In-Q-Tel (IQT), formerly Peleus and In-Q-It, is an American not-for-profit venture capital firm based in Arlington, Virginia. It invests in high-tech companies to keep the Central Intelligence Agency, and other intelligence agencies, equipped with the latest in information technology in support of United States intelligence capability. The name "In-Q-Tel" is an intentional reference to Q, the fictional inventor who supplies technology to James Bond.
|Type||Privately held not-for-profit corporation|
|Genre||Technology research, Government (taxpayer) funded Venture capital firm|
|Founded||September 29, 1999(as Peleus)|
|Headquarters||Arlington, Virginia, U.S.|
|Christopher Darby (CEO)|
|Services||Investment in information technology supporting U.S. intelligence capability|
In-Q-Tel has stated that the average dollar invested by In-Q-Tel in 2016 attracts fifteen dollars from other investors.
Originally named Peleus and known as In-Q-It, In-Q-Tel was founded by Norm Augustine, a former CEO of Lockheed Martin, and by Gilman Louie, who was In-Q-Tel's first CEO. In-Q-Tel's mission is to identify and invest in companies developing cutting-edge technologies that serve United States national security interests. According to the Washington post, In-Q-Tel started as the idea of then CIA director George Tenet. Congress approved funding for In-Q-Tel, which was increased in later years. Origins of the corporation can also be traced to Ruth A. David, who headed the Central Intelligence Agency Directorate of Science & Technology in the 1990s and promoted the importance of rapidly advancing information technology for the CIA. In-Q-Tel now engages with entrepreneurs, growth companies, researchers, and venture capitalists to deliver technologies that provide superior capabilities for the CIA, DIA, NGA, and the wider intelligence community. In-Q-Tel concentrates on three broad commercial technology areas: software, infrastructure and materials sciences.
Former CIA director George Tenet says,
We [the CIA] decided to use our limited dollars to leverage technology developed elsewhere. In 1999 we chartered ... In-Q-Tel. ... While we pay the bills, In-Q-Tel is independent of CIA. CIA identifies pressing problems, and In-Q-Tel provides the technology to address them. The In-Q-Tel alliance has put the Agency back at the leading edge of technology ... This ... collaboration ... enabled CIA to take advantage of the technology that Las Vegas uses to identify corrupt card players and apply it to link analysis for terrorists [cf. the parallel data-mining effort by the SOCOM-DIA operation Able Danger], and to adapt the technology that online booksellers use and convert it to scour millions of pages of documents looking for unexpected results.
In-Q-Tel sold 5,636 shares of Google, worth over US$2.2 million, on November 15, 2005. The shares were a result of Google's acquisition of Keyhole, Inc, the CIA-funded satellite mapping software now known as Google Earth.
In August 2006, In-Q-Tel had reviewed more than 5,800 business plans and invested approximately $150M in more than 90 companies. In 2016, it was funded with at least $120M per year primarily from the CIA, as well as the NSA, FBI, and US Defense Department.
As of 2016, In-Q-Tel listed 325 investments, but more than 100 were kept secret, according to the Washington Post. The absence of disclosure can be due to national-security concerns or simply because a startup company doesn’t want its financial ties to intelligence publicized.
In-Q-Tel is a Virginia-registered corporation, legally independent of the CIA or any other government agency. The corporation is bound by its Charter agreement and annual contract with the CIA, which set out the relationship between the two organizations. In-Q-Tel's mission to support the Intelligence Community's technical needs is promoted by the In-Q-Tel Interface Center (QIC), an office within the CIA that facilitates communication and relationships between In-Q-Tel and government intelligence organizations. While In-Q-Tel is a nonprofit corporation, it differs from IARPA and other models in that its employees and trustees can profit from its investment. A Wall Street Journal investigation found that in 2016, nearly half of In-Q-Tel's trustees had a financial connection with a company the corporation had funded.
In-Q-Tel's current president and CEO is Christopher A. R. Darby. The chairman of the board is Michael M. Crow.
This list of companies needs additional citations for verification. (September 2014)
The company lists the majority of its investments on its website page.
In-Q-Tel functions partially in public; however, what products it has and how they are used is strictly secret. According to The Washington Post, "virtually any U.S. entrepreneur, inventor or research scientist working on ways to analyze data has probably received a phone call from In-Q-Tel or at least been Googled by its staff of technology-watchers."
- MemSQL – Distributed, in-memory, SQL database management system for real-time analytics
- Keyhole, Inc – Geospatial visualization application (Acquired by Google in 2004 and would go on to become Google Earth in 2005)
- Boundless Spatial – geospatial software
- Huddle – cloud-based content collaboration software
- Oculis Labs – visual cyber security solutions
- Destineer – games FPS training simulation
- GeoIQ FortiusOne – visualization on maps
- Forterra – virtual worlds for training
- Quantum4D – visualization technology
- Visual Sciences – real-time visual analysis
- Spotfire – visualisation data analytics
- Algorithmic — Infrastructure for deploying and scaling AI/ML models
- Palantir Technologies – data integration, search and discovery, knowledge management, and secure collaboration
- PiXlogic – visual search
- Agent Logic – event detection and response software – Webspector webpage change software
- ArcSight – secure software
- Zaplet – email
- Authentica – secure messaging and secure document sharing
- Teradici Corporation – desktop virtualization
- Connectify – Wifi & VPN
- SafeWeb PrivacyMatrix – browsing (closed in Nov. 2001)
- Visible Technologies – social media monitoring
- Silver Tail Systems – website fraud prevention
- InnoCentive – crowdsourcing websites
- Fetch Technologies – Internet Data Management -bots & RSS
- SRA OrionMagic – cms software
- Recorded Future – web intelligence and predictive analytics
- Traction Software – web 2.0
- Internet Evidence Finder – Digital forensic tool
- Basis Technology – multilingual text analytics and cyber forensics
- Language Weaver – automatic language translation
- Lingotek – translation services
- Cassatt – desktop software
- Tacit Knowledge Systems – internal software[vague]
- FMS – analysis, visualization, and knowledgebase to the Federal Intelligence Community
- Initiate Systems – real-time multiple database software
- TerraGo – location intelligence applications and software GeoPDF
- Geosemble – unstructured data analytics and geospatial software
- NovoDynamics – Arabic character recognition
- Adapx – Microsoft Office & GIS
- Digital Reasoning – Synthesys v3.0 – review facts and associations at a glance
- CallMiner – phone speech analytics software
- Carnegie Speech – speech recognition
- AzTE] PRISM – handwriting recognition
- A4Vision – 3D facial imaging
- SRD – identity resolution software
- Inktomi Corp – network infrastructure software
- Mohomine mohoClassifier – organises mass data
- Stratify – organizes mass data
- Endeca – search data repositories
- Inxight – search engine
- Convera RetrievalWare – search engine
- MetaCarta – search engine
- Attensity – search engine
- Platfora – big data analytics and visualization
- Intelliseek – search engine
- FireEye – malware protection
- ReversingLabs – malware detection and analysis
- zSpace (company) – 3-Dimensional holographic imaging displays
- Socrata – Open Data Solutions for Government Innovation
- Interset – Security Analytics/User Behavior Analytics
- Nozomi Networks – OT and IoT security and visibility
- D2iQ (formerly Mesosphere) – Apache Mesos and Kubernetes consulting firm
- Fuel3D – 3D scanning
- TRX Systems – 3D mapping
- Wickr - Encrypted messaging application
- Biomatrica – biolab tech anhydrobiosis storage
- SpectraFluidics – detection of trace airborne chemicals
- Arcxis Biotechnologies – sample processing and pathogen detection
- febit group – DNA
- Boreal Genomics – DNA fingerprints
- T2 Biosystems – medical diagnostic devices, miniaturized magnetic resonance (MR)
- OpGen – microbial genome analysis
- Infobionics – biotech cellular database
- Microchip Biotechnologies – analysis instrumentation for biodefense
- Cambrios Technologies – biomaterials for solid-state electronic devices
- Seahawk Biosystems – diagnosis biosensor products
- Sionex – chemical and biological sensors
- Polychromix – material analysis and chemical sensing
- IatroQuest – detect biological and chemical agents
- IntegenX – NanoBioProcessor & molecular diagnostics
- Seventh Sense Biosystems – health monitoring and medical diagnostics
- Sonitus Medical – transmits sound via the teeth
- MedShape – orthopedic devices from shape memory materials
- Electro Energy – nickel-metal hydride batteries for satellites & aircraft
- Qynergy Corporation – long-lived batteries, Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems
- Infinite Power Solutions – micro-batteries
- Skybuilt Power – solar, wind, fuel cells, batteries, fossil fuels, telecommunications – Mobile Power Station(MPS) 3.5kW to 150kW
- Semprius – solar energy
- AdaptivEnergy – miniature piezo generators
- Power Assure – managing power consumption
- MiserWare – reduces energy
- Nanosys – nanotech components
- Alfalight – high-power lasers & torches
- IDELIX Software – pliable display technology
- Perceptive Pixel – multi-touch displays
- WiSpry – radio components
- Nextreme Thermal Solutions – circuit-board thermoelectric components
- Digital Solid State Propulsion – electronic controls for solid rocket motors
- Infinite Z – virtual-holographic monitors
- Voxel8 – 3D printed electronics
- 3VR Security – DVR archiving
- MotionDSP – digital video
- Pixim – video cameras
- COPAN – data storage
- iMove – immersive video
- Pelican Imaging – better camera phones
- LensVector – optical autofocus
- InView Technology Corporation – cameras and hyper-spectral imagers
- Rhevision – tunable camera lens
- Signal Innovations Group – signal, image, and video analytics
- Elemental Technologies – video processing
- KZO Innovations – streaming video software
- VSee – video conferencing
- Xanadu Quantum Technologies – photonic quantum computers
- Tyfone – digital security for mobility, cloud, and IoT
- Genia Photonics – fiber-optics products
- Advanced Photonix, Inc. – fiber optics
- SitScape – Command & Control room hardware
- SpotterRF – micro surveillance radar
- QD Vision – monitors, displays and lighting
- GATR Technologies – inflatable satellite dishes
- CoreStreet – door access control systems
- Redlen Technologies – CZT x-ray & gamma ray detectors
- Etherstack – radios
- Paratek microwave – smart scanning antennas
- D-Wave Systems – quantum computers
- Pragmatic Semiconductor – flexible electronics
- Sensor networks
- ThingMagic – RFID
- Dust Networks – low-power wireless mesh networking systems
- Ember Corporation – ZigBee – wireless semiconductor
- Gainspan – low power Wi-Fi
- Tendril Networks – software for wireless sensor and control networks
- TenXsys – telemetry systems for remote monitoring, NASA
- StreamBase – real-time data in government/military, RFID/sensor networks
- Thetus – software for remote sensing instruments
- Soflinx defender – a Wireless Sensor Network for fences
- PlateScan – automatic license plate recognition (ALPR) sensor network
- Data centers
- Bay Microsystems – packet processing and data traffic
- Cleversafe – data storage clouds and massive digital archives
- Cloudera – data storage and analysis
- Asankya – Hypermesh data streams
- CopperEye – data retention
- Systems Research and Development – real-time data warehousing
- Network Appliance – Decru (networked data storage)
- Security testing
- Network Chemistry – RFprotect, WiFi security
- Veracode – application security testing
Numerous noteworthy business and intelligence community professionals have been involved with In-Q-Tel at various times, including the following:
- Dan Geer (2008–present) Chief Information Security Officer
- Michael D. Griffin – former president; later administrator of NASA.
- Norman R. Augustine
- Gilman Louie – former CEO
- Paul G. Kaminski – former director
- Amit Yoran – former CEO
- John Seely Brown
- Stephen Friedman
- William J. Perry
- Alex J. Mandl
- Rebecca Bace
- Luciana Borio
- Peter Barris
- Anita K. Jones
- Jami Miscik
- Jeong H. Kim
- ^ "A new partnership between the CIA and the private sector". Archived from the original on 5 September 2015. Retrieved 16 July 2017.
- ^ a b c d "In-Q-Tel, Inc. Company Information". Hoover's. Retrieved March 26, 2013.
- ^ "Contact Us". Retrieved 16 July 2017.
- ^ "List of the Board of Trustees". Archived from the original on 5 September 2015. Retrieved 16 July 2017.
- ^ a b c d Powers, Shawn M; Jablonski, Michael (April 2015). The Real Cyber War. Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Press. pp. 63–69. ISBN 978-0-252-09710-2.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u Paletta, Damian (2016-08-30). "The CIA's Venture-Capital Firm, Like Its Sponsor, Operates in the Shadows". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Archived from the original on 31 August 2016. Retrieved 2021-01-14.
- ^ Yannuzzi, Rick E. (2000). "In-Q-Tel: A new partnership between the CIA and the private sector". Central Intelligence Agency. ISSN 1061-6845. Archived from the original on March 7, 2017. Retrieved July 7, 2021.
- ^ "Technology Focus". In-Q-Tel. Archived from the original on 30 May 2014. Retrieved 14 August 2014.
IQT is focused on new and emerging commercial technologies that have the potential to give the CIA and broader U.S. Intelligence Community (IC) mission-advantage today and in the future. As a strategic partner, we work with the IC ...
- ^ George Tenet (1997), At The Center Of The Storm: My Years at the CIA, Harper Press, p. 26
- ^ "CIA sells Google shares". November 15, 2005. Archived from the original on December 17, 2009.
- ^ "Former Google exec sheds light on KC startups, Kansas tech scene". www.bizjournals.com. Retrieved 2020-04-20.
- ^ In-Q-Tel website: Investing in our National Security. Archived 2012-11-06 at the Wayback Machine Obtained August 2006.
- ^ "In-Q-Tel Bloomberg Company Overview". Bloomberg News. Retrieved 2017-06-20.
- ^ "In-Q-Tel: A New Partnership Between the CIA and the Private Sector". Archived from the original on September 5, 2015. Retrieved 2017-06-20.
- ^ a b "In-Q-Tel – About Team". Archived from the original on 2018-07-16. Retrieved 2017-06-20.
- ^ In-Q-Tel website. In-Q-Tel — Portfolio.
- ^ a b O'Hara, Terence (15 August 2005). "In-Q-Tel, CIA's Venture Arm, Invests in Secrets". Retrieved 16 July 2017 – via washingtonpost.com.
- ^ Weinberger, Sharon (2020-09-28). "Is Palantir's Crystal Ball Just Smoke and Mirrors?". Intelligencer. Retrieved 2021-01-14.
- ^  Magnet Forensics Press Release Dec 8 2015
- ^ "In-Q-Tel Invests in User Behavior Analytics Leader Interset to Stay Ahead of Cyber Attacks on Sensitive Data".
- ^ "Nozomi Networks Announces Strong Growth and New Funding in the First Half of 2020".
- ^ "CIA Funding Arm Gave Encrypted App Wickr $1.6 Million".
- ^ "In-Q-Tel Announces Strategic Investment in SkyBuilt Power to Develop Mobile, Renwable Energy Power Stations – In-Q-Tel". www.iqt.org. Retrieved 2021-11-07.
- ^ "Xanadu secures $120 million CAD led by Bessemer to build photonic quantum computer | BetaKit". 2021-05-25. Retrieved 2021-05-25.
- ^ "Tyfone and In-Q-Tel Sign Strategic Agreement to Bring Mobile Security in Cloud and NFC Transactions for U.S. Government – In-Q-Tel". www.iqt.org. Retrieved 2021-01-14.
- ^ Dan Geer leaves Verdasys for In-Q-Tel Archived 2008-05-29 at the Wayback Machine, by Ryan Naraine, ZDNet, May 28, 2008. Accessed 2008-07-09.
- ^ "IN-Q-TEL NAMES DR. MICHAEL D. GRIFFIN AS PRESIDENT AND CHIEF OPERATING OFFICER – In-Q-Tel". www.iqt.org. Retrieved 2021-01-14.
- ^ "Taira on Offensive". Science. 311 (5763): 931. 2006. doi:10.1126/science.311.5763.931d. S2CID 162239621.
- ^ "Gilman Louie". Federation Of American Scientists. Retrieved 2021-01-14.
- ^ "Paul G. Kaminski Bloomberg Profile". Bloomberg News. Retrieved 2017-06-20.
- ^ "IN-Q-TEL ANNOUNCES AMIT YORAN AS NEW CEO – In-Q-Tel". www.iqt.org. Retrieved 2021-01-14.
- ^ a b c d "Board of Trustees". In-Q-Tel. Archived from the original on 2009-03-03. Retrieved 2021-01-14.
- ^ "Becky Bace In Memoriam". www.southalabama.edu. Retrieved 2021-01-14.
- ^ York, Carnegie Corporation of New. "Luciana Borio". Carnegie Corporation of New York. Archived from the original on 2020-11-14. Retrieved 2021-01-14.
- ^ "Jeong H. Kim Bloomberg Profile". Bloomberg News. Retrieved 2017-06-20.
- Official website
- White Paper on the In-Q-Tel concept from the CIA's website
- In-Q-Tel Archived 2007-07-13 at the Wayback Machine from Federal Computer Week
- In-Q-Tel Archived 2011-09-27 at the Wayback Machine from govexec.com
- The Report of the Independent Panel on the CIA In-Q-Tel Venture from Business Executives for National Security (bens.org)
- Press releases
- Lerner, Josh, G. Felda Hardymon, Kevin Book, and Ann Leamon. "In-Q-Tel." Harvard Business School Case 804-146, February 2004. (Revised May 2005.)
- Venture Funds and Other Advanced Technologies for National Intelligence Services (September 5, 2012).