History of English cricket (1816–1863)

The Napoleonic Wars had deprived cricket of investment and manpower, particularly after 1810 as the conflict in the Peninsular War reached its height and the invasion of France followed. A recovery began in 1815, the year of the Battle of Waterloo, and a more widespread return to normality can be observed from 1816, although it was not until 1825 that inter-county matches resumed when Kent played Sussex.

The early years of this period were dominated by the roundarm bowling issue and the later years by the overarm bowling issue. Roundarm was legalised in 1835 and the years from then to 1863 have often been called the "roundarm era". Overarm was legalised in 1864.

BackgroundEdit

Cricket was badly impacted by the Napoleonic Wars with a significant loss of both investment and manpower. The scale of the problems increased after 1810 as the Peninsular War escalated and British forces invaded France. A recovery began in 1815, the year of the Battle of Waterloo, and a more widespread return to normality can be observed from 1816, although it was not until 1825 that inter-county matches resumed. Only seven first-class matches were recorded in the whole period from 1811 to 1814 but there were six in 1815 and nine in 1816.

County cricket had been very popular in the 18th century but had disappeared since the demise of the Hambledon Club which had organised matches involving Hampshire teams. During the war years, the big matches had tended to involve town clubs or patrons' "elevens". Cricket was still mostly confined to the south-eastern counties around London though some headway had been made in certain northern locations, especially Nottingham and Sheffield.

Since its foundation in 1787, Marylebone Cricket Club (MCC) had become cricket's most influential organisation, especially in its role as the guardian of the Laws of Cricket and Lord's, its home ground, was the sport's premier venue.

The issue of roundarm bowling had surfaced before the war began but had not been taken seriously and the underarm action prevailed into the 1820s.

The leading players in 1816 included the veteran batsman Billy Beldham; controversial all-rounder Lord Frederick Beauclerk; batsmen E. H. Budd and William Lambert; and bowler Thomas Howard.

MCC and its problemsEdit

By 1816, Lord's had become cricket's feature venue and MCC was gradually increasing its influence and control. During the 19th century, it made efforts to suppress the gambling that had underwritten and sometimes blighted cricket in the past. But MCC was by no means in total control of events. It was the subject of bitter controversy in the post-war period, largely because of the activities of Lord Frederick Beauclerk, one of the sport's more dubious personalities who effectively "ran" the MCC Committee for many years.

In 1825, the club almost foundered in the face of a dual crisis. First, on the night of Thursday, 28 July following a schools match at Lord's between Harrow and Winchester, the pavilion burned down with the consequent loss of valuable scorecards, records and trophies. Thomas Lord claimed he lost £2600 in paid subscriptions, none of which were ever recovered.

Then William Ward, who was a rich banker as well as a good batsman, had to step in and purchase the lease of Lord's ground to save it for cricket. Thomas Lord had been proposing to build houses on the land which brought cries of outrage from the gentlemen players.

Even so, it was many years before the famous ground's future was secured. The lease was transferred to James Dark in 1835 and he retained proprietary till 1864. Then, in 1860, the freehold was sold by the Eyre Estate to a property speculator for £7,000 and MCC did not bid! In 1864, MCC finally did purchase the freehold but paid £18,333 6s 8d for it with money advanced by William Nicholson. The lease expired same year and so, at last, Lord's was owned in its entirety by MCC.

Roundarm to overarmEdit

During the post-war years, there was a discernible shift towards the adoption of roundarm bowling and questions about legalisation of roundarm dominated the sport for thirty years. At the end of the period, bowling reached the final stage of its evolution as overarm bowling began with the same sort of controversy that had accompanied the introduction of roundarm. But this time the controversy was short-lived and overarm was rapidly adopted and legalised between 1862 and 1864.

The roundarm issue was already controversial enough in 1816 for MCC to amend the Laws of Cricket to prohibit it:[1]

The ball must be bowled (not thrown or jerked), and be delivered underhand, with the hand below the elbow. But if the ball be jerked, or the arm extended from the body horizontally, and any part of the hand be uppermost, or the hand horizontally extended when the ball is delivered, the Umpires shall call "No Ball"

Schools, universities and the amateur gentlemanEdit

The importance of cricket in the public schools and universities cannot be overstated, especially the influence of public school cricket and its Victorian ethics upon the growth of the British Empire and the spread of industrialisation. The period saw an increasing number of good amateur players come through the education system and make their mark in first-class cricket.

For more information, see : History of English amateur cricket

Equipment and fashionEdit

Changes in fashion affected the sport and a reaction to the virility cult espoused by Beauclerk and his ilk brought about the introduction of safer equipment such as padded leg-guards and padded gloves. Wicketkeeping gloves were first mentioned about 1820 and were in general use by 1850. Batting pads had been proposed much earlier, particularly by Robert Robinson, but it was not until the horrific leg injury suffered by Alfred Mynn in 1836 from a ball by Sam Redgate that pads were seen as an essential item of equipment.

Curiously, whereas Sam Redgate was viewed with trepidation in terms of his pace, he was very much a reactionary in fashion terms. Among professionals in the 1830s, he was said to be the last to discard breeches in favour of trousers. Trousers have existed since ancient times but never became fashionable until the sans-culottes of the French Revolution. In England, they began to replace breeches during the Napoleonic War and were widely in use by 1815. Redgate was not alone in his preference for breeches: the Eton and Harrow teams still wore them in 1830.

With trousers came the belts with metal clasps that remained popular until well into the 20th century. Many professionals preferred braces.

Wigs went out with the 18th century and men followed the lead of Napoleon Bonaparte by having their long hair cut short. The Hambledon players had worn hats when playing and this fashion persisted except that the style of hat changed dramatically. By 1830, the tall "beaver" hats familiar in pictures of William Lillywhite and Fuller Pilch had become common. These would be either black or white. Many players preferred a straw hat based on the rural style but these were replaced by white bowler hats, first worn by I Zingari in 1845, which were usually adorned with a ribbon in club colours.

The tall hats were replaced before 1850 by the flannel cap which tended to be either white or chequered. Then the familiar cricket cap began to appear. The schools adopted these first: Eton (light blue) and Winchester (blue) in 1851; Harrow (striped) in 1852. The blue caps worn by Cambridge and Oxford date from about 1861 and 1863 respectively. The county clubs gradually introduced their own caps thereafter though the amateurs still tended to wear their school caps.

Coloured shirts were worn in the middle years of the century as team uniforms, though all were a pattern on a white background (e.g., the All-England Eleven wore white shirts with pink spots). The frilled shirts of Georgian times were replaced by plain cloth. Some players wore high collars and many used a rather large bow tie.

Footwear was almost universally confined to the black "Oxford" shoe.

A kind of short white flannel jackets had originally been mentioned as early as 1812 and this was probably an early form of blazer.

County clubs and the spread of cricketEdit

International cricketEdit

By 1816, cricket had already been recorded in Australia, Canada, India, South Africa, the United States and the West Indies. In 1832, the earliest reference to cricket in New Zealand is in a churchman's diary.[citation needed] In the same year, on 5 September, a notice in the Colombo Journal calling for the formation of a cricket club is the earliest reference to cricket in Ceylon (now Sri Lanka).[citation needed] The Colombo Cricket Club was formed soon afterwards and matches began in November 1832.[citation needed]

Cricket achieved a greater geographical spread through the first overseas tours from England to North America in 1859 and Australia in 1861–62. The first international match had taken place in North America in 1844, between Canada and the United States. First-class cricket began in Australia in 1850–51 and the beginning of first-class cricket in each of India, New Zealand and the West Indies was imminent.

County cricketEdit

After the foundation of Sussex County Cricket Club in 1839, several more county clubs were created to replace the loose organisations that had managed county teams formerly. Between 1840 and 1864, Sussex was followed by Kent County Cricket Club, Nottinghamshire County Cricket Club, the original Cambridgeshire County Cricket Club (1844 to 1871), Surrey County Cricket Club (1845), Yorkshire County Cricket Club (1863), Hampshire County Cricket Club (1863) and Middlesex County Cricket Club (1863). Manchester Cricket Club was founded in 1816 and played in first-class matches until 1864 when it was superseded by Lancashire County Cricket Club.[citation needed]

On 30 May 1817, Cambridge University played Cambridge Town Club at Parker's Piece, Cambridge, the first recorded instance of a fixture which became almost annual until the 1860s and the earliest first-class match involving either team.[citation needed] There was a very fine line between Cambridge Town Club and the later Cambridgeshire County Cricket Club, the one dovetailing with the other.[citation needed]

By 1863, cricket had become a nationwide sport in England. The earliest mentions of the sport were recorded in the counties of Staffordshire (1817), Herefordshire (1823), Worcestershire (1829), Westmorland (1827) and Cumberland (1828) during this period, cricket in all other counties having been recorded in earlier times.[2]

On 28 August 1844, a match on Hartlebury Common between teams from Worcestershire and Shropshire is the earliest known reference to a county team in Worcestershire.[citation needed]

In the early 1840s, Dr Henry Grace and his brother-in-law Alfred Pocock had founded the Mangotsfield Cricket Club which merged in 1846 with the West Gloucestershire Cricket Club, whose name was adopted until 1867, after which it became the Gloucestershire County Cricket Club.[citation needed] In 1863, the Cheltenham and Gloucestershire Cricket Club was founded and is believed to have been a forerunner of Gloucestershire County Cricket Club, which had definitely been founded by 1871. Exact details of the club's foundation have been lost.[citation needed]

Travelling elevensEdit

The formation of William Clarke's All-England Eleven and its successors gave cricket a new direction and helped to develop the geographical spread of the game throughout England. This process was facilitated by the "railway boom", the growth of the railway network permitting matches between widely separated opponents.

Chronology of events: 1816–1863Edit

1816Edit

Cricket was still recovering from the effects of the Napoleonic Wars and a total of eight first-class matches were recorded.[3][4][5][6] In the known records, the leading batsman was William Lambert with 363 runs including a highest score of 74; the leading bowler was Thomas Howard with 30 wickets.[citation needed]

Among several debutants was Thomas Beagley, mainly associated with Hampshire, who made 70 known first-class appearances from 1816 to 1839.[7][page needed]

1817Edit

With cricket recovering from the effects of the Napoleonic War, a total of eight first-class matches were recorded in 1817.[8][4][9][10] In the known records, the leading batsman and bowler were again William Lambert and Thomas Howard with 445 runs and 44 wickets respectively. Lambert's highest score was 157.[citation needed]

On 2–5 July, Sussex v Epsom was played at Lord's.[11] William Lambert, guesting for Sussex, scored two centuries (107* & 157) in the match, the first player known to have achieved this feat in a top-class match.[citation needed]

Soon after this achievement, Lambert became embroiled in a match-fixing scandal. It was alleged that he had "sold" an earlier Nottingham v. England match. Nottingham had won the game by 30 runs despite a first innings deficit and many gamblers lost heavily. MCC banned Lambert for life from appearing at Lord's.[citation needed] Whether he was actually guilty is highly questionable[according to whom?] and certainly no proper hearing was ever organised.[citation needed] The whole affair is believed[by whom?] to have been contrived by Lord Frederick Beauclerk who wished to settle an "old score".[citation needed]

According to James Pycroft in The Cricket Field, the size of the wickets was increased in 1817 to 27 inches (690 mm) by 8 inches (200 mm), but it seems more likely[according to whom?] that the rule was introduced in 1819.[citation needed]

1818Edit

After MCC banned Lambert in 1817, his patron George Osbaldeston struck his own name from the MCC members list in anger in 1818. He later repented and tried to restore himself but his application was blocked by his enemy, Beauclerk. Osbaldeston could no longer play at Lord's and that effectively ended his first-class career.[citation needed]

Three first-class matches were recorded in 1818, including two between MCC and Hampshire.[12][4][13][14] In the known records, the leading batsman and bowler were Billy Beldham and Thomas Howard with 103 runs and 14 wickets respectively. Beldham's highest score was 49.[citation needed]

1819Edit

Charles Greville, the noted diarist, made his known debut in first-class cricket when he played for the Gentlemen in the resurrected Gentlemen v Players match at Lord's. He appeared in five first-class matches to 1827, playing for the Gentlemen and MCC.[15] Another debutant was the Sussex fast bowler George Brown, widely known as "Brown of Brighton", who had a reputation for bowling at extreme pace.[16][citation needed]

Six first-class matches were recorded in 1819.[17][4][18][19] In the known records, the leading batsman and bowler were Thomas Beagley and Thomas Howard with 170 runs and 23 wickets respectively. Beagley's highest score was 75.[citation needed] One of the first-class matches, between Hampshire and an England team at Lord's, was twelve-a-side and is a rare exception to the rule of eleven-a-side in first-class cricket.[20]

Gentlemen v Players had first been played in 1806, when there were two matches, but not since then. It was played in most seasons from 1819 to 1962, typically twice a year. The fixture was described by H. S. Altham as the "most famous of all domestic matches".[citation needed] In the 1819 match, the Players won by six wickets. There was only one run between the sides on first innings but the Gentlemen collapsed in the second against the bowling of Thomas Howard and John Sherman to be all out for only 60.[citation needed]

1820Edit

On 24 July, William Ward scored 278 for MCC against Norfolk at Lord's, the earliest-known double century in all forms of cricket.[21][22] Ward established a new world record for the highest individual innings, beating James Aylward's score of 167 in 1777.[citation needed] Ward's record survived for 56 years until W. G. Grace scored the first-ever triple-century with an innings of 344 for the Gentlemen of MCC against Kent at Canterbury in 1876.[citation needed]

Five first-class matches were recorded in 1820.[23][4][24][25] In the known records, the leading batsman and bowler were Ward and George Coles with 361 runs and 17 wickets respectively.[citation needed]

In the fourth Gentlemen v Players match, played at Lord's in June, the Gentlemen selected star Players bowler Thomas Howard as a given man, and won the match by 70 runs.[citation needed]

Two noteworthy debutants were Fuller Pilch (aged 17) and George T. Knight. Pilch, then of Norfolk, later played for Kent and is often considered to have been W. G. Grace's predecessor as the greatest-ever batsman.[citation needed] Knight, who was a nephew of Jane Austen, became a prominent member of MCC and played a significant part in the introduction and legalisation of roundarm bowling between 1825 and 1835. He was himself a fast bowler who favoured the roundarm style.[citation needed]

According to Wisden, a forerunner of Northamptonshire County Cricket Club may have been founded this year but, if so, it was subject to reformation and substantial reorganisation in 1878. The current club recognises 1878 as its foundation date.[citation needed]

The earliest mention of wicket-keeping gloves occurs in 1820.[citation needed]

1821Edit

Five first-class matches were recorded in 1821.[26][4][27][28] In the known records, the leading batsman and bowler were Thomas Beagley and Thomas Howard with 181 runs and 13 wickets respectively.[citation needed]

In the fifth Gentlemen v Players match, played at Lord's in July, Thomas Beagley scored the first century in the series with 113 not out for the Players. The Gentlemen had been dismissed for 60 in their first innings and then, after the Players made 270 for 6, the Gentlemen gave up and conceded the game.[29] It was a "Coronation Match" to celebrate the accession of the unpopular King George IV and Derek Birley commented that it was "a suitably murky affair".[30] The match marked the final first-class appearance of Billy Beldham in a career lasting from 1787.[citation needed]

1822Edit

The roundarm bowling issue came to a head in 1822 when, in the MCC v Kent match at Lord's, John Willes of Kent opened the bowling and was no-balled for using a roundarm action, a style he had attempted to introduce since 1807. Willes promptly withdrew from the match and refused to play again in any important fixture.[31] Roundarm was a natural reaction to the growing predominance of batsmen over the age-old underarm style of bowling. Its adherents argued that the legalisation of roundarm was essential to restore the balance between batting and bowling.[citation needed] However, high-scoring matches were still comparatively rare owing to vagaries in pitch conditions.[citation needed]

Nine first-class matches were recorded in 1822.[32][4][33][34] In the known records, the leading batsman and bowler were E. H. Budd and John Sparks with 354 runs and 27 wickets respectively. Budd's highest score was 87.[citation needed]

The season's debutants included the left-handed batsman James Saunders, noted for his expertise in playing the square cut shot. His career was cut short by his early death from tuberculosis.[35] Benjamin Aislabie became the first secretary of MCC (to 1842).[citation needed]

1823Edit

Seven first-class matches were recorded in 1823.[36][37][38][39] In the known records, the leading batsman and bowler were William Ward and William Ashby with 328 runs and 23 wickets respectively. Ward's highest score was 120.[citation needed]

Henry Bentley published his Correct Account of all Matches, 1786–1822 with supplements appearing to 1825.[2]

The size of the wicket was increased to 27 × 8 inches.[2]

1824Edit

Six first-class matches were recorded in 1824.[40][37][41][42] In the known records, the leading batsman and bowler were James Saunders and Thomas Flavel with 267 runs and 31 wickets respectively. Saunders' highest score was 92.[citation needed]

One of the matches was Gentlemen v Players at Lord's. It was an odds game with 14 on the Gentlemen team, but the Players still won by 103 runs.[43]

There is evidence of a county club having been formed in Devon, though the current Devon County Cricket Club dates from 1899.[2]

1825Edit

The pavilion at Lord's was destroyed by fire. Many irreplaceable documents which recorded early cricket matches are believed to have been lost. The impact of this upon cricket's history is that it is only since 1825 that surviving records can be viewed with anything like complete confidence. Inter-county matches are recorded for the first time since 1796.

On Thursday, 28 July, a schools match at Lord's between Harrow and Winchester had just concluded and then, during the night, the pavilion burned down with the consequent loss of valuable scorecards, records and trophies. Thomas Lord claimed he lost £2600 in paid subscriptions, none of which were ever recovered.[citation needed]

William Ward purchased the lease of Lord's ground from Thomas Lord, who retained freehold. Lord had been proposing to build houses on the land and Ward, a rich banker as well as a cricketer, stepped in and bought the leasehold to save the ground for cricket.[citation needed] It was many years before the ground's future was secured. The lease was transferred to James Dark in 1835 and he retained proprietary till 1864. Then the freehold was sold in 1860 to a property speculator called Isaac Moses for £7,000 (MCC did not bid). In 1864, MCC finally purchased the freehold but paid £18,333 6s 8d for it with money advanced by William Nicholson. The lease expired same year and, since then, Lord's has been entirely owned by MCC.[citation needed]

Charles James Barnett became the earliest known president of MCC. This is an annual appointment and he was succeeded by Beauclerk for 1826. There may have been earlier presidents but there is no record of them, perhaps because the records were lost in the fire.[citation needed]

Eleven first-class matches were recorded in 1825.[44][37][45][46] In the known records, Jem Broadbridge was both the leading batsman and the leading bowler with 552 runs and 31 wickets respectively. His highest score was 135.[citation needed]

Inter-county cricket was revived for the first time since 1796 with Sussex playing two matches each against Hampshire and Kent, the home team winning every time. Hampshire and Kent did not play each other.

Two of the greatest players of the 19th century, bowler William Lillywhite and wicketkeeper Ned Wenman, made their first known appearances. Other debutants included Herbert Jenner who captained Cambridge University in the inaugural university match, played at Lord's in 1827.[47][48]

1826Edit

The revival of inter-county cricket gathered pace and William Clarke made his known first-class debut. Clarke, who played to 1855, was the founder, manager and captain of the All-England Eleven.[citation needed]

Seven first-class matches were recorded in 1826.[49][37][50][51] The leading batsman and bowler were Tom Marsden and William Lillywhite with 227 runs and 27 wickets respectively. Marsden had only one innings, scoring 227.[citation needed]

The Lord's pavilion, gutted by fire in July 1825, was rebuilt in time for MCC's annual dinner on Thursday, 11 May.[citation needed]

Inter-county cricket flourished again, mainly through the efforts of the Sussex county organisation based on the Midhurst club. Sussex played matches against Kent and a combined Hampshire/Surrey team.[citation needed]

24 to 26 July — Yorkshire's first great player Tom Marsden scored 227 for Sheffield and Leicester v Nottingham at the Darnall New Ground in Sheffield. A report said that Marsden batted over eight hours, approximately 4½ hours on the 25th and 3½ hours on the 26th.[citation needed]

5 May — a significant event that would in time accelerate the spread of cricket throughout England was the passage of an Act of Parliament that authorised creation of the Liverpool to Manchester Railway and effectively began the "railway boom".[citation needed]

31 December — death of John Small, the great Hambledon batsman.[citation needed]

First recorded century in a school match: 146 not out by W. Meyrick for Winchester v Harrow.[citation needed]

Arthur Haygarth closed his Scores & Biographies, Volume 1 at the end of the 1826 season.[citation needed]

1827Edit

The controversy surrounding roundarm bowling came to a head before the 1827 season began and three trial matches were played between Sussex and an England XI. No firm conclusions were drawn in the immediate aftermath of the trials and it was many years before roundarm was formally legalised, but in practice roundarm was adopted in 1827 as its practitioners, especially William Lillywhite and Jem Broadbridge of Sussex, continued to use it with little, if any, opposition from umpires.[citation needed] Roundarm's supporters claimed that their campaign was a "march of intellect".[citation needed] Underarm bowling did not cease and continued into the twentieth century with George Simpson-Hayward being the last major exponent.[citation needed]

On 22 August, George Rawlins playing for Sheffield against Nottingham[52] became the first batsman to be out hit the ball twice in a first-class game.[53] This has since occurred only six more times in English first-class cricket, and not since 1906.[citation needed]

On 4–5 June, Cambridge University v Oxford University at Lord's was the first-ever University Match.[citation needed] The result was a draw. The captains were Charles Wordsworth (Oxford) and Herbert Jenner (Cambridge).[citation needed] It became an annual fixture in 1838.[citation needed]

Thirteen first-class matches were recorded in 1827.[37][54][55] The leading batsman and bowler were Tom Marsden and William Ashby with 308 runs and 29 wickets respectively.[citation needed]

Among many debutants in 1827 was William Webb Ellis, the supposed inventor of rugby football while a pupil at Rugby School. He played for Oxford in the first University Match.[56][57]

1828Edit

Following the Sussex v. England roundarm trial matches in 1827, MCC modified Rule 10 of the Laws of Cricket in an attempt at compromise in the roundarm issue. The amendment permitted the bowler's hand to be raised as high as the elbow. In practice, however, Sussex bowlers William Lillywhite and Jem Broadbridge continued to bowl at shoulder height and the umpires didn't no-ball them.[citation needed]

Fourteen first-class matches were recorded in 1828.[37][58][59] As in 1825, Jem Broadbridge was both the leading batsman and the leading bowler. He scored 316 runs and took 46 wickets.[citation needed]

1829Edit

Twelve first-class matches were recorded in 1829.[37][60][61] The leading batsmen were Jem Broadbridge and William Searle who both scored 265 runs. The leading bowler was William Lillywhite who took 42 wickets.[citation needed]

1830Edit

Eleven first-class matches were recorded in 1830.[37][62][63] The leading batsman and bowler were Fuller Pilch and Jem Broadbridge with 235 runs and 27 wickets respectively.[citation needed]

1831Edit

Nine first-class matches were recorded in 1831.[37][64][65] The leading batsman and bowler were Ned Wenman and William Lillywhite with 144 runs and 40 wickets respectively.[citation needed] Wenman was basically an all-rounder but he became best known as the wicket-keeper in the great Kent team of the 1840s.[citation needed]

1832Edit

The season was overshadowed by the death of James Saunders on 27 March. He was only 29 and had been ill with consumption for the last two years. Scores and Biographies states that he was a "great batsman" who "had scarcely reached his prime". He was a fine attacking batsman who had the potential to be one of the greats.[citation needed]

Fifteen first-class matches were recorded in 1832.[66][67][68] The leading batsman and bowler were Fuller Pilch and William Lillywhite with 287 runs and 71 wickets respectively.[citation needed]

1833Edit

Yorkshire was used as a team name for the first time on record because Sheffield were playing against Norfolk, a county team.[citation needed]

John Nyren published The Cricketers Of My Time and The Young Cricketer's Tutor. These works were written from Nyren's recollections by Charles Cowden Clarke and had been serialised in The Town during the previous year.[citation needed]

Eleven first-class matches were recorded in 1833.[69][70][71] The leading batsman and bowler were Tom Marsden and William Lillywhite with 181 runs and 37 wickets respectively.[citation needed]

1834Edit

Thirteen first-class matches were recorded in 1834.[69][72][73] The leading batsman and bowler were Fuller Pilch and William Lillywhite with 551 runs and 38 wickets respectively.[citation needed]

1835Edit

Powerless to prevent the use of roundarm, MCC finally amended the Laws of Cricket to make it legal. The relevant part of the Law stated: if the hand be above the shoulder in the delivery, the umpire must call No Ball. Bowlers' hands now started to go above the shoulder and the 1835 Law had to be reinforced in 1845 by removing benefit of the doubt from the bowler in the matter of his hand's height when delivering the ball.[citation needed] The Laws were also changed to enforce a compulsory follow on if the team batting second was 100 runs behind on first innings.[citation needed]

Nottinghamshire as a county team, and perhaps also as a county club, played its first inter-county match v. Sussex at Brown's Ground, Brighton on 27, 28 & 29 August. Previous matches involved Nottingham as a town rather than Nottinghamshire as a county. Nottinghamshire is recognised as a first-class county team from 1835.[citation needed]

The lease of Lord's Ground was transferred to J. H. Dark, who remained proprietor until 1864.[74]

Thirteen first-class matches were recorded in 1835.[69][75][76] The leading run-scorer was James Cobbett with 156 runs and the leading wicket-taker was William Lillywhite with 42 wickets.[citation needed]

1836Edit

Seventeen first-class matches were recorded in 1836.[69][77][78] The leading run-scorer was Alfred Mynn with 407 and the leading wicket-taker was William Lillywhite with 51.[citation needed]

It was about this time that batting pads were invented.[citation needed]

The first real move took place towards the establishment of a county club. Although Sussex had been a major centre of cricket since the 17th century, there had apparently been no move towards a permanent county organisation until 17 June 1836 when a meeting in Brighton set up a Sussex Cricket Fund to support county matches. It was from this organisation that Sussex County Cricket Club was formally constituted in 1839.[citation needed]

The inaugural North v South fixture between the North of England and South of England cricket teams was held at Lord's on 11 & 12 July.[citation needed] The North won by 6 wickets.[79]

1837Edit

Eighteen first-class matches were recorded in 1837.[69][80][81] The leading run-scorer was Fuller Pilch with 372 and the leading wicket-taker was William Lillywhite with 99.[citation needed]

This season saw the beginning of Kent's dominance of English cricket which lasted through the 1840s. Mainstays of the Kent team in those years included Alfred Mynn, Fuller Pilch, Nicholas Felix, Ned Wenman and William Hillyer. The team claimed a total of eight Champion County titles between 1837 and 1849.[citation needed]

1838Edit

Fifteen first-class matches were recorded in 1838.[69][82][83] The leading run-scorer was Charles Taylor with 339 and the leading wicket-taker was James Cobbett with 71.[citation needed]

Melbourne Cricket Club founded.[citation needed]

Opening of the Trent Bridge ground in Nottingham by William Clarke.[citation needed]

1839Edit

Eighteen first-class matches were recorded in 1839.[69][84][85] The leading run-scorer was Ned Wenman with 332 and the leading wicket-taker was James Cobbett with 85.[citation needed]

1 March. Formation of Sussex County Cricket Club out of the Sussex Cricket Fund organisation that had been set up in 1836. Sussex was formally established as the first county cricket club and replaced the ad hoc county elevens representing the traditional county of Sussex in top-class cricket.[citation needed]

The new Sussex club played its initial first-class match versus MCC at Lord's on 10 & 11 June.[citation needed]

1840Edit

Eighteen first-class matches were recorded in 1840.[86][87][88] The leading run-scorer was Charles Hawkins with 274 and the leading wicket-taker was William Lillywhite with 83.[citation needed]

1841Edit

22 first-class matches were recorded in 1841.[86][89][90] The leading run-scorer was Fuller Pilch with 413 and the leading wicket-taker was Alfred Mynn with 94.[citation needed]

March/April. Formal creation of Nottinghamshire County Cricket Club. The exact date has been lost and it is possible that an informal county club may have been created in 1835 out of the old Nottingham town club. The official foundation of Nottinghamshire is dated 1841 although the club may already have been in existence since 1835 as a county-wide expansion of the old Nottingham Cricket Club.[citation needed]

The Duke of Wellington issued an order that a cricket ground must be made as an adjunct to every military barracks.[citation needed]

1842Edit

24 first-class matches were recorded in 1842.[86][91][92] The leading run-scorer was Nicholas Felix with 406 and the leading wicket-taker was William Hillyer with 127.[citation needed]

6 August. Formation of the original Kent County Cricket Club in Canterbury; it was reformed as the present club in 1859. Teams representing Kent had been playing regularly since the early 18th century but these were invariably ad hoc sides raised by wealthy patrons. Kent's Canterbury Week and The Old Stagers were instituted.[citation needed]

The new Kent club played its initial first-class match against an England XI at the White Hart Ground, Bromley on 25, 26 & 27 August.[citation needed]

Roger Kynaston succeeded Benjamin Aislabie as secretary of MCC (to 1858).[citation needed]

1843Edit

27 first-class matches were recorded in 1843.[86][93][94] The leading run-scorer was Charles Taylor with 372 and the leading wicket-taker was William Hillyer with 133.[citation needed]

1844Edit

27 first-class matches were recorded in 1844.[86][95][96] The leading run-scorer was Fuller Pilch with 517 and the leading wicket-taker was William Hillyer with 142.[citation needed]

1845Edit

30 first-class matches were recorded in 1845.[97][98][99] The leading run-scorer was Fuller Pilch with 569 and the leading wicket-taker was William Hillyer with 174.[citation needed]

I Zingari (the Gypsies) formed as a travelling club.[citation needed]

Surrey County Cricket Club was officially founded. Although several earlier county organisations had existed going back to 1709, the present Surrey County Cricket Club was formed at a meeting which took place at the new Kennington Oval during a match between two local teams on 21 & 22 August.[citation needed]

1846Edit

28 first-class matches were recorded in 1846.[97][100][101] The leading run-scorer was Thomas Box with 413 and the leading wicket-taker was William Hillyer with 152.[citation needed]

The earliest first-class match at The Oval was Surrey Club v. MCC on 25 & 26 May. Only 194 runs were scored in the match with a top score of 13. William Hillyer took 14 wickets to help MCC win by 48 runs.[citation needed]

Surrey County Cricket Club played its initial first-class match v. Kent at The Oval on 25 & 26 June, winning by 10 wickets.[citation needed]

The last match played for the Single Wicket Championship was between Alfred Mynn and Nicholas Felix.[citation needed]

Fenner's was opened in Cambridge and leased by CUCC from 1873 (the freehold was purchased in 1892).[citation needed]

The Telegraph Score Board was introduced at Lord's. Scorecards were sold at Lord's for the first time.[citation needed]

Social conditions, including the railways, were a key factor in the creation of the travelling All-England Eleven (AEE). The team was founded in Nottingham by William Clarke. The first AEE match was at Sheffield in September and they played others in Manchester and Leeds. The original AEE team was: William Clarke, Jemmy Dean, William Dorrinton, Fuller Pilch, Alfred Mynn, Joe Guy, Will Martingell, Tom Sewell, G Butler, VC Smith and William Hillyer. Other players who represented the AEE in its early days included George Parr, William Lillywhite, Nicholas Felix, William Denison, Thomas Box and OC Pell.[citation needed]

William Clarke founded his All-England Eleven (the AEE) which, taking advantage of the railways, travelled throughout Great Britain and was a significant factor in the spread of cricket throughout the country.[citation needed]

Social conditions, including the railways, were a major factor in the debut of the travelling All England Eleven (AEE). The team was founded in Nottingham by William Clarke, who also opened the Trent Bridge cricket ground. The first AEE match was at Sheffield in September and they played others in Manchester and Leeds.[citation needed]

The All England Eleven played its inaugural fixture against a Sheffield XX in September. The AEE team was: W Clarke, J Dean, W Dorrinton, F Pilch, A Mynn, J Guy, W Martingell, T Sewell, G Butler, VC Smith and W Hillyer. Other players who represented the AEE in its early days included G Parr, FW Lillywhite, N Felix, W Denison, T Box and OC Pell.[citation needed]

1847Edit

26 first-class matches were recorded in 1847.[97][102][103] The leading run-scorer was Nicholas Felix with 591 and the leading wicket-taker was William Hillyer with 134.[citation needed]

1847 was the 61st season of cricket in England since the foundation of Marylebone Cricket Club (MCC). Kent had a strong team including Nicholas Felix, William Hillyer, Alfred Mynn and Fuller Pilch. A noted highlight was the first recorded "match double" in an important match.[citation needed]

27 to 29 May: In the game between MCC and Oxford University, William Hillyer completes the first recorded "match double" of 100 runs and ten wickets in a first-class game,[104] scoring 26 and 83 and taking thirteen wickets.[105] The feat was not accomplished again until 1859 when Edward Walker achieved it, but since then has been accomplished numerous times, most frequently by W. G. Grace.[104]

1848Edit

28 first-class matches were recorded in 1848.[97][106][107] The leading run-scorer was George Parr with 339 and the leading wicket-taker was William Hillyer with 85.[citation needed]

18 July. Birth of W. G. Grace at Downend, near Bristol.[citation needed]

There was an increase in northern matches with the main town clubs regularly challenging each other. The last top-class single wicket event was held.[citation needed]

Sheffield Cricket Club played home and away against both Manchester Cricket Club and Nottingham Cricket Club.[108]

1849Edit

29 first-class matches were recorded in 1849.[109][110][111] The leading run-scorer was George Parr with 529 and the leading wicket-taker was William Hillyer with 141.[citation needed]

23, 24 & 25 July. Sheffield Cricket Club versus Manchester Cricket Club at Hyde Park Ground, Sheffield has been labelled Yorkshire v Lancashire and, therefore, the first Roses match. Yorkshire won by 5 wickets. The first match between the two county clubs took place in 1867 after Yorkshire County Cricket Club was founded in 1863 and Lancashire County Cricket Club in 1864.[citation needed]

The first Roses Match took place during this season.[citation needed]

23 to 25 July. Sheffield Cricket Club, playing as "Yorkshire", and Manchester Cricket Club, playing as "Lancashire", met at Hyde Park in Sheffield. It was the first match to involve teams called Yorkshire and Lancashire so was, therefore, the first Roses match. Yorkshire won by 5 wickets.[citation needed]

1850Edit

25 first-class matches were recorded in 1850.[112][113][114] The leading run-scorer was John Wisden with 374 and he was also the leading wicket-taker with 103.[citation needed]

John Wisden bowled all ten batsmen in one innings playing for North v. South at Lord's.[citation needed]

About this time the mowing machine began to be used on cricket grounds, but sheep continued to be used at Lord's for many more years.[citation needed]

The basic wicket-keeping gloves evolved into the now familiar padded gauntlets.[citation needed]

The re-emergence occurred of Middlesex as a county team, largely through the efforts of the Walker family that eventually founded the present Middlesex County Cricket Club.[citation needed]

1851Edit

33 first-class matches were recorded in 1851.[112][115][116] The leading run-scorer was George Chatterton with 455 and the leading wicket-taker was James Grundy with 114.[citation needed]

11–12 February. Tasmania v Victoria at Launceston Racecourse was the initial first class match in Australia. Tasmania won by 3 wickets.[citation needed]

Oxford University CC rented the Magdalen Ground at Cowley. They migrated to The Parks in 1881.[citation needed]

1852Edit

31 first-class matches were recorded in 1852.[112][117][118] The leading run-scorer was Nicholas Felix with 529 and the leading wicket-taker was James Grundy with 103.[citation needed]

The United All England Eleven was established as a rival to the AEE. Jemmy Dean and John Wisden were the main organisers and other players to represent the UEE in its early years included John Lillywhite, Tom Lockyer, Jem Grundy, F. P. Miller, W. Mortlock and T. Sherman.[citation needed]

27 July. John Sherman made his final first-class appearance for Manchester v. Sheffield at Hyde Park, Sheffield. His career had spanned 44 seasons from his debut at Lord's on 20 September 1809 when he played for Beauclerk's XI v. Ladbroke's XI. His was the longest first-class career span, equalled only by W. G. Grace.[citation needed]

1853Edit

27 first-class matches were recorded in 1853.[119][120][121] The leading run-scorer was Jemmy Dean with 372 and the leading wicket-taker was James Grundy with 87.[citation needed]

1854Edit

29 first-class matches were recorded in 1854.[119][122][123] The leading run-scorer was Jemmy Dean with 516 and the leading wicket-taker was John Wisden with 106.[citation needed]

Last of the Public Schools Weeks (Eton, Harrow, Winchester) at Lord's.[citation needed]

The follow-on differential was reduced to 80 (60 in a one-day match).[citation needed]

1855Edit

24 first-class matches were recorded in 1855.[119][124][125] The leading run-scorer was John Wisden with 422 and the leading wicket-taker was Jemmy Dean with 98.[citation needed]

26–27 March. Victoria v. New South Wales at Melbourne was the earliest first class match played by New South Wales. They won by three wickets.[citation needed]

William Clarke took at least 476 wickets in the season in all matches.[citation needed]

Opening of the Bramall Lane Ground in Sheffield.[citation needed]

It was a successful season for Sussex, largely thanks to the combined efforts of Dean and Wisden.[citation needed]

1856Edit

24 first-class matches were played.[119][126][127] John Lillywhite was the leading run-scorer with 620 and John Wisden was the leading wicket-taker with 73.[citation needed]

1857Edit

31 first-class matches were played.[128][129][130] All-rounder William Caffyn was both the leading run-scorer, with 612 @ 18.00, and the leading wicket-taker with 126.[citation needed]

The AEE and UEE began an annual series of matches against each other that continued until 1869. The fixture was the most important of the season while it lasted. Two games were played in 1857, both at Lord's and both won by the AEE.[citation needed]

AEE players in 1857 included: George Parr (captain), Alfred Diver, H. H. Stephenson, Julius Caesar, Cris Tinley, George Anderson, Ned Willsher and John Jackson.[citation needed]

UEE players in 1857 included: John Wisden (captain), Jemmy Dean, Jem Grundy, William Caffyn, John Lillywhite, Tom Lockyer, Will Mortlock and Will Martingell.[citation needed]

Jem Grundy became the first player to be given out handling the ball when playing for MCC v. Kent at Lord's.[citation needed]

The Cricketers Fund Friendly Society was instituted.[citation needed] For ten years the great match between the AEE and the UEE was played in its support. From 1884, until his death, Lord Harris was its president, and the society has done invaluable work for professional cricketers and their dependents.[citation needed]

1858Edit

28 first-class matches were played.[131][132][133] William Caffyn was the leading run-scorer with 516 @ 21.50. John Jackson was the leading wicket-taker with 102.[citation needed]

Alfred Baillie succeeded Roger Kynaston as secretary of MCC (to 1863).[citation needed]

1859Edit

 
The first English touring team pictured on board ship at Liverpool: standing at left Robert Carpenter, William Caffyn, Tom Lockyer; middle row John Wisden, H. H. Stephenson, George Parr, Jem Grundy, Julius Caesar, Thomas Hayward, John Jackson; front row Alfred Diver, John Lillywhite.

On 1 March, the formation of the present Kent County Cricket Club.[citation needed]

30 first-class matches were played.[131][134][135] James Grundy was the leading run-scorer with 530 @ 17.09. John Jackson was the leading wicket-taker with 83.[citation needed]

The earliest reference to a hat being presented to a bowler who had taken wickets with three successive deliveries, hence hat-trick.[citation needed]

On 21, 22 & 23 July, V. E. Walker of Middlesex, playing for England v. Surrey at The Oval, took all ten wickets in the Surrey first innings and followed by scoring 108 in the England second innings, having been the not out batsman in the first (20*). He took a further four wickets in Surrey's second innings. England won by 392 runs.[citation needed]

On 7 September, the departure of cricket's first-ever touring team. A photograph was taken on board ship before they sailed from Liverpool. The team of English professionals went to North America and played five matches, winning them all. There were no first-class fixtures.[citation needed] The 12-man squad was: George Parr (captain), James Grundy, John Jackson (all of Nottinghamshire); Robert Carpenter, Alfred Diver, Thomas Hayward (all of Cambridgeshire); Julius Caesar, William Caffyn, Tom Lockyer, H. H. Stephenson (all of Surrey); John Lillywhite, John Wisden (both of Sussex).[citation needed]

1860Edit

The Eyre Estate sold the freehold of Lord's at public auction to Isaac Moses, a property speculator, for £7,000. MCC did not bid.[citation needed] James Dark retained the leasehold until 1864 when he resigned it to MCC, who subsequently bought the freehold at considerable profit to Mr Moses.[citation needed]

30 first-class matches were played.[131][136][137] Thomas Hayward was the leading run-scorer with 557 @ 26.52. John Jackson was the leading wicket-taker with 109 @ 9.20.[citation needed]

1861Edit

 
The English team of 1861–62 just prior to their departure for Australia: left to right Will Mortlock, William Mudie, George Bennett, Charles Lawrence, H. H. Stephenson, W. B. Mallam (organiser), William Caffyn, George Griffith, Tom Hearne, Roger Iddison, Tom Sewell, Ned Stephenson. Not in photo: George Wells.

On 7 March, a Match Fund Committee to run Yorkshire county matches was established in Sheffield, which had been the home of Yorkshire cricket for nearly 100 years. It was from this fund that Yorkshire County Cricket Club was founded two years later: an exact parallel with the formation of Sussex County Cricket Club from a similar fund (1836–1839).[citation needed]

In the 1861 season, 36 first-class matches were played.[138][139][140] Robert Carpenter was the leading run-scorer with 883 @ 30.44. Edgar Willsher was the leading wicket-taker with 87 @ 11.65.[citation needed]

H. H. Stephenson (Surrey) captained the first English team to tour Australia. The other players were William Caffyn, Will Mortlock, George Griffith, William Mudie, Tom Sewell junior (all Surrey); Roger Iddison, Ned Stephenson (both Yorkshire); Tom Hearne, Charles Lawrence (both Middlesex); George Wells (Sussex); and George Bennett (Kent). H. H. Stephenson and Caffyn had toured America in 1859. They were abroad from October until May 1862. One first-class match was played and twelve, mostly against odds of at least 18 to 11, that were non-first-class.[citation needed]

1862Edit

On 26 August, Surrey played against an England XI at The Oval. Edgar Willsher of England was no-balled six times in succession by John Lillywhite (son of William Lillywhite) for bowling with his hand above the shoulder. For some years previously, Willsher and others had bowled in this way and the incident at The Oval put the issue into context. The drama was exaggerated when Willsher and the other eight professionals in the England team walked off the field. Play continued next day but with a replacement umpire.[citation needed]

Compared with the introduction of roundarm, this controversy was short-lived and overarm bowling was legalised in 1864.[citation needed]

Publication of vols. 1–4 of Scores and Biographies, compiled by Arthur Haygarth. This work recorded the full scores of all discoverable matches from 1744 onwards.[citation needed]

In the 1862 season, 39 first-class matches were played.[141][142][143] Thomas Hayward was the leading run-scorer with 661 @ 31.47. George Tarrant was the leading wicket-taker with 96 @ 10.07.[citation needed]

1863Edit

Three county clubs were founded in 1863. On 8 January, Yorkshire County Cricket Club was founded out of the Sheffield Match Fund Committee that had been established in 1861. Yorkshire played their inaugural first-class match against Surrey at The Oval on 4, 5 & 6 June. It was a rain-affected draw, evenly balanced.[citation needed] Hampshire County Cricket Club was founded on 12 August. A number of previous county organisations including the famous Hambledon Club had existed in Hampshire for over a century, but none had survived indefinitely.[citation needed] On 15 December, Middlesex County Cricket Club was founded at a meeting in the London Tavern.[citation needed]

Robert Allan Fitzgerald succeeded Alfred Baillie, who resigned due to ill health, as secretary of MCC. Fitzgerald became the first paid secretary from 1 January 1867 and remained in office until 1876.[citation needed]

In the 1863 season, a total of 36 first-class matches were played. They included two Gentlemen v Players and three North v South fixtures.[141][144][145] The season's leading run-scorer was Will Mortlock with 736 @ 26.28 and the leading wicket-taker was George Wootton with 87 @ 9.74.[citation needed]

See alsoEdit

Although this article mentions some events in other countries, these are connected with the introduction of cricket from England and into those countries. For additional information about the development of the game in the main cricket-playing countries outside England during the period, see:

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BibliographyEdit

Further readingEdit

External linksEdit