Breast milk(Redirected from Human milk)
Breast milk is the milk produced by the breasts (or mammary glands) of a human female to feed a child. Milk is the primary source of nutrition for newborns before they are able to eat and digest other foods; older infants and toddlers may continue to be breastfed, in combination with other foods from six months of age when solid foods should be introduced.
The baby nursing from its own mother is the most common way of obtaining breast milk, but the milk can be pumped and then fed by baby bottle, cup and/or spoon, supplementation drip system, or nasogastric tube. In preterm children who do not have the ability to suck during their early days of life, avoiding bottles and tubes, and use of cups to feed expressed milk and other supplements is reported to result in better breastfeeding extent and duration subsequently. Breast milk can be supplied by a woman other than the baby's mother, either via donated pumped milk (generally from a milk bank or via informal milk donation), or when a woman nurses a child other than her own at her breast, a practice known as wetnursing.
The World Health Organization recommends exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of life, with solids gradually being introduced around this age when signs of readiness are shown. Supplemented breastfeeding is recommended until at least age two and then for as long as the mother and child wish.
Breastfeeding offers health benefits to mother and child even after infancy. These benefits include a 73% decreased risk of sudden infant death syndrome, increased intelligence, decreased likelihood of contracting middle ear infections, cold and flu resistance, a tiny decrease in the risk of childhood leukemia, lower risk of childhood onset diabetes, decreased risk of asthma and eczema, decreased dental problems, decreased risk of obesity later in life, and a decreased risk of developing psychological disorders, including in adopted children. In addition, feeding an infant breast milk is associated with lower insulin levels and higher leptin levels compared feeding an infant via powdered-formula.
Breastfeeding also provides health benefits for the mother. It assists the uterus in returning to its pre-pregnancy size and reduces post-partum bleeding, as well as assisting the mother in returning to her pre-pregnancy weight. Breastfeeding also reduces the risk of breast cancer later in life. Lactation protects both mother and infant from both types of diabetes. Lactation may protect the infant from specifically developing Type 2 diabetes because studies have shown that bioactive ingredients in human breast milk could prevent excess weight gain during childhood via contributing to a feeling of energy and satiety. A lower risk of child-onset diabetes may more applicable to infants who were born from diabetic mothers. The reason is because while breastfeeding for at least the first 6 months of life minimizes the risk of Type 1 diabetes from occurring in the infant, inadequate breastfeeding in an infant prenatally exposed to diabetes was associated with a higher risk of the child developing diabetes later on. However, it can be argued that human breastfeeding may contribute to protective effects against the development of Type 1 diabetes due to the fact that the alternative of bottle-feeding may expose infants to unhygienic feeding conditions.
Though it now is almost universally prescribed, in some countries in the 1950s the practice of breastfeeding went through a period where it was out of vogue and the use of infant formula was considered superior to breast milk. However, it is now universally recognized that there is no commercial formula that can equal breast milk. In addition to the appropriate amounts of carbohydrate, protein, and fat, breast milk provides vitamins, minerals, digestive enzymes, and hormones. Breast milk also contains antibodies and lymphocytes from the mother that help the baby resist infections. The immune function of breast milk is individualized, as the mother, through her touching and taking care of the baby, comes into contact with pathogens that colonize the baby, and, as a consequence, her body makes the appropriate antibodies and immune cells.
At around four months of age, the internal iron supplies of the infant, held in the hepatic cells of the liver, are exhausted. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that at this time that an iron supplement should be introduced, however, other health organisations such as the NHS in the UK have no such recommendation. Breast milk contains less iron than formula, because it is more bioavailable as lactoferrin, which carries more safety for mothers and children than ferrous sulphate.
Both the AAP and the NHS recommend vitamin D supplementation for breastfed infants. Vitamin D can be synthesised by the infant via exposure to sunlight, however, many infants are deficient due being kept indoors or living in areas with insufficient sunlight. Formula is supplemented with vitamin D for this reason.
Under the influence of the hormones prolactin and oxytocin, women produce milk after childbirth to feed the baby. The initial milk produced is referred to as colostrum, which is high in the immunoglobulin IgA, which coats the gastrointestinal tract. This helps to protect the newborn until its own immune system is functioning properly. It also creates a mild laxative effect, expelling meconium and helping to prevent the build-up of bilirubin (a contributory factor in jaundice).
Actual inability to produce enough milk is rare, with studies showing that mothers from developing countries experiencing nutritional hardship still produce amounts of milk of similar quality to that of mothers in developed countries. There are many reasons a mother may not produce enough breast milk. Some of the most common reasons are an improper latch (i.e., the baby does not connect efficiently with the nipple), not nursing or pumping enough to meet supply, certain medications (including estrogen-containing hormonal contraceptives), illness, and dehydration. A rarer reason is Sheehan's syndrome, also known as postpartum hypopituitarism, which is associated with prolactin deficiency and may require hormone replacement.
The amount of milk produced depends on how often the mother is nursing and/or pumping: the more the mother nurses her baby or pumps, the more milk is produced. It is beneficial to nurse when the baby wants to nurse rather than on a schedule. A Cochrane review came to the conclusion that a greater volume of milk is expressed whilst listening to relaxing audio during breastfeeding, along with warming and massaging of the breast prior to and during feeding. A greater volume of milk expressed can also be attributed to instances where the mother starts pumping milk sooner, even if the infant is unable to breastfeed.
Sodium concentration is higher in hand-expressed milk, when compared with the use of manual and electric pumps, and fat content is higher when the breast has been massaged, in conjunction with listening to relaxing audio. This may be important for low birthweight infants. If pumping, it is helpful to have an electric, high-grade pump so that all of the milk ducts are stimulated. Galactagogues increase milk supply, although even herbal variants carry risks; therefore non-pharmaceutical methods should be tried first.
|Fat (g/100 ml)|
|fatty acids - length 8C||trace|
|polyunsaturated fatty acids||0,6|
|Protein (g/100 ml)|
|Carbohydrate (g/100 ml)|
|Minerals (g/100 ml)|
Breast milk contains complex proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and other biologically active components. The composition changes over a single feed as well as over the period of lactation.
During the first few days after delivery, the mother produces colostrum. This is a thin yellowish fluid that is the same fluid that sometimes leaks from the breasts during pregnancy. It is rich in protein and antibodies that provide passive immunity to the baby (the baby's immune system is not fully developed at birth). Colostrum also helps the newborn's digestive system to grow and function properly.
Colostrum will gradually change to become mature milk. In the first 3–4 days it will appear thin and watery and will taste very sweet; later, the milk will be thicker and creamier. Human milk quenches the baby's thirst and hunger and provides the proteins, sugar, minerals, and antibodies that the baby needs.
In the 1980s and 1990s, lactation professionals (De Cleats) used to make a differentiation between foremilk and hindmilk. But this differentiation causes confusion as there are not two types of milk. Instead, as a baby breastfeeds, the fat content very gradually increases, with the milk becoming fattier and fattier over time.
Human milk contains 0.8% to 0.9% protein, 4.5% fat, 7.1% carbohydrates, and 0.2% ash (minerals). Carbohydrates are mainly lactose; several lactose-based oligosaccharides have been identified as minor components. The fat fraction contains specific triglycerides of palmitic and oleic acid (O-P-O triglycerides), and also lipids with trans bonds (see: trans fat). The lipids are vaccenic acid, and Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) accounting for up to 6% of the human milk fat.
The principal proteins are alpha-lactalbumin, lactoferrin (apo-lactoferrin), IgA, lysozyme, and serum albumin. In an acidic environment such as the stomach, alpha-lactalbumin unfolds into a different form and binds oleic acid to form a complex called HAMLET that kills tumor cells. This is thought to contribute to the protection of breastfed babies against cancer.
Non-protein nitrogen-containing compounds, making up 25% of the milk's nitrogen, include urea, uric acid, creatine, creatinine, amino acids, and nucleotides. Breast milk has circadian variations; some of the nucleotides are more commonly produced during the night, others during the day.
Mother's milk has been shown to supply endocannabinoids (the natural neurotransmitters that cannabis simulates) 2-Arachidonoyl glycerol, anandamide, oleoylethanolamide, palmitoylethanolamide, N-arachidonoyl glycine, eicosapentaenoyl ethanolamide, docosahexaenoyl ethanolamide, N-palmitoleoyl-ethanolamine, dihomo-γ-linolenoylethanolamine, N-stearoylethanolamine, prostaglandin F2alpha ethanolamides and prostaglandin F2 ethanolamides, Palmitic acid esters of hydroxy-stearic acids (PAHSAs). They may act as an appetite stimulant, but they also regulate appetite so infants don't eat too much. That may be why formula-fed babies have a higher caloric intake than breastfed babies.
Breast milk contains a unique type of sugars, human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs), which are not present in infant formula. HMOs are not digested by the infant but help to make up the intestinal flora. They act as decoy receptors that block the attachment of disease causing pathogens, which may help to prevent infectious diseases. They also alter immune cell responses, which may benefit the infant. To date (2015) more than a hundred different HMOs have been identified; both the number and composition vary between women and each HMO may have a distinct functionality.
The breast milk of diabetic mothers has been shown to have a different composition from that of non-diabetic mothers. It may contain elevated levels of glucose and insulin and decreased polyunsaturated fatty acids. A dose-dependent effect of diabetic breast milk on increasing language delays in infants has also been noted, although doctors recommend that diabetic mothers breastfeed despite this potential risk.
Women breastfeeding should consult with their physician regarding substances that can be unwittingly passed to the infant via breast milk, such as alcohol, viruses (HIV or HTLV-1) or medications. Even though most infants infected with HIV contract the disease from breastfeeding, most infants that are breastfed by their HIV positive mothers never contract the disease. While this paradoxical phenomenon suggests that the risk of HIV transmission between an HIV positive mother and her child via breastfeeding is small, studies have also shown that feeding infants with breast milk of HIV-positive mothers can actually have a preventative effect against HIV transmission between the mother and child. This inhibitory effect against the infant contracting HIV is likely due to unspecified factors exclusively present in breast milk of HIV-positive mothers.
Most women that do not breastfeed use infant formula, but breast milk donated by volunteers to human milk banks can be obtained by prescription in some countries. In addition, research has shown that women who rely on infant formula could minimize the gap between the level of immunity protection and cognitive abilities a breastfed child benefits from versus the degree to which a bottle-fed child benefits from them. This can be done by supplementing formula-fed infants with bovine milk fat globule membranes (MFGM) meant to mimic the positive effects of the MFGMs which are present in human breast milk.
Storage of expressed breast milkEdit
Expressed breast milk can be stored. Lipase may cause thawed milk to taste soapy or rancid due to milk fat breakdown. It is still safe to use, and most babies will drink it. Scalding it will prevent rancid taste at the expense of antibodies. It should be stored with airtight seals. Some plastic bags are designed for storage periods of less than 72 hours. Others can be used for up to 12 months if frozen. This table describes safe storage time limits.
|Place of storage||Temperature||Maximum storage time|
|In a room||25 °C||77 °F||Six to eight hours|
|Insulated thermal bag with ice packs||Up to 24 hours|
|In a refrigerator||4 °C||39 °F||Up to five days|
|Freezer compartment inside a refrigerator||-15 °C||5 °F||Two weeks|
|A combined refrigerator and freezer with separate doors||-18 °C||0 °F||Three to six months|
|Chest or upright manual defrost deep freezer||-20 °C||-4 °F||Six to twelve months|
Comparison to other milksEdit
All mammalian species produce milk, but the composition of milk for each species varies widely and other kinds of milk are often very different from human breast milk. As a rule, the milk of mammals that nurse frequently (including human babies) is less rich, or more watery, than the milk of mammals whose young nurse less often. Human milk is noticeably thinner and sweeter than cow's milk.
Whole cow's milk contains too little iron, retinol, vitamin E, vitamin C, vitamin D, unsaturated fats or essential fatty acids for human babies. Whole cow's milk also contains too much protein, sodium, potassium, phosphorus and chloride which may put a strain on an infant's immature kidneys. In addition, the proteins, fats and calcium in whole cow's milk are more difficult for an infant to digest and absorb than the ones in breast milk. Evaporated milk may be easier to digest due to the processing of the protein but is still nutritionally inadequate. Some infants are allergic to cow's milk protein, this problem may be associated with infant formulas derived from cow's milk.[needs update]
|Nutrient||Human Milk||Cow's Milk (3.25% fat)||Goat's Milk|
|Saturated fat (g)||4.9||4.6||6.5|
|Monounsaturated fat (g)||4.1||2.0||2.7|
|Polyunsaturated fat (g)||1.2||0.5||0.4|
|Omega-3 fatty acids (mg)||128||183||97.6|
|Omega-6 fatty acids (mg)||920||293||266|
|Vitamin A (IU)||522||249||483|
|Vitamin C (mg)||12.3||0||3.2|
|Vitamin D (IU)||9.8||97.6||29.3|
|Vitamin E (mg)||0.2||0.1||0.2|
|Vitamin K (mcg)||0.7||0.5||0.7|
|Vitamin B6 (mg)||0.0||0.1||0.1|
|Vitamin B12 (mcg)||0.1||1.1||0.2|
|Pantothenic acid (mg)||0.5||0.9||0.8|
Effects of medications and other substances on milk contentEdit
Almost all medicines pass into breastmilk in small amounts. Some have no effect on the baby and can be used while breastfeeding. Women with hypothyroidism may be unable to produce milk. Alcohol use during pregnancy carries a significant risk of serious birth defects, but consuming alcohol after the birth of the infant is considered safe.
Pesticides and other toxic substances bioaccumulate; i.e., creatures higher up the food chain will store more of them in their body fat. This is an issue in particular for the Inuit, whose traditional diet is predominantly meat. Studies are looking at the effects of polychlorinated biphenyls and persistent organic pollutants in the body; the breast milk of Inuit mothers is extraordinarily high in toxic compounds.
There is a market for human breast milk, both in the form of wet nurse service and milk product. As a product, breast milk is exchanged by human milk banks as well as directly between milk donors and customers mediated by websites on the Internet. Human milk banks generally have standardized measures for screening donors and storing the milk, while donors on websites vary in regard to these measures. A study in 2013 came to the conclusion that 74% of breast milk samples from providers found from websites were colonized with Gram-negative bacteria or had more than 10,000 colony-forming units/mL of aerobic bacteria. Growth happens during transit. According to the FDA, the bacteria in fresh milk doubles every 20 minutes. Breast milk is considered to be healthier than cow's milk and infant formula when it comes to feeding an infant in the first 6 months of life, but only under extreme situations do international health organizations support feeding an infant breast milk from a healthy wet nurse rather than that of its biological mother. One reason is because the unregulated breast milk market is fraught with risks such as drugs of abuse and prescription medications being present in donated breast milk. The transmission of these substances through breast milk can do more harm than good when it comes to the health outcomes of the infant recipient.
A minority of people, including restaurateurs Hans Lochen of Switzerland and Daniel Angerer of Austria, who operates a restaurant in New York City, have used human breast milk, or at least advocated its use, as a substitute for cow's milk in dairy products and food recipes. An Icecreamist in London's Covent Garden started selling an ice cream named Baby Gaga in February 2011. Each serving cost £14. All the milk was donated by a Mrs Hiley who earned £15 for every 10 ounces and called it a "great recession beater". The ice cream sold out on its first day. Despite the success of the new flavour, the Westminster Council officers removed the product from the menu to make sure that it was, as they said, "fit for human consumption."Tammy Frissell-Deppe, a family counsellor specialized in attachment parenting, published a book, titled A Breastfeeding Mother's Secret Recipes, providing a lengthy compilation of detailed food and beverage recipes containing human breast milk. Human breast milk is not produced or distributed industrially or commercially, because the use of human breast milk as an adult food is considered unusual to the majority of cultures around the world, and most disapprove of such a practice.
While there is no scientific evidence that shows that breast milk is more advantageous for adults than cow's milk, according to several 2015 news sources breast milk is being used by bodybuilders for its nutritional value. In a February 2015 ABC News article one former competitive body builder said, "It isn’t common, but I’ve known people who have done this. It’s certainly talked about quite a bit on the bodybuilding forums on the Internet." Calling bodybuilders "a strange breed of individuals,” he said, “Even if this type of thing is completely unsupported by research, they’re prone to gym lore and willing to give it a shot if there is any potential effect.” At the time the article was written, in the U.S. the price of breast milk procured from milk banks that pasteurize the milk, and have expensive quality and safety controls, was about $10 an ounce, and the price in the alternative market online, bought directly from mothers, ranges from $1 to $4 per US fluid ounce, compared to cow's milk at about $3.44 a gallon.
A 2015 CBS article cites an editorial led by Dr. Sarah Steele in the Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, in which they say that "the health claims do not stand up clinically and that raw human milk purchased online poses many health risks." CBS found a study from the Center for Biobehavioral Health at Nationwide Children's Hospital in Columbus that "found that 11 out of 102 breast milk samples purchased online were actually blended with cow's milk." The article also explains that milk purchased online may be improperly sanitized or stored, so it may contain food-borne illness and infectious diseases such as hepatitis and HIV.
- Collins CT, Gillis J, McPhee AJ, Suganuma H, Makrides M (October 2016). "Avoidance of bottles during the establishment of breast feeds in preterm infants". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 10: CD005252. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005252.pub4. PMID 27756113.
- "WHO | Exclusive breastfeeding". Who.int. 2011-01-15. Retrieved 2011-10-26.
- "The World Health Organization's infant feeding recommendation".
- Hauck FR, Thompson JM, Tanabe KO, Moon RY, Vennemann MM (July 2011). "Breastfeeding and reduced risk of sudden infant death syndrome: a meta-analysis". Pediatrics. 128 (1): 103–10. doi:10.1542/peds.2010-3000. PMID 21669892.
- Breastfeeding Associated With Increased Intelligence, Study Suggests
- Persico M, Podoshin L, Fradis M, Golan D, Wellisch G (June 1983). "Recurrent middle-ear infections in infants: the protective role of maternal breast feeding". Ear, Nose, & Throat Journal. 62 (6): 297–304. PMID 6409579.
- Cantey JB, Bascik SL, Heyne NG, Gonzalez JR, Jackson GL, Rogers VL, Sheffield JS, Treviño S, Sendelbach D, Wendel GD, Sánchez PJ (March 2013). "Prevention of mother-to-infant transmission of influenza during the postpartum period". American Journal of Perinatology. 30 (3): 233–40. doi:10.1055/s-0032-1323585. PMID 22926635.
- Aguiar H, Silva AI (December 2011). "[Breastfeeding: the importance of intervening]". Acta Medica Portuguesa. 24 Suppl 4: 889–96. PMID 22863497.
- Finigan V (December 2012). "Breastfeeding and diabetes: Part 2". The Practising Midwife. 15 (11): 33–4, 36. PMID 23304866.
- Salone LR, Vann WF, Dee DL (February 2013). "Breastfeeding: an overview of oral and general health benefits". Journal of the American Dental Association. 144 (2): 143–51. doi:10.14219/jada.archive.2013.0093. PMID 23372130.
- Lausten-Thomsen U, Bille DS, Nässlund I, Folskov L, Larsen T, Holm JC (June 2013). "Neonatal anthropometrics and correlation to childhood obesity--data from the Danish Children's Obesity Clinic". European Journal of Pediatrics. 172 (6): 747–51. doi:10.1007/s00431-013-1949-z. PMID 23371390.
- Gribble, Karleen D. (2006), "Mental health, attachment and breastfeeding: implications for adopted children and their mothers", International Breastfeeding Journal, 1 (1): 5, doi:10.1186/1746-4358-1-5, PMC 1459116, PMID 16722597
- Sabuncuoglu O (March 2013). "Understanding the relationships between breastfeeding, malocclusion, ADHD, sleep-disordered breathing and traumatic dental injuries". Medical Hypotheses. 80 (3): 315–20. doi:10.1016/j.mehy.2012.12.017. PMID 23306004.
- Crume TL, Ogden L, Maligie M, Sheffield S, Bischoff KJ, McDuffie R, Daniels S, Hamman RF, Norris JM, Dabelea D (March 2011). "Long-term impact of neonatal breastfeeding on childhood adiposity and fat distribution among children exposed to diabetes in utero". Diabetes Care. 34 (3): 641–5. doi:10.2337/dc10-1716. PMC 3041197. PMID 21357361.
- Gillego A, Bernik S. "Breast-Feeding Might Cut Risk for Tough-to-Treat Breast Cancer: Study". Retrieved 18 October 2012.
- Levin RJ (May 2006). "The breast/nipple/areola complex and human sexuality". Sexual & Relationship Therapy. 21 (2): 237–249. doi:10.1080/14681990600674674.
- Gouveri E, Papanas N, Hatzitolios AI, Maltezos E (March 2011). "Breastfeeding and diabetes". Current Diabetes Reviews. 7 (2): 135–42. doi:10.2174/157339911794940684. PMID 21348815.
- Taylor JS, Kacmar JE, Nothnagle M, Lawrence RA (October 2005). "A systematic review of the literature associating breastfeeding with type 2 diabetes and gestational diabetes". Journal of the American College of Nutrition. 24 (5): 320–6. PMID 16192255.
- Chantry CJ, Wiedeman J, Buehring G, Peerson JM, Hayfron K, K'Aluoch O, Lonnerdal B, Israel-Ballard K, Coutsoudis A, Abrams B (June 2011). "Effect of flash-heat treatment on antimicrobial activity of breastmilk". Breastfeeding Medicine. 6 (3): 111–6. doi:10.1089/bfm.2010.0078. PMC 3143386. PMID 21091243.
- Bertotto A, Castellucci G, Fabietti G, Scalise F, Vaccaro R (November 1990). "Lymphocytes bearing the T cell receptor gamma delta in human breast milk". Archives of Disease in Childhood. 65 (11): 1274–5. doi:10.1136/adc.65.11.1274-a. PMC 1792611. PMID 2147370.
- The Newborn Immune System and Immunological Benefits of Breastmilk
- Pediatrics, American Academy of (2010-10-05). "First AAP recommendations on iron supplementation include directive on universal screening". AAP News: E101005–1. doi:10.1542/aapnews.20101005-1 (inactive 2018-11-27). ISSN 1073-0397.
- "First Foods". Start 4 Life. National Health Service. Retrieved 2018-11-21.
- Paesano R, Pacifici E, Benedetti S, Berlutti F, Frioni A, Polimeni A, Valenti P (October 2014). "Safety and efficacy of lactoferrin versus ferrous sulphate in curing iron deficiency and iron deficiency anaemia in hereditary thrombophilia pregnant women: an interventional study". Biometals. 27 (5): 999–1006. doi:10.1007/s10534-014-9723-x. PMID 24590680.
- Armstrong, Carrie (2009-07-15). "AAP Doubles Recommended Vitamin D Intake in Children". American Family Physician. 80 (2). ISSN 0002-838X.
- Prentice, A.M., Paul, A., Prentice, A., Black, A., Cole, T., & Whitehead, R. (1986). Cross - cultural differences in lactational performance. In Maternal Environmental Factors in Human Lactation. Human Lactation 2, pp. 13 = 44 [Hamosh, M., & Goldman, A.S. (eds). New York: Plenum Press.
- "Breast-feeding: Pumping and maintaining your milk supply". MayoClinic.com. 2010-03-13. Retrieved 2011-10-26.
- "Breast milk: Increasing supply - iVillage". Parenting.ivillage.com. 2010-01-01. Archived from the original on 2010-05-14. Retrieved 2011-10-26.
- "How Breast Milk is Produced". Babies.sutterhealth.org. Retrieved 2011-10-26.
- Becker GE, Smith HA, Cooney F (February 2015). "Methods of milk expression for lactating women". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (2): CD006170. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD006170.pub4. PMID 25722103.
- "Fenugreek Seed for Increasing Supply".
- "Increasing Low Milk Supply".
- Constituents of human milk United Nations University Centre
- Andreas NJ, Kampmann B, Mehring Le-Doare K (November 2015). "Human breast milk: A review on its composition and bioactivity". Early Human Development. 91 (11): 629–35. doi:10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2015.08.013. hdl:10044/1/25981. PMID 26375355.
- Mohrbacher, Nancy (2011-07-10). "Worries About Foremilk and Hindmilk". Breastfeeding USA. Retrieved 1 March 2015.
- Rechtman DJ, Ferry B, Lee ML, Chapel H (2002). "Immunoglobulin A (IgA) content of human breast milk over time". International Journal of Infectious Diseases. 6 (S3): S58. doi:10.1016/s1201-9712(02)90302-4.
- Belitz H (2009). Food Chemistry (4th ed.). Berlin: Springer. p. 501 [table 10.5]. ISBN 978-3-540-69935-4.
- Precht D, Molkentin J (August 1999). "C18:1, C18:2 and C18:3 trans and cis fatty acid isomers including conjugated cis delta 9, trans delta 11 linoleic acid (CLA) as well as total fat composition of German human milk lipids". Die Nahrung. 43 (4): 233–44. doi:10.1002/(sici)1521-3803(19990801)43:4<233::aid-food233>3.3.co;2-2. PMID 10481820.
- Friesen R, Innis SM (October 2006). "Trans fatty acids in human milk in Canada declined with the introduction of trans fat food labeling". The Journal of Nutrition. 136 (10): 2558–61. doi:10.1093/jn/136.10.2558. PMID 16988126.
- Svanborg C, Agerstam H, Aronson A, Bjerkvig R, Düringer C, Fischer W, Gustafsson L, Hallgren O, Leijonhuvud I, Linse S, Mossberg AK, Nilsson H, Pettersson J, Svensson M (2003). HAMLET kills tumor cells by an apoptosis-like mechanism--cellular, molecular, and therapeutic aspects. Advances in Cancer Research. 88. pp. 1–29. doi:10.1016/S0065-230X(03)88302-1. ISBN 9780120066889. PMID 12665051.
- Jenness R (July 1979). "The composition of human milk". Seminars in Perinatology. 3 (3): 225–39. PMID 392766.
- Thorell L, Sjöberg LB, Hernell O (December 1996). "Nucleotides in human milk: sources and metabolism by the newborn infant". Pediatric Research. 40 (6): 845–52. doi:10.1203/00006450-199612000-00012. PMID 8947961.
- Sánchez CL, Cubero J, Sánchez J, Chanclón B, Rivero M, Rodríguez AB, Barriga C (February 2009). "The possible role of human milk nucleotides as sleep inducers". Nutritional Neuroscience. 12 (1): 2–8. doi:10.1179/147683009X388922. PMID 19178785. Archived from the original on 2009-08-12.
- Fride E, Bregman T, Kirkham TC (April 2005). "Endocannabinoids and food intake: newborn suckling and appetite regulation in adulthood" (PDF). Experimental Biology and Medicine. 230 (4): 225–34. doi:10.1177/153537020523000401. PMID 15792943.
- The Endocannabinoid-CB Receptor System: Importance for development and in pediatric disease Neuroendocrinology Letters Nos.1/2, Feb-Apr Vol.25, 2004.
- Cannabinoids and Feeding: The Role of the Endogenous Cannabinoid System as a Trigger for Newborn Suckling Women and Cannabis: Medicine, Science, and Sociology, 2002 The Haworth Press, Inc.
- Wu J, Gouveia-Figueira S, Domellöf M, Zivkovic AM, Nording ML (January 2016). "Oxylipins, endocannabinoids, and related compounds in human milk: Levels and effects of storage conditions". Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators. 122: 28–36. doi:10.1016/j.prostaglandins.2015.11.002. PMID 26656029.
- Brezinova, M (2018). "Levels of palmitic acid ester of hydroxystearic acid (PAHSA) are reduced in the breast milk of obese mothers". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids. 1863 (2): 126–131. doi:10.1016/j.bbalip.2017.11.004. PMID 29154942.
- Williams, Florence (2012-06-16). "The wonder of breasts". The Guardian. London.
- Martín R, Jiménez E, Heilig H, Fernández L, Marín ML, Zoetendal EG, Rodríguez JM (February 2009). "Isolation of bifidobacteria from breast milk and assessment of the bifidobacterial population by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and quantitative real-time PCR". Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 75 (4): 965–9. doi:10.1128/AEM.02063-08. PMC 2643565. PMID 19088308.
- Bode L (November 2015). "The functional biology of human milk oligosaccharides". Early Human Development. 91 (11): 619–22. doi:10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2015.09.001. PMID 26375354.
- Rodekamp E, Harder T, Kohlhoff R, Dudenhausen JW, Plagemann A (2006). "Impact of breast-feeding on psychomotor and neuropsychological development in children of diabetic mothers: role of the late neonatal period". Journal of Perinatal Medicine. 34 (6): 490–6. doi:10.1515/JPM.2006.095. PMID 17140300.
- Wahl A, Baker C, Spagnuolo RA, Stamper LW, Fouda GG, Permar SR, Hinde K, Kuhn L, Bode L, Aldrovandi GM, Garcia JV (November 2015). "Breast Milk of HIV-Positive Mothers Has Potent and Species-Specific In Vivo HIV-Inhibitory Activity". Journal of Virology. 89 (21): 10868–78. doi:10.1128/JVI.01702-15. PMC 4621099. PMID 26292320.
- "Breastfeeding | Health benefits for mother and baby". womenshealth.gov. 2010-08-01. Retrieved 2011-10-26.
- Hernell O, Timby N, Domellöf M, Lönnerdal B (June 2016). "Clinical Benefits of Milk Fat Globule Membranes for Infants and Children". The Journal of Pediatrics. 173 Suppl: S60–5. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2016.02.077. PMID 27234413.
- "What are the LLLI guidelines for storing my pumped milk?". Archived from the original on 2014-07-01. Retrieved 2014-07-16.
- Protocol #8: Human milk storage information for home use for healthy full-term infants. Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine Protocol.
- Department of Health, 1994. Weaning and the weaning diet. Report of the Working Group on the Weaning Diet of the Committee on Medical Aspects of Food Policy. London: HMSO. Report on Health and Social Subjects No 45.
- Vegetarian & Vegan Foundation
- Vegetarian & Vegan Foundation
- FSA, 2002. McCance and Widdowson’s The Composition of Foods, 6th summary edition. Cambridge, England, Royal Society of Chemistry.
- MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia: Cow's milk for infants and children
- Martinez GA, Ryan AS, Malec DJ (1985). "Nutrient intakes of American infants and children fed cow's milk or infant formula". American Journal of Diseases of Children. 139 (10): 1010–8. doi:10.1001/archpedi.1985.02140120056027. PMID 4036886.
- Osborn DA, Sinn JK, Jones LJ (March 2017). "Infant formulas containing hydrolysed protein for prevention of allergic disease and food allergy". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 3: CD003664. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003664.pub4. PMID 28293923.
- "Breastfeeding: Human Milk Versus Animal Milk".
- "Milk, human, mature, fluid Nutrition Facts & Calories". Retrieved 06/10/2018. Check date values in:
- "Breastfeeding" (PDF). Office on Women’s Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 2014. Retrieved 20 July 2017. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
- "Tyroid disease in Women". Office on Women’s Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 1 February 2017. Retrieved 20 July 2017. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
- "Postpartum Thyroiditis" (PDF). American Thyroid Association. 2014. Retrieved 20 July 2017.
- "Guidelines for the identification and management of substance use and substance use disorders in pregnancy" (PDF). World Health Organization. 2014. Retrieved 11 August 2017.
- Silent Snow: The Slow Poisoning of the Arctic by Marla Cone, Grove Press.
- Keim SA, Hogan JS, McNamara KA, Gudimetla V, Dillon CE, Kwiek JJ, Geraghty SR (November 2013). "Microbial contamination of human milk purchased via the Internet". Pediatrics. 132 (5): e1227–35. doi:10.1542/peds.2013-1687. PMC 4530303. PMID 24144714.
- "Refrigerator Thermometers: Cold Facts about Food Safety". U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
- Geraghty SR, Heier JE, Rasmussen KM (2011). "Got milk? Sharing human milk via the Internet". Public Health Reports. 126 (2): 161–4. doi:10.1177/003335491112600204. PMC 3056026. PMID 21387943.
- "Swiss restaurant to serve meals cooked with human breast milk A Swiss gastronomist has stirred a controversy in the tranquil Alpine republic after announcing that he will serve meals cooked with human breast milk". The Daily Telegraph. London. 2008-09-17. Retrieved 2010-04-26.
- Black R (18 September 2008). "Restaurant Drops Plan to Cook with Breast Milk". New York Daily News.
- "Breast milk ice cream goes on sale in Covent Garden". BBC News. London. 2011-02-24. Retrieved 2011-03-07.
- "Baby Gaga breast milk ice cream seized for safety tests". BBC News. London. 2011-03-01. Retrieved 2011-03-07.
- Frissell-Deppe T (2002). A Breastfeeding Mother's Secret Recipes: Breast milk Recipes, Fun Food for Kids and Quick Dishes!. Dracut, MA: JED Publishing.
- Jelliffe DB, Jelliffe EF (1978). Human milk in the modern world : psychosocial nutritional and economic significance. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-264921-8.
- Neporent L (17 February 2015). "Why Bodybuilders Are Pounding Down Breast Milk". ABC News. Retrieved 4 December 2015.
- Easter M (2015-02-19). "Bodybuilders Are Drinking Human Breast Milk. Are They Insane, or Super Insane?". Men's Health. Retrieved 4 December 2015.
- Kraft, Amy (18 June 2015). "Adult health craze for human breast milk poses risks". CBS. Retrieved 13 January 2019.
- Drug Interactions with Human Milk
- Human milk and lactation by Carol L. Wagner (Overview article, eMedicine, December 14, 2010)
- United Nations University Centre - Constituents of human milk - including comparison of human and cow's milk ones
- Children's Health Topics: Breastfeeding
- A comparison between human milk and cow’s milk and The composition of cow’s milk
- Meigs, EB (August 30, 1913) The comparative composition of human milk and of cow's milk, J.Biol.Chem 147-168