Huntington's disease-like syndrome
Huntington's disease-like syndromes (HD-like syndromes, or HDL syndromes) are a family of inherited neurodegenerative diseases that closely resemble Huntington's disease (HD) in that they typically produce a combination of chorea, cognitive decline or dementia and behavioural or psychiatric problems.
|Huntington's disease-like syndrome|
|Other names||HDL syndrome|
HDL1 is an unusual, autosomal dominant familial prion disease. Only described in one family, it is caused by an eight-octapeptide repeat insertion in the PRNP gene. More broadly, inherited prion diseases in general can mimic HD.
HDL2 is the most common HD-like syndrome and is caused by GTC/CAG triplet expansions in the JPH3 gene encoding junctophilin-3. It is almost exclusively restricted to populations of African descent and is actually more common than Huntington’s disease in Black South Africans.
Other neurogenetic disorders can cause an HD-like or HD phenocopy syndrome but are not solely defined as HDL syndromes. The commonest is spinocerebellar ataxia type 17 (SCA-17), occasionally called HDL-4. Others include mutations in C9orf72, spinocerebellar ataxias type 1 and 3, neuroacanthocytosis, dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA), brain iron accumulation disorders, Wilson's disease, benign hereditary chorea, Friedreich's ataxia and mitochondrial diseases.
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