House of Assembly (Zimbabwe)
The House of Assembly of Zimbabwe is currently the lower of two chambers in the Parliament of Zimbabwe. Between 1989 and 2005, when the Senate didn't exist, the House of Assembly was the only chamber, but it was one of two chambers from independence in 1980 until 1989 and has been so again since 2005.
House of Assembly of Zimbabwe
Jacob Mudenda, ZANU-PF
since 30 July 2018
|30 July 2018|
|Parliament House, Harare, Zimbabwe|
Since the 2013 election, the House of Assembly has had 270 members. Of these, 210 are elected in single-member constituencies. The last 60 seats are reserved for women, and are elected by proportional representation in 10 six-seat constituencies based on the country's provinces. On election day, each voter casts a single ballot, and this is used to assign seats to the parties for both types of seat.
Under the 1980 Constitution, 20 of the 100 seats in the House of Assembly were reserved for the country's white minority, although whites and other ethnic minorities made up only 5% of the population at the time. These seats were abolished by constitutional amendment in 1987.
This size of 100 seats was used for two elections, the 1980 election held immediately before independence and the 1985 election. The 1990 election was the first election after the abolition of the white-reserved seats, and also expanded the House of Assembly to 120 seats, a size which was retained for the 1995 and 2000 elections.
With the 2005 election, the House of Assembly was expanded to 150 members. 120 members were directly elected in single member constituencies using the plurality (or first-past-the-post) system. The President appointed twelve additional members and eight provincial governors who held reserved seats in the House. The remaining ten seats were held by traditional chiefs who were chosen by their peers. All members served five-year terms.
A 2007 law, to take effect after the 2008 election, expanded the House of Assembly to 210 seats and made it a fully elected body. The appointed and ex officio members were transferred to the Senate. The Seventh House of Assembly was opened on August 26, 2008. The additional system of 60 seats reserved for women was established for the 2013 election.
- Electoral system –House of Assembly. IPU
- Zimbabwe Moves to Limit Whites' Role : Legislation Prepared to End a Guarantee of Parliament Seats, Los Angeles Times, June 24, 1987
- Carole Gombakomba, "Zimbabwe's Mugabe Finalizes Constitutional Amendment On Elections"[permanent dead link], VOA News, November 1, 2007.