Iki no Hakatoko no Sho

Iki no Hakatoko no Sho (伊吉博徳書, "The Document of Iki no Hakatoko") is a historical Japanese record written by Iki no Hakatoko. Composed late in the 7th century, the record is primarily known for being used as a reference in the composition of Nihon Shoki as well as for being the oldest Japanese travel record.[1] It is no longer extant.


While the record no longer exists, a fragment of its contents may be found in quotations. Passages are quoted four times in Nihon Shoki:[1][2]

  • the 2nd month of 654
  • the 7th month of 659: composed on the way to as well as at Chang'an[1]
  • the 7th month of 660: composed around Luoyang[1]
  • the 5th month of 661: primarily relates the return journey[1]

The various quotations relate details about the Imperial Japanese embassies to China and foreign policy around the middle of the 7th century.

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ a b c d e Nihon Koten Bungaku Daijiten (1986:61)
  2. ^ Sakamoto (1965: 575)


  • Nihon Koten Bungaku Daijiten: Kan'yakuban [A Comprehensive Dictionary of Classical Japanese Literature: Concise Edition]. Tōkyō: Iwanami Shoten. 1986. ISBN 4-00-080067-1.
  • Sakamoto, Tarō; Ienaga Saburō; Inoue Mitsusada; Ōno Susumu (1965). Nihon Koten Bungaku Taikei: Nihon Shoki (vol. 2). Iwanami Shoten. ISBN 4-00-060068-0.