Sir Hugh Charles Clifford
|19th Governor of the Straits Settlements|
3 June 1927 – 5 February 1930
|Preceded by||Sir Laurence Guillemard|
|Succeeded by||Sir Cecil Clementi|
|24th Governor of British Ceylon|
30 November 1925 – June 1927
|Preceded by||Edward Bruce Alexander (Acting)|
|Succeeded by||Arthur George Murchison Fletcher (Acting)|
|Governor of Nigeria|
8 August 1919 – 13 November 1925
|Preceded by||Sir Frederick Lugard|
(Governor-General of Nigeria)
|Succeeded by||Sir Graeme Thomson|
|Governor of Gold Coast|
26 December 1912 – 1 April 1919
|Preceded by||James Jamieson Thorburn|
Herbert Bryan (Acting)
|Succeeded by||Alexander Ransford Slater|
|Acting Governor of British Ceylon|
11 July 1907 – 24 August 1907
|Preceded by||Henry Arthur Blake|
|Succeeded by||Henry Edward McCallum|
|Born||5 March 1866|
Roehampton, London, England, United Kingdom
|Died||18 December 1941 (aged 75)|
Roehampton, London, England, United Kingdom
Minna à Beckett
(m. 1896; died 1907)
Elizabeth de la Pasture (m. 1910–1941)
|Children||Hugh Gilbert Francis Clifford (son) |
Mary Agnes Philippa Clifford (daughter)
Monica Elizabeth Mary Clifford (daughter)
|Mother||Josephine Elizabeth Anstice|
|Father||Henry Hugh Clifford|
Clifford was born in Roehampton, London in 5 March 1866, the sixth of the eight children of Major-General Sir Henry Hugh Clifford and his wife Josephine Elizabeth, née Anstice; his grandfather was Hugh Clifford, 7th Baron Clifford of Chudleigh.
Clifford married Minna à Beckett, daughter of Gilbert Arthur à Beckett, on 15 April 1896, and they had one son and two daughters: Hugh Gilbert Francis Clifford, Mary Agnes Philippa and Monica Elizabeth Mary. Minna Clifford died on 14 January 1907.
On 24 September 1910 Hugh Clifford remarried, to Elizabeth Lydia Rosabelle Bonham, CBE, daughter of Edward Bonham of Bramling, Kent, a British consul. A Catholic, she was the widow of Henry Philip Ducarel de la Pasture of Llandogo Priory, Monmouthshire. Clifford thus became stepfather to E. M. Delafield, author of the Provincial Lady series.
Hugh Clifford intended to follow his father Henry Hugh Clifford, a distinguished British Army general, into the military but later decided to join the civil service in the Straits Settlements, with the assistance of his relative Sir Frederick Weld, the then Governor of the Straits Settlements and also the British High Commissioner in Malaya. He was later transferred to the British Protectorate of the Federated Malay States. Clifford arrived in Malaya in 1883, aged 17.
He first became a cadet in the State of Perak. During his twenty years there and on the east coast of the Malay Peninsula in Pahang, Clifford socialised with the local Malays and studied their language and culture deeply. He came to sympathise strongly with and admire certain aspects of the traditional indigenous cultures, while recognising that their transformation as a consequence of the colonial project which he served was inevitable. He was a Government agent of Pahang (1887-1888), Superintendent of Ulu Pahang (1889), served as British Resident at Pahang, 1896–1900 and 1901–1903, and Governor of North Borneo, 1900–1901.
In 1903, he left Malaya to take the post of Colonial Secretary of Trinidad. Later he was appointed Governor of British Ceylon (1907-1912), Governor of the Gold Coast, 1912–1919, Nigeria, 1919–1925, and Ceylon, 1925–1927. During his service in Malaya and afterwards he wrote numerous stories, reflections and novels primarily about Malayan life, many of them imbued with an ambivalent nostalgia. His last posting was, for him, a welcome return to the Malaya he loved, as Governor of the Straits Settlements and British High Commissioner in Malaya, where he served from 1927 until 1930, after which Lady Clifford's ill-health forced his retirement. Alongside his other books he wrote Farther India, which chronicles European explorations and discoveries in Southeast Asia.
Several schools in Malaysia are named Clifford School in his honour, such as;
- SK Clifford, Kuala Lipis
- SMK Clifford, Kuala Lipis
- SK Clifford, Kuala Kangsar
- SMK Clifford, Kuala Kangsar
Clifford is briefly referred to in V. S. Naipaul's The Mimic Men. Though he was Colonial Secretary of Trinidad (second in command to the Governor), in the book he is named as a former Governor of Isabella, a fictitious Caribbean island based on Trinidad.
Clifford Pier in Singapore was built between 1927 and 1933, and was named after Sir Hugh Clifford when he was the former Governor of the Straits Settlements between 1927 and 1930. It was opened on 3 June 1933.
Clifford was appointed Knight Commander of the Order of St Michael and St George (KCMG) in 1909, Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St Michael and St George (GCMG) in the 1921 Birthday Honours, and Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the British Empire (GBE) in 1925.
Clifford died peacefully on 18 December 1941 in his native Roehampton. His widow, Elizabeth, died on 30 October 1945.
- The Catholic Who's Who & Yearbook, 1930
- Everyman's Dictionary of Literary Biography, 3rd ed. (1962)
- "H. E. to leave Singapore on Friday". The Straits Times. 15 October 1929. p. 11.
- Naipaul, V. S. (2011). The Mimic Men. London: Picador. pp. 148–149. ISBN 9780330522922.
- "No. 32346". The London Gazette (Supplement). 4 June 1921. p. 4533.
- First published as: East coast etchings. Singapore : Straits Times Press, 1896.
- Clifford, Hugh (1993) At the court of Pelesu and other Malayan stories. Kuala Lumpur : Oxford University Press, 1993.
- First published as: Stories by Sir Hugh Clifford. Kuala Lumpur : Oxford University Press, 1966.
- Clifford, Hugh (1992) Report of an expedition into Trengganu and Kelantan in 1895. Kuala Lumpur : MBRAS.
- "First published in the Journal of the Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, v. 34 pt. 1 in 1961" --T.p. verso.
- "An expedition to Kelantan and Trengganu : 1895"--cover title.
- Clifford, Hugh (1989) Saleh : a prince of Malaya. Singapore : Oxford University Press.
- Originally published: A prince of Malaya. New York : Harper & Brothers, 1926.
- Clifford, Hugh (1978) Journal of a mission to Pahang : January 15 to April 11, 1887. Honolulu : University of Hawaii, Southeast Asian Studies Program.
- Clifford, Hugh (1970) In a corner of Asia; being tales and impressions of men and things in the Malay Peninsula. Freeport, New York : Books for Libraries Press.
- Biografi Clifford[permanent dead link]
- Cowan, C. D. (Charles Donald)(1961) Nineteenth-century Malaya : the origins of British political control. London : Oxford University Press.
- Swettenham, Frank Athelstane (1907), British Malaya: an account of the origin and progress of British influence in Malaya. London : John Lane the Bodley Head.
- Gailey, Harry A. (1982) Clifford, imperial proconsul. London : Rex Collings.
- Holden, Philip (2000) Modern subjects/colonial texts : Hugh Clifford & the discipline of English literature in the Straits Settlements & Malaya, 1895-1907. Greensboro, North Carolina : ELT Press.
- Works written by or about Hugh Clifford at Wikisource
- Works by Hugh Clifford at Project Gutenberg
- Works by or about Hugh Clifford at Internet Archive
- Works by Hugh Clifford at LibriVox (public domain audiobooks)
- Newspaper clippings about Hugh Clifford in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics (ZBW)
John Pickersgill Rodger
| British Resident of Pahang
| British Resident of Pahang
Leicester Paul Beaufort
| Governor of North Borneo
Sir Ernest Woodford Birch
Henry Arthur Blake
| Acting Governor of Ceylon
Henry Edward McCallum
Herbert Bryan (acting)
| Governor of Gold Coast
Sir Alexander Ransford Slater (acting)
Sir Frederick Lugard
as Governor-General of Nigeria
| Governor of Nigeria
Sir Graeme Thomson
Edward Bruce Alexander
| Governor of Ceylon
Arthur George Murchison Fletcher
Sir Laurence Nunns Guillemard
| Governor of Straits Settlements and
British High Commissioner in Malaya
Sir Cecil Clementi