Henri II d'Orléans, duc de Longueville or Henri de Valois-Longueville (6 April 1595 – 11 May 1663), a legitimated prince of France (of royal descent) and peer of France, was a major figure during the Fronde,[a] and served as governor of Picardy, then of Normandy.
As an opponent of Concini and favorite of the regent Marie de Médici, he joined the plot mounted by Henry II of Bourbon-Condé, during which his forces occupied the city of Peronne. In 1619, he gave the duchy of Picardy to Louis XIII's favorite, Charles d'Albert, duc de Luynes, obtaining in exchange that of Normandy. In the summer of 1620, he joined the revolt of Marie de Medici, but the Parliament of Rouen and the city of Dieppe, which he besieged, remained loyal to the king. Longueville was suspended from his duties for a few months.
Longueville headed the French delegation in the talks that led to the Treaty of Westphalia which ended the Thirty Years War (1648). During the peace proceedings, his insistence on being called Altesse, added to the conflict regarding ambassadorial titles.
In his role as sovereign prince of Neuchâtel, and acting as antagonist of the Habsburg power rather than as liberal benefactor, he succeeded in obtaining formal exemption from the Holy Roman Empire for all cantons and associates of the Swiss Confederacy.
In 1642 he married Anne Geneviève de Bourbon; his brother-in-law was Louis II de Bourbon, Prince de Condé, leader of the aristocratic party in the Fronde. After the Peace of Rueil (11 March 1649) had ended the first phase of the civil war, Mazarin's sudden arrest of the Grand Condé, his brother the prince de Conti and their brother-in-law the duc de Longueville, on 14 January 1650 precipitated the next phase of the Fronde, the Fronde des nobles.
After his first wife's death, he married Anne Geneviève de Bourbon in 1642, their children were:
- d'Aubigné, Agrippa (2007). Fanlo, Jean-Raymond; Ferrer, Véronique; Fragonard, Marie-Madeleine; Schrenck, Gilbert (eds.). Œuvres complètes: Écrits politiques. Champion.
- Cook, Chris; Broadhead, Philip (2006). The Routledge Companion to Early Modern Europe, 1453-1763. Routledge.
- Croxton, Derek (2013). Westphalia: The Last Christian Peace. Springer.
- Hillman, Jennifer (2014). Female Piety and the Catholic Reformation in France. Routledge.
- Kettering, Sharon (2008). Power and Reputation at the Court of Louis XIII: The Career of Charles D'Albert, Duc de Luynes (1578-1621). Manchester University Press.
- May, Niels F. (2017). "Stage sovereignty or aristocratic values? Diplomatic ceremonial at the Westphalian peace negotiations (1643-1648)". In Sowerby, Tracey A.; Hennings, Jan (eds.). Practices of Diplomacy in the Early Modern World c.1410-1800. Routledge.
- Mousnier, R. (1970). "French Institutions and Society 1610-61". The New Cambridge Modern History. Volume 4, The Decline of Spain and the Thirty Years War. Cambridge University Press.
|volume=has extra text (help)
- Ward, A.W.; Prothero, G.W.; Leathes, Stanley, eds. (1911). The Cambridge Modern History. Volume XIII. Cambridge at the University Press.
|volume=has extra text (help)