejected this request because of various reasons. Much of the Indian rights movement in Brazil focus on right to land, and not individual liberties. Although indigenous tribes are marginalized and largely unrepresented in government, Brazil's Articulation of Indigenous People's have staged protests around major cities in Brazil to focus on fighting for territorial rights of the native peoples. The result of this issue shows that "constitutional recognition of indigenous human rights and a multicultural and collectivist perspective does not eliminate the legal and political obstacles to implementing those rights."
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