First page of il manifesto the day after the election of Pope Benedict XVI
|Owner(s)||il nuovo manifesto società coop editrice|
|Circulation||11,324 (May 2016)|
History and profileEdit
il manifesto was founded as a monthly review in 1969 by a collective of left-wing journalists engaged in the wave of critical thought and activity on the Italian left in that period. Its founders included Luigi Pintor, Valentino Parlato, Lucio Magri and Rossana Rossanda. In April 1971, it became a daily. Although critical of the Italian Communist Party (PCI), it was popular with many party supporters who saw it as more lively and independent than the party newspaper l'Unità.
The 1991 PCI dissolution that gave birth to the social democratic Democratic Party of the Left was not followed by il manifesto, a paper which maintains positions closer to those of robustly left-wing parties such as the Communist Refoundation Party while remaining independent.
il manifesto is known in Italy for its bitter and sarcastic headlines, puns and clever choice of photographs. For example, the day of the election of Pope Benedict XVI, the first page of il manifesto featured a large photo of the newly elected pope along with the title "the German shepherd". It has included the satirical drawings of Vauro.
One of its reporters, Giuliana Sgrena, was kidnapped by Iraqi insurgents in February 2005 and released on 4 March. A controversy erupted when her rescue vehicle was shot by American troops, killing an Italian security agent.
Throughout its history, eminent Italian literary personalities have contributed to the newspaper such as the satirical poet Stefano Benni, the novelist Erri De Luca and the novelist, philosopher and linguist Umberto Eco.
By the late 2000s, state aid to media in Italy was dropping and il manifesto began to operate at a loss. It was owned by a cooperative of journalists until entering legal liquidation in February 2012. However, it continued to publish. The cooperative announced a subscription campaign to buy back the brand, which was successful in July 2016.
- Luigi Pintor (28 April 1971 – 19 September 1975)
- Valentino Parlato (19 September 1975 – 18 February 1976)
- Luigi Pintor, Luciana Castellina, Pino Ferraris, Vittorio Foa, Valentino Parlato & Rossana Rossanda (18 February 1976 – 3 July 1976)
- Luciana Castellina, Valentino Parlato & Rossana Rossanda (3 July 1976 – 2 March 1978)
- Valentino Parlato (2 March 1978 – November 1985)
- Rina Gagliardi & Mauro Paissan (November 1985 – November 1986)
- Valentino Parlato (January 1988 – July 1990)
- Sandro Medici (July 1990 – November 1991)
- Luigi Pintor (November 1991 – October 1995)
- Valentino Parlato (October 1995 – March 1998)
- Riccardo Barenghi (March 1998 – December 2003)
- Mariuccia Ciotta & Gabriele Polo (December 2003 – June 2009)
- Valentino Parlato (June 2009 – 4 May 2010)
- Norma Rangeri (since 4 May 2010)
- "Ads: tirature e diffusioni di quotidiani, settimanali (maggio 2016) e mensili (aprile 2016)".
- "Austerity threatens Europe's Left press". Revolting Europe. 12 January 2012. Retrieved 1 July 2015.
- Dominique Vidal (December 2014). "Buying back 'il manifesto'". Le Monde diplomatique. Retrieved 30 November 2014.
- Gino Moliterno, ed. (2005). Encyclopedia of Contemporary Italian Culture (PDF). London and New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-203-74849-2. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 January 2015. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
- Clyde Haberman (24 April 1989). "Newspaper Deal in Italy Stirs Debate over Press Freedom". The New York Times. Rome. Retrieved 7 June 2015.
- "Il collettivo del manifesto". Il manifesto. Retrieved 22 May 2016.
- "Bush repeats Italian death regret". CNN. 7 April 2005. Retrieved 30 November 2014.
- "Il manifesto, i giornalisti ricomprano la testata. "Siamo tornati padroni di un giornale indipendente e autogestito"". il Fatto Quotidiano. 15 July 2016. Retrieved 1 August 2016.
- "Data for average newspaper circulation in 2008". Archived 22 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Accertamenti Diffusione Stampa.
- "National Newspapers". International Federation of Audit Bureaux of Circulations. Retrieved 6 March 2015.
- "Diffusione stampa: quotidiani e settimanali a febbraio, mensili a gennaio (Ads, gennaio e febbraio 2014)".