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Hypertensive disease of pregnancy

  (Redirected from Hypertension in pregnancy)

Hypertensive disease of pregnancy, also known as maternal hypertensive disorder, is a group of diseases that includes preeclampsia, eclampsia, gestational hypertension, and chronic hypertension.[3]

Hypertensive disease of pregnancy
Synonyms Maternal hypertensive disorder
Frequency 20.7 million (2015)[1]
Deaths 46,900 (2015)[2]

Maternal hypertensive disorders occurred in about 20.7 million women in 2013.[1] About 10% of pregnancies globally are complicated by hypertensive diseases.[4] In the United States hypertensive disease of pregnancy affect about 8% to 13% of pregnancies.[3] Rates have increased in the developing world.[3] They resulted in 29,000 deaths in 2013 down from 37,000 deaths in 1990.[5] They are one of the three major causes of death in pregnancy (16%) along with post partum bleeding (13%) and puerperal infections (2%).[6]

Contents

ClassificationsEdit

A classification of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy uses 4 categories, as recommended by the U.S. National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group on High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy:[7]

  1. chronic hypertension;
  2. preeclampsia-eclampsia;
  3. preeclampsia superimposed on chronic hypertension;
  4. gestational hypertension (transient hypertension of pregnancy or chronic hypertension identified in the latter half of pregnancy).

This terminology is preferred over the older but widely used term pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) because it is more precise.[7] The newer terminology reflects simply relation of pregnancy with either the onset or first detection of hypertension and that the question of causation, while pathogenetically interesting, is not the important point for most health care purposes. This classification treats HELLP syndrome as a type of preeclampsia rather than a parallel entity.[7]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b GBD 2015 Disease and Injury Incidence and Prevalence, Collaborators. (8 October 2016). "Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 310 diseases and injuries, 1990-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015.". Lancet. 388 (10053): 1545–1602. PMC 5055577 . PMID 27733282. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31678-6. 
  2. ^ GBD 2015 Mortality and Causes of Death, Collaborators. (8 October 2016). "Global, regional, and national life expectancy, all-cause mortality, and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes of death, 1980-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015.". Lancet. 388 (10053): 1459–1544. PMC 5388903 . PMID 27733281. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(16)31012-1. 
  3. ^ a b c Lo, JO; Mission, JF; Caughey, AB (April 2013). "Hypertensive disease of pregnancy and maternal mortality.". Current Opinion in Obstetrics and Gynecology. 25 (2): 124–32. PMID 23403779. doi:10.1097/gco.0b013e32835e0ef5. 
  4. ^ WHO recommendations for prevention and treatment of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. (PDF). 2011. ISBN 978-92-4-154833-5. 
  5. ^ GBD 2013 Mortality and Causes of Death, Collaborators (17 December 2014). "Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013.". Lancet. 385: 117–71. PMC 4340604 . PMID 25530442. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61682-2. 
  6. ^ "40". Williams obstetrics (24th ed.). McGraw-Hill Professional. 2014. ISBN 9780071798938. 
  7. ^ a b c Mammaro, A; et al. (2009), "Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy", J Prenat Med, 3 (1): 1–5, PMC 3279097 , PMID 22439030. 

BibliographyEdit

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