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Home construction is the process of constructing a home. Beginning with simple pre-historic shelters, home construction techniques have evolved to produce the vast multitude of living accommodations available today. Different levels of wealth and power have warranted various sizes, luxuries, and even defenses in a "home". Environmental considerations and cultural influences have created an immensely diverse collection of architectural styles. From castles to mud thatches, mansions to shanties, the 'home' has grown to represent a seemingly limitless array of structures.
While homes may have originated in pre-history, there are many notable stages through which cultures pass to reach the current level of modernization. Countries and communities throughout the world currently exhibit very diverse concepts of housing, at many different stages of home development.
Finding or buying partsEdit
Two methods for constructing a home can be distinguished: the method in which architects simply assume free choice of materials and parts, and the method in which reclaimed materials are used, and the house is thus during its entire construction a "work in progress" (meaning every single aspect of it is subject to change at any given time, depending on what materials are found).
The second method has been used throughout history, as materials have always been scarce. Nowadays, more advanced sourcing maps (such as the Superuse.org materials map) have become available.
Civil Site Plans, Architectural Drawings and Specifications comprise the document set needed to construct a new home. Specifications consist of a precise description of the materials to be used in construction. Specifications are typically organized by each trade required to construct a home.
The modern family home has many more systems and facets of construction than one might initially believe. With sufficient study, an average person can understand everything there is to know about any given phase of home construction. The do it yourself (DIY) boom of the late twentieth century was due, in large part, to this fact. And an international proliferation of kitset home and prefabricated home suppliers, often consisting of components of Chinese origin has further increased supply and made DIY home building more prevalent.
The process often starts with a planning stage in which plans are prepared by an architect and approved by the client and any regulatory authority. Then the site is cleared, foundations are laid and trenches for connection to services such as sewerage, water, and electricity are established. If the house is wooden-framed, a framework is constructed to support the boards, siding and roof. If the house is of brick construction, then courses of bricks are laid to construct the walls. Floors, beams and internal walls are constructed as the building develops, with plumbing and wiring for water and electricity being installed as appropriate. Once the main structure is complete, internal fitting with lights and other fitments is done, and the house may be decorated and furnished with furniture, cupboards, carpets, curtains and other fittings.[better source needed]
- Shallow foundation
- Light-frame construction
- Domestic water system
- Electrical wiring
- Building envelope
- Retaining walls
- Air conditioning
- Electrical wiring
- Telephone wiring
- Ethernet wiring
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According to data from the U.S. Census and Bureau of Labor Statistics found the average floor area of a home in the United States has steadily increased over the past one hundred years, with an estimated 18.5 square foot increase in the average floor area per year. In 1920, the average floor area was 1,048 square feet (97.4 m2), which rose to 1,500 square feet (140 m2) by 1970 and today sits at around 2,657 square feet (246.8 m2).
Some have criticized the house-building industry. Mass house-builders can be risk averse, preferring cost-efficient building methods rather than adopting new technologies for improved building performance. Traditional vernacular building methods that suit local conditions and climates can be dispensed with in favour of a generic 'cookie cutter' housing type.
- C. J. Richardson (1873), House-building, from a cottage to a mansion, G.P. Putnam's Sons
- "NZ's framing wars". Stuff.
- Gordon, Aaron. "Approaching Home Construction". Aaron Gordon Construction Inc. Archived from the original on 13 February 2015. Retrieved 13 February 2015. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- JoAnn Early Macken (2009), Building a House
- Comen, Evan. "The Size of a Home the Year You Were Born". 247wallst.com. Retrieved 2019-01-28.
- Arieff, Allison (October 2, 2011). "Shifting the Suburban Paradigm". The New York Times. Retrieved 2013-11-03.