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Hindu texts are manuscripts and historic literature related to any of the diverse traditions within Hinduism. A few texts are shared resources across these traditions and broadly considered as Hindu scriptures.[1][2] These include the Vedas and the Upanishads. Scholars hesitate in defining the term "Hindu scripture" given the diverse nature of Hinduism,[2][3] many include Bhagavad Gita and Agamas as Hindu scriptures,[2][3][4] while Dominic Goodall includes Bhagavata Purana and Yajnavalkya Smriti to the list of Hindu scriptures.[2]

There are two historic classifications of Hindu texts:

The Śruti refers to the body of most authoritative, ancient religious texts, believed to be eternal knowledge authored neither by human nor divine agent but transmitted by sages (rishi). These comprise the central canon of Hinduism.[5][7] It includes the four Vedas including its four types of embedded texts - the Samhitas, the Brahmanas, the Aranyakas and the early Upanishads.[8] Of the Shrutis (Vedic corpus), the Upanishads alone are widely influential among Hindus, considered scriptures par excellence of Hinduism, and their central ideas have continued to influence its thoughts and traditions.[9][10]

The Smriti texts are a specific body of Hindu texts attributed to an author,[8] as a derivative work they are considered less authoritative than Sruti in Hinduism.[6] The Smrti literature is a vast corpus of diverse texts, and includes but is not limited to Vedāngas, the Hindu epics, the Sutras and Shastras, the texts of Hindu philosophies, the Puranas, the Kāvya or poetical literature, the Bhasyas, and numerous Nibandhas (digests) covering politics, ethics, culture, arts and society.[11][12]

Many ancient and medieval Hindu texts were composed in Sanskrit, many others in regional Indian languages. In modern times, most ancient texts have been translated into other Indian languages and some in Western languages.[2] Prior to the start of the common era, the Hindu texts were composed orally, then memorized and transmitted orally, from one generation to next, for more than a millennia before they were written down into manuscripts.[13][14] This verbal tradition of preserving and transmitting Hindu texts, from one generation to next, continued into the modern era.[13][14]

Contents

The VedasEdit

Manuscripts of 18th-century Hindu texts in Sanskrit and in a regional language Odiya (below)

The Vedas are a large body of Hindu texts originating in ancient India, with its Samhita and Brahmanas complete before about 800 BCE.[15] Composed in Vedic Sanskrit, the texts constitute the oldest layer of Sanskrit literature and the oldest scriptures of Hinduism.[16][17][18] Hindus consider the Vedas to be apauruṣeya, which means "not of a man, superhuman"[19] and "impersonal, authorless".[20][21][22] The knowledge in the Vedas is believed in Hinduism to be eternal, uncreated, neither authored by human nor by divine source, but seen, heard and transmitted by sages.[7]

Vedas are also called śruti ("what is heard") literature,[23] distinguishing them from other religious texts, which are called smṛti ("what is remembered"). The Veda, for orthodox Indian theologians, are considered revelations, some way or other the work of the Deity.[24] In the Hindu Epic the Mahabharata, the creation of Vedas is credited to Brahma.[25]

There are four Vedas:Edit

Sub-Classification of Veda:Edit

Each Veda has been Sub-Classified into four major text types:-

  • The Samhitas (mantras and benedictions),
  • The Aranyakas (text on rituals, ceremonies, sacrifices and symbolic-sacrifices),
  • The Brahmanas (commentaries on rituals, ceremonies and sacrifices), and
  • The Upanishads (text discussing meditation, philosophy and spiritual knowledge).[26][28][29]

The UpanishadsEdit

The Upanishads are a collection of Hindu texts which contain some of the central philosophical concepts of Hinduism.[30][note 1]

The Upanishads are commonly referred to as Vedānta, variously interpreted to mean either the "last chapters, parts of the Veda" or "the object, the highest purpose of the Veda".[31] The concepts of Brahman (Ultimate Reality) and Ātman (Soul, Self) are central ideas in all the Upanishads,[32][33] and "Know your Ātman" their thematic focus.[33] The Upanishads are the foundation of Hindu philosophical thought and its diverse traditions.[10][34] Of the Vedic corpus, they alone are widely known, and the central ideas of the Upanishads have had a lasting influence on Hindu philosophy.[9][10]

More than 200 Upanishads are known, of which the first dozen or so are the oldest and most important and are referred to as the principal or main (mukhya) Upanishads.[35][36] The mukhya Upanishads are found mostly in the concluding part of the Brahmanas and Aranyakas[37] and were, for centuries, memorized by each generation and passed down verbally. The early Upanishads all predate the Common Era, some in all likelihood pre-Buddhist (6th century BCE),[38] down to the Maurya period.[39] Of the remainder, some 95 Upanishads are part of the Muktika canon, composed from about the start of common era through medieval Hinduism. New Upanishads, beyond the 108 in the Muktika canon, continued being composed through the early modern and modern era, though often dealing with subjects unconnected to Hinduism.[40][41]

The PuranasEdit

The Puranas are a vast genre of Hindu texts that encyclopedically cover a wide range of topics, particularly myths, legends and other traditional lore.[42] Composed primarily in Sanskrit, but also in regional languages,[43][44] several of these texts are named after major Hindu deities such as Lord Vishnu, Lord Shiva and Goddess Devi.[45][46] The Puranas genre of literature is found in both Hinduism and Jainism.

The Puranic literature is encyclopedic,[47] and it includes diverse topics such as cosmogony, cosmology, genealogies of gods, goddesses, kings, heroes, sages, and demigods, folk tales, pilgrimages, temples, medicine, astronomy, grammar, mineralogy, humor, love stories, as well as theology and philosophy.[42][44][45] The content is highly inconsistent across the Puranas, and each Purana has survived in numerous manuscripts which are themselves inconsistent.[43] The Hindu Puranas are anonymous texts and likely the work of many authors over the centuries; in contrast, most Jaina Puranas can be dated and their authors assigned.[43]

There are 18 Maha Puranas (Great Puranas) and 18 Upa Puranas (Minor Puranas),[48] with over 400,000 verses.[42] The Puranas do not enjoy the authority of a scripture in Hinduism,[48] but are considered a Smriti.[49] These Hindu texts have been influential in the Hindu culture, inspiring major national and regional annual festivals of Hinduism.[50] The Bhagavata Purana has been among the most celebrated and popular text in the Puranic genre.[51][52]

Vyasa, the narrator of the Mahabharata, is hagiographically credited as the compiler of the Puranas. The date of the production of the written texts does not define the date of origin of the Puranas. They existed in an oral form before being written down, and were incrementally modified well into the 16th century. Wendy Doniger, based on her study of indologists, assigns approximate dates to the various Puranas. She dates Markandeya Purana to c. 250 CE (with one portion dated to c. 550 CE), Matsya Purana to c. 250–500 CE, Vayu Purana to c. 350 CE, Harivamsa and Vishnu Purana to c. 450 CE, Brahmanda Purana to c. 350–950 CE, Vamana Purana to c. 450–900 CE, Kurma Purana to c. 550–850 CE, and Linga Purana to c. 600–1000 CE.

Maha Puranas, said to be eighteen in number, divided into three groups of six, though they are not always counted in the same way:-

Sattva ("Truth") Vishnu PuranaBhagavata PuranaNaradeya PuranaGaruda PuranaPadma PuranaVaraha Purana
Rajas ("Passion") Brahmanda PuranaBrahma Vaivarta PuranaMarkandeya PuranaBhavishya PuranaVamana PuranaBrahma Purana
Tamas ("Ignorance") Matsya PuranaKurma puranaLinga PuranaShiva PuranaSkanda PuranaAgni Purana

The Bhagavad GitaEdit

 
A 19th century manuscript of the Hindu text Bhagavad Gita

The Bhagavad Gita is a 700–verse Hindu scripture in Sanskrit that is part of the Hindu epic Mahabharata (chapters 23–40 of the 6th book of Mahabharata). This scripture contains a conversation between Pandava prince Arjuna and his guide and charioteer Lord Krishna on a variety of philosophical issues. Commentators see the setting of the Gita in a battlefield as an allegory for the ethical and moral struggles of the human life. The Bhagavad Gita's call for selfless action inspired many leaders of the Indian independence movement including Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, who referred to the Gita as his "spiritual dictionary". Numerous commentaries have been written on the Bhagavad Gita with widely differing views on the essentials, beginning with Adi Sankara's commentary on the Gita in the 8th century CE.

The Bhagavad Gita presents a synthesis of the concept of Dharma, theistic bhakti, the yogic ideals of moksha through jnanabhaktikarma, and Raja Yoga (spoken of in the 6th chapter) and Samkhya philosophy. 

Bhagavad Gita comprises 18 chapters (section 25 to 42) in the Bhishma Parva of the epic Mahabharata and consists of 700 verses. The Sanskrit editions of the Gita name each chapter as a particular form of yoga. However, these chapter titles do not appear in the Sanskrit text of the MahabharataSwami Chidbhavananda explains that each of the eighteen chapters is designated as a separate yoga because each chapter, like yoga, "trains the body and the mind".

Eighteen Chapters Of Bhagavad GitaEdit

  1. Prathama Adhyaya (The Distress of Arjuna: contains 46 verses): Arjuna requests Lord Krishna to move his chariot between the two armies.
  2. Sankhya Yoga (The Book of Doctrines: contains 72 verses): Lord Krishna explains Arjuna about Sankhya yoga. Sankhya refers to one of six orthodox schools of the Hindu Philosophy. This chapter is often considered the summary of the entire Bhagavad Gita.
  3. Karma Yoga (Virtue in Work or Virtue Of Actions: contains 43 verses): Lord Krishna explains about Karma yoga, i.e. Performance of prescribed duties, but without attachment to results, is the appropriate course of action.
  4. Gyaana–Karma-Sanyasa Yoga (The Religion of Knowledge: contains 42 verses): Krishna reveals that he has lived through many births, for the protection of the pious and the destruction of the impious and stresses the importance of accepting a guru.
  5. Karma–Sanyasa Yoga (Religion by Renouncing Fruits of Works: contains 29 verses): Arjuna asks if it is better to forgo action or to act. Krishna answers that both are ways to the same goal, but that acting in Karma yoga is superior.
  6. Dhyan Yoga or Atmasanyam yoga (Religion by Self-Restraint: contains 47 verses): Lord Krishna describing the Ashtanga yoga, elucidates the difficulties of the mind and the techniques by which mastery of the mind might be gained.
  7. Gyaana–ViGyaana Yoga (Religion by Discernment: contains 30 verses): Krishna describes the absolute reality and its illusory energy Maya.
  8. Aksara–Brahma Yoga (Religion by Devotion to the One Supreme God: contains 28 verses): This chapter contains eschatology of the Bhagavad Gita. Importance of the last thought before death, differences between material and spiritual worlds are described.
  9. Raja–Vidya–Raja–Guhya Yoga (Religion by the Kingly Knowledge and the Kingly Mystery: contains 34 verses): Krishna explains how his eternal energy pervades, creates, preserves, and destroys the entire universe.
  10. Vibhuti–Vistara–Yoga (Religion by the Heavenly Perfections: contains 42 verses): Krishna is described as the ultimate cause of all material and spiritual existence.
  11. Visvarupa–Darsana Yoga (The Manifesting of the One and Manifold: contains 55 verses): On Arjuna's request, Krishna displays his "universal form" (Viśvarūpa).
  12. Bhakti Yoga (The Religion of Faith: contains 20 verses): Lord Krishna describes the process of devotional service (Bhakti yoga).
  13. Ksetra–Ksetrajna Vibhaga Yoga (Religion by Separation of Matter and Spirit: contains 35 verses): The difference between transient perishable physical body and the immutable eternal soul is described.
  14. Gunatraya–Vibhaga Yoga (Religion by Separation from the Qualities: contains 27 verses): Krishna explains the three modes (gunas) of material nature pertaining to goodness, passion, and nescience.
  15. Purusottama Yoga (Religion by Attaining the Supreme: contains 20 verses): Krishna identifies the transcendental characteristics of God such as, omnipotenceomniscience, and omnipresence.
  16. Daivasura–Sampad–Vibhaga Yoga (The Separateness of the Divine and Undivine: contains 24 verses): Krishna identifies the human traits of the divine and the demonic natures.
  17. Sraddhatraya-Vibhaga Yoga (Religion by the Threefold Kinds of Faith: contains 28 verses): Krishna qualifies the three divisions of faith, thoughts, deeds, and even eating habits corresponding to the three modes (gunas).
  18. Moksha–Sanyasa Yoga (Religion by Deliverance and Renunciation: contains 78 verses): In this chapter, the conclusions of previous seventeen chapters are summed up.

Post-Vedic textsEdit

The texts that appeared afterwards were called smriti. Smriti literature includes various Shastras and Itihasas (epics like Ramayana, Mahabharata), Harivamsa Puranas, Agamas and Darshanas.

The Sutras and Shastras texts were compilations of technical or specialized knowledge in a defined area. The earliest are dated to later half of the 1st millennium BCE. The Dharma-shastras (law books), derivatives of the Dharma-sutras. Other examples were bhautikashastra "physics", rasayanashastra "chemistry", jīvashastra "biology", vastushastra "architectural science", shilpashastra "science of sculpture", arthashastra "economics" and nītishastra "political science".[53] It also includes Tantras and Āgama_(Hinduism) literature.[54]

This genre of texts includes the Sutras and Shastras of the six schools of Hindu philosophy.[55][56]

The Tevaram Saivite hymnsEdit

The Tevaram is a body of remarkable hymns exuding Bhakti composed more than 1400–1200 years ago in the classical Tamil language by three Saivite composers. They are credited with igniting the Bhakti movement in the whole of India.

Divya Prabandha Vaishnavite hymnsEdit

The Nalayira Divya Prabandha (or Nalayira (4000) Divya Prabhamdham) is a divine collection of 4,000 verses (Naalayira in Tamil means 'four thousand') composed before 8th century AD [1], by the 12 Alvars, and was compiled in its present form by Nathamuni during the 9th – 10th centuries. The Alvars sung these songs at various sacred shrines. These shrines are known as the Divya Desams.[citation needed]

In South India, especially in Tamil Nadu, the Divya Prabhandha is considered as equal to the Vedas, hence the epithet Dravida Veda. In many temples, Srirangam, for example, the chanting of the Divya Prabhandham forms a major part of the daily service. Prominent among the 4,000 verses are the 1,100+ verses known as the Thiru Vaaymozhi, composed by Nammalvar (Kaaril Maaran Sadagopan) of Thiruk Kurugoor.[citation needed]

Other Hindu textsEdit

Ancient and medieval era Hindu texts for specific fields, in Sanskrit and other regional languages, have been reviewed as follows,

Field Reviewer Reference
Agriculture and food Gyula Wojtilla [57]
Architecture P Acharya,
B Dagens
[58][59]
Devotionalism Karen Pechelis [60]
Drama, dance and performance arts AB Keith,
Rachel Baumer and James Brandon,
Mohan Khokar
[61][62][63]
Education, school system Hartmut Scharfe [64]
Epics John Brockington [65]
Gnomic and didactic literature Ludwik Sternbach [66]
Grammar Hartmut Scharfe [67]
Law and jurisprudence J Duncan M Derrett [68]
Lexicography Claus Vogel [69]
Mathematics and exact sciences Kim Plofker
David Pingree
[70][71]
Medicine MS Valiathan,
Kenneth Zysk
[72][73]
Music Emmie te Nijenhuis,
Lewis Rowell
[74][75]
Mythology Ludo Rocher [76]
Philosophy Karl Potter [77]
Poetics Edwin Gerow, Siegfried Lienhard [78]
Gender and Sex Johann Jakob Meyer [79]
State craft, politics Patrick Olivelle [80]
Tantrism, Agamas Teun Goudriaan [81]
Temples, Sculpture Stella Kramrisch [82]
Scriptures (Vedas and Upanishads) Jan Gonda [83]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ These include rebirth, karma, moksha, ascetic techniques and renunciation.[30]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Frazier, Jessica (2011), The Continuum companion to Hindu studies, London: Continuum, ISBN 978-0-8264-9966-0, pages 1–15
  2. ^ a b c d e Dominic Goodall (1996), Hindu Scriptures, University of California Press, ISBN 978-0-520-20778-3, page ix-xliii
  3. ^ a b Klaus Klostermaier (2007), A Survey of Hinduism: Third Edition, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0-7914-7082-4, pages 46–52, 76–77
  4. ^ RC Zaehner (1992), Hindu Scriptures, Penguin Random House, ISBN 978-0-679-41078-2, pages 1–11 and Preface
  5. ^ a b James Lochtefeld (2002), "Shruti", The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Vol. 2: N–Z, Rosen Publishing. ISBN 978-0-8239-3179-8, page 645
  6. ^ a b James Lochtefeld (2002), "Smrti", The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Vol. 2: N–Z, Rosen Publishing, ISBN 978-0-8239-3179-8, page 656–657
  7. ^ a b Ramdas Lamb (2002). Rapt in the Name: The Ramnamis, Ramnam, and Untouchable Religion in Central India. State University of New York Press. pp. 183–185. ISBN 978-0-7914-5386-5. 
  8. ^ a b Wendy Doniger O'Flaherty (1988), Textual Sources for the Study of Hinduism, Manchester University Press, ISBN 0-7190-1867-6, pages 2–3
  9. ^ a b Patrick Olivelle (2014), The Early Upanisads, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-535242-9, page 3; Quote: "Even though theoretically the whole of vedic corpus is accepted as revealed truth [shruti], in reality it is the Upanishads that have continued to influence the life and thought of the various religious traditions that we have come to call Hindu. Upanishads are the scriptures par excellence of Hinduism".
  10. ^ a b c Wendy Doniger (1990), Textual Sources for the Study of Hinduism, 1st Edition, University of Chicago Press, ISBN 978-0-226-61847-0, pages 2–3; Quote: "The Upanishads supply the basis of later Hindu philosophy; they alone of the Vedic corpus are widely known and quoted by most well-educated Hindus, and their central ideas have also become a part of the spiritual arsenal of rank-and-file Hindus."
  11. ^ Purushottama Bilimoria (2011), The idea of Hindu law, Journal of Oriental Society of Australia, Vol. 43, pages 103–130
  12. ^ Roy Perrett (1998), Hindu Ethics: A Philosophical Study, University of Hawaii Press, ISBN 978-0-8248-2085-5, pages 16–18
  13. ^ a b Michael Witzel, "Vedas and Upaniṣads", in: Flood, Gavin, ed. (2003), The Blackwell Companion to Hinduism, Blackwell Publishing Ltd., ISBN 1-4051-3251-5, pages 68–71
  14. ^ a b William Graham (1993), Beyond the Written Word: Oral Aspects of Scripture in the History of Religion, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-44820-8, pages 67–77
  15. ^ Gavin D. Flood (1996). An Introduction to Hinduism. Cambridge University Press. pp. 37–39. ISBN 978-0-521-43878-0. 
  16. ^ see e.g. MacDonell 2004, pp. 29–39; Sanskrit literature (2003) in Philip's Encyclopedia. Accessed 2007-08-09
  17. ^ see e.g. Radhakrishnan & Moore 1957, p. 3; Witzel, Michael, "Vedas and Upaniṣads", in: Flood 2003, p. 68; MacDonell 2004, pp. 29–39; Sanskrit literature (2003) in Philip's Encyclopedia. Accessed 2007-08-09
  18. ^ Sanujit Ghose (2011). "Religious Developments in Ancient India" in Ancient History Encyclopedia.
  19. ^ Vaman Shivaram Apte, The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary, see apauruSeya
  20. ^ D Sharma, Classical Indian Philosophy: A Reader, Columbia University Press, pages 196–197
  21. ^ Jan Westerhoff (2009), Nagarjuna's Madhyamaka: A Philosophical Introduction, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-538496-3, page 290
  22. ^ Warren Lee Todd (2013), The Ethics of Śaṅkara and Śāntideva: A Selfless Response to an Illusory World, ISBN 978-1-4094-6681-9, page 128
  23. ^ Apte 1965, p. 887
  24. ^ Müller 1891, pp. 17–18
  25. ^ Seer of the Fifth Veda: Kr̥ṣṇa Dvaipāyana Vyāsa in the Mahābhārata Bruce M. Sullivan, Motilal Banarsidass, pages 85–86
  26. ^ a b Gavin Flood (1996), An Introduction to Hinduism, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-43878-0, pages 35–39
  27. ^ Bloomfield, M. The Atharvaveda and the Gopatha-Brahmana, (Grundriss der Indo-Arischen Philologie und Altertumskunde II.1.b.) Strassburg 1899; Gonda, J. A history of Indian literature: I.1 Vedic literature (Samhitas and Brahmanas); I.2 The Ritual Sutras. Wiesbaden 1975, 1977
  28. ^ A Bhattacharya (2006), Hindu Dharma: Introduction to Scriptures and Theology, ISBN 978-0-595-38455-6, pages 8–14; George M. Williams (2003), Handbook of Hindu Mythology, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-533261-2, page 285
  29. ^ Jan Gonda (1975), Vedic Literature: (Saṃhitās and Brāhmaṇas), Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 978-3-447-01603-2
  30. ^ a b Olivelle 1998, p. xxiii.
  31. ^ Max Muller, The Upanishads, Part 1, Oxford University Press, page LXXXVI footnote 1
  32. ^ Mahadevan 1956, p. 59.
  33. ^ a b PT Raju (1985), Structural Depths of Indian Thought, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0-88706-139-4, pages 35–36
  34. ^ Wiman Dissanayake (1993), Self as Body in Asian Theory and Practice (Editors: Thomas P. Kasulis et al.), State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0-7914-1080-6, page 39; Quote: "The Upanishads form the foundations of Hindu philosophical thought and the central theme of the Upanishads is the identity of Atman and Brahman, or the inner self and the cosmic self.";
    Michael McDowell and Nathan Brown (2009), World Religions, Penguin, ISBN 978-1-59257-846-7, pages 208–210
  35. ^ Stephen Phillips (2009), Yoga, Karma, and Rebirth: A Brief History and Philosophy, Columbia University Press, ISBN 978-0-231-14485-8, Chapter 1
  36. ^ E Easwaran (2007), The Upanishads, ISBN 978-1-58638-021-2, pages 298–299
  37. ^ Mahadevan 1956, p. 56.
  38. ^ Patrick Olivelle (2014), The Early Upanishads, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-512435-4, page 12–14
  39. ^ King & Ācārya 1995, p. 52.
  40. ^ Ranade 1926, p. 12.
  41. ^ Varghese 2008, p. 101.
  42. ^ a b c Greg Bailey (2001), Encyclopedia of Asian Philosophy (Editor: Oliver Leaman), Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-17281-3, pages 437–439
  43. ^ a b c John Cort (1993), Purana Perennis: Reciprocity and Transformation in Hindu and Jaina Texts (Editor: Wendy Doniger), State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0-7914-1382-1, pages 185–204
  44. ^ a b Gregory Bailey (2003), The Study of Hinduism (Editor: Arvind Sharma), The University of South Carolina Press, ISBN 978-1-57003-449-7, page 139
  45. ^ a b Ludo Rocher (1986), The Puranas, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 978-3-447-02522-5, pages 1–5, 12–21
  46. ^ Nair, Shantha N. (2008). Echoes of Ancient Indian Wisdom: The Universal Hindu Vision and Its Edifice. Hindology Books. p. 266. ISBN 978-81-223-1020-7. 
  47. ^ Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of Literature (1995 Edition), Article on Puranas, ISBN 0-877790426, page 915
  48. ^ a b Cornelia Dimmitt (2015), Classical Hindu Mythology: A Reader in the Sanskrit Puranas, Temple University Press, ISBN 978-81-208-3972-4, page xii, 4
  49. ^ Greg Bailey (2001), Encyclopedia of Asian Philosophy (Editor: Oliver Leaman), Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-17281-3, page 503
  50. ^ Ludo Rocher (1986), The Puranas, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 978-3-447-02522-5, pages 12–13, 134–156, 203–210
  51. ^ Dominic Goodall (1996), Hindu Scriptures, University of California Press, ISBN 978-0-520-20778-3, page xli
  52. ^ Thompson, Richard L. (2007). The Cosmology of the Bhagavata Purana 'Mysteries of the Sacred Universe. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. p. 10. ISBN 978-81-208-1919-1. 
  53. ^ Jan Gonda (1970 through 1987), A History of Indian Literature, Volumes 1 to 7, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 978-3-447-02676-5
  54. ^ Teun Goudriaan and Sanjukta Gupta (1981), Hindu Tantric and Śākta Literature, A History of Indian Literature, Volume 2, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 978-3-447-02091-6, pages 7–14
  55. ^ Andrew Nicholson (2013), Unifying Hinduism: Philosophy and Identity in Indian Intellectual History, Columbia University Press, ISBN 978-0-231-14987-7, pages 2–5
  56. ^ Karl Potter (1991), Presuppositions of India's Philosophies, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-0779-2
  57. ^ Gyula Wojtilla (2006), History of Kr̥ṣiśāstra, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 978-3-447-05306-8
  58. ^ PK Acharya (1946), An Encyclopedia of Hindu Architecture, Oxford University Press, Also see Volumes 1 to 6
  59. ^ Bruno Dagens (1995), MAYAMATA : An Indian Treatise on Housing Architecture and Iconography, ISBN 978-81-208-3525-2
  60. ^ Karen Pechelis (2014), The Embodiment of Bhakti, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-535190-3
  61. ^ The Sanskrit Drama, Oxford University Press
  62. ^ Rachel Baumer and James Brandon (1993), Sanskrit Drama in Performance, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 81-208-0772-3
  63. ^ Mohan Khokar (1981), Traditions of Indian Classical Dance, Peter Owen Publishers, ISBN 978-0-7206-0574-7
  64. ^ Hartmut Scharfe (2002), Education in Ancient India, BRILL, ISBN 978-90-04-12556-8
  65. ^ John Brockington (1998), The Sanskrit Epics, BRILL, ISBN 978-90-04-10260-6
  66. ^ Ludwik Sternbach (1974), Subhāṣita: Gnomic and Didactic Literature, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 978-3-447-01546-2
  67. ^ Hartmut Scharfe, A history of Indian literature. Vol. 5, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 3-447-01722-8
  68. ^ J Duncan M Derrett (1978), Dharmasastra and Juridical Literature: A history of Indian literature (Editor: Jan Gonda), Vol. 4, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 3-447-01519-5
  69. ^ Claus Vogel, A history of Indian literature. Vol. 5, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 3-447-01722-8
  70. ^ Kim Plofker (2009), Mathematics in India, Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-0-691-12067-6
  71. ^ David Pingree, A Census of the Exact Sciences in Sanskrit, Volumes 1 to 5, American Philosophical Society, ISBN 978-0-87169-213-9
  72. ^ MS Valiathan, The Legacy of Caraka, Orient Blackswan, ISBN 978-81-250-2505-4
  73. ^ Kenneth Zysk, Medicine in the Veda, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-1401-1
  74. ^ Emmie te Nijenhuis, Musicological literature (A History of Indian literature ; v. 6 : Scientific and technical literature ; Fasc. 1), Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 978-3-447-01831-9
  75. ^ Lewis Rowell, Music and Musical Thought in Early India, University of Chicago Press, ISBN 0-226-73033-6
  76. ^ Ludo Rocher (1986), The Puranas, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 978-3-447-02522-5
  77. ^ Karl Potter, The Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies, Volumes 1 through 27, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 81-208-0309-4
  78. ^ Edwin Gerow, A history of Indian literature. Vol. 5, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 3-447-01722-8
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BibliographyEdit

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Further readingEdit

External linksEdit

Manuscripts collections (incomplete)

Online resources: