Sambalpur State

(Redirected from Hirakhand)

Sambalpur State, also known as Hirakhand Kingdom was a kingdom founded in 1570. It ruled over Western Odisha and Eastern Chhattisgarh in central-eastern India prior to the Maratha occupation in 1800 AD. From 1849 AD it was integrated with British Raj as a British District. Its capital was present-day Sambalpur city in Western Odisha.

Sambalpur State
ସମ୍ବଲପୁର
Princely State of British India
1570–1848

Former state of Sambalpur as a British district in pink in the Imperial Gazetteer of India
CapitalSambalpur
Area 
• 1901
1,399 km2 (540 sq mi)
Population 
• 1901
79,900
History 
• Foundation of the state
1570
• Annexed by the British Raj
1848
Succeeded by
Presidencies and provinces of British India
The old fort of Sambalpur in 1825

History

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Sambalpur State was founded in mid 16th century by Balarama Deva,[1] a Rajput from Chauhan dynasty and younger brother of kingdom of Patna ruler Raja Narsingh Deva. In 1570 CE, the kingdom of Patna, ruled by the Chauhan dynasty was bifurcated. The southern portion of the Ang River was ruled by Narasingh Deva and his brother Balaram Deva received the northern side of the river of Sambalpur region. Balaram Deb established his new capital at Sambalpur. Sambalpur was ruled by the Chauhan dynasty till 1800. The kingdom of Sambalpur was also known as Hirakhand and Sambalpur was its capital.[2][3]

The Garhjat states were eighteen vassal states under Sambalpur State.[4] The Sambalpur kings favoured Sarangarh State owing to the readiness of its rulers to help their kingdom during military campaigns. Sambalpur was ruled by the Chauhan dynasty till 1800 when Sambalpur came under the Bhonsle dynasty of Nagpur State.[5]

Sambalpur was invaded and occupied by the Marathas between 1808 and 1817. After the Third Anglo-Maratha War in 1817 the British Government returned Sambalpur to the Chauhan king, Jayant Singh, but his authority over its eighteen vassal states was withdrawn. The state was placed under British administration from 1818 to 1820, when local rule was restored and the principality became a British protectorate. When the ruler or the state died without a direct male heir in 1849, the British seized the state under the doctrine of lapse.

In 1857 during the Sepoy Mutiny there was a rebellion led by Surendra Sai of the Sambalpur ruling family, later renowned as 'Veer' (hero) Surendra Sai. The mutineers broke open the prison at Hazaribagh, where Surendra Sai was imprisoned and released all the prisoners. Surendra Sai fought against the British after reaching Sambalpur, eventually surrendering when the British suppressed the rebellion. In 1858 when Sambalpur was put under British administration it initially became part of the Cuttack division of the Bengal Presidency, but was transferred to the Central Provinces in 1862.[6]

Rulers

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The rulers of Sambalpur state of the Chauhan Dynasty:[2][7]

  • Balarama Deva (1570 - 1595 CE)
  • Hrdayanarayana Deva (1595 - 1605)
  • Balabhadra Deva (1605 - 1630)
  • Madhukar Deva (1630-1660)
  • Baliar Deva (1650-1688)
  • Ratan Singh (1688 - 1690)
  • Chhatra Sai (1690 - 1725)
  • Ajit Singh (1725 - 1766)
  • Abhaya Singh (1766-1778)
  • Balabhadra Singh (1778 - 1781)
  • Jayanta Singh (1781 - 1818)
  • Maharaj Sai (1820 - 1827)
  • Rani Mohan Kumari (f) (1827 - 1833)
  • Narayan Singh (1833 - 1849)
  • Surendra Sai (in rebellion) (1809 - 1884)

See also

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References

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  1. ^ Orissa District Gazetteers, Appendix III, pp. 86–87
  2. ^ a b Raghumani Naik (5 May 2018), CHAUHANS RULE IN SAMBALPUR IN PRECOLONIAL ODISHA (1570–1781 A.D.) (PDF), IJRHRSS, retrieved 12 March 2021
  3. ^ Raghumani Naik (3 March 2018), GENEALOGICAL ANALYSIS OF CHAUHAN RULERS OF PATNAGARH IN WESTERN ORISSA: A STUDY, IRJHRSS, retrieved 12 March 2021
  4. ^ Sarangarh Princely State
  5. ^ Great Britain India Office. The Imperial Gazetteer of India. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1908.
  6. ^ Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Sambalpur" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 24 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 113.
  7. ^ Princely States of India
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21°28′N 83°58′E / 21.47°N 83.97°E / 21.47; 83.97