General Sir Harry Crawford Tuzo, GCB, OBE, MC (26 August 1917 – 7 August 1998) was a British Army officer who was Deputy Supreme Allied Commander Europe and General Officer Commanding of the British Army in Northern Ireland during the early period of the Troubles.
Sir Harry Tuzo
|Born||26 August 1917|
Bangalore, British India
|Died||7 August 1998 (aged 80)|
Norwich, Norfolk, England
|Years of service||1939–1978|
|Commands held||Deputy Supreme Allied Commander Europe (1976–78)|
Northern Army Group (1973–76)
Northern Ireland (1971–73)
Royal Artillery (1969–71)
51 Gurkha Infantry Brigade (1963–65)
3rd Regiment Royal Horse Artillery (1960–62)
|Battles/wars||Second World War|
|Awards||Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath|
Officer of the Order of the British Empire
Mentioned in Despatches (2)
|Other work||Chairman, Marconi Space and Defence Systems (1979–83)|
Chairman, Royal United Services Institute (1980–83)
Harry Craufurd Tuzo was born in Bangalore, India, on 26 August 1917; the son of John Atkinson Tuzo, a British Army officer and civil engineer, and his wife Annie Catherine (née Craufurd). Tuzo was educated at Wellington College, Berkshire (where he was a member of the Officer Training Corps) and Oriel College, Oxford, where he read jurisprudence.
Second World WarEdit
Tuzo first entered the British Army on 15 July 1939 as a second lieutenant in the Royal Artillery, Supplementary Reserve of Officers, just prior to the outbreak of the Second World War in September. After a fortnight's training he crossed to France with the 21st Anti-Tank Regiment, Royal Artillery, which was part of the 3rd Infantry Division under Major General Bernard Montgomery. The division was part of the British Expeditionary Force (BEF). Remaining there and seeing no action until the German Army invaded France in May 1940, he was amongst the last of those evacuated from Dunkirk, travelling in a paddle cruiser to Harwich.
He stayed with his regiment, which in 1942 transferred to the Guards Armoured Division, engaged in coastal defence until June 1944 when they returned to France in the invasion of Normandy. His regiment was in support of the division in Normandy where he won the Military Cross (MC) for his actions up to Operation Goodwood (the breakout from Caen). He was then a war substantive captain and temporary major commanding Y Battery of the regiment consisting of self-propelled anti-tank guns, the original recommendation for his MC mentions his actions at the Albert Canal bridgehead, the attacks on Hechtel, Elst, Sittard and particularly in support of the Coldstream Guards at Wesel; he was slightly wounded three times during this period. Later in Germany he had the rare distinction as a battery commander of accepting the surrender of a German admiral who was Flag Officer U Boats. As the end of the war approached, he was granted a Regular Army commission, with the substantive rank of lieutenant (with seniority from 24 February 1941), on 17 January 1945. He was Mentioned in Despatches on 9 August 1945, and his MC was gazetted on 22 January 1946. He received substantive promotion to captain on 1 July 1946. He had married Monica Patience Salter on 5 October 1943.
From 1963 to 1965 he commanded the 51st Gurkha Brigade in Borneo, which included Brunei in its area of operations. His Gurkha battalions worked to win the "hearts and minds" of the locals, but also participated with the SAS in Operation Claret which interdicted Indonesian troops as they attempted to cross the border. The Sultan of Brunei honoured Tuzo with the title Dato Setia Nagara in 1965. His work also earned him a Mention in Despatches.
Tuzo was appointed as General Officer Commanding and Director of Operations, Northern Ireland on 2 March 1971 together with promotion to lieutenant general. His appointment was made after the previous incumbent, Lieutenant General Vernon Erskine-Crum, suffered a heart attack. Tuzo was appointed Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath (KCB) on 4 June 1971, in the Queen's Birthday Honours. In 1972, after consultation with Whitehall, Tuzo ordered Operation Motorman, which sent 30,000 troops into Republican dominated 'no-go' areas of West Belfast and Derry to take back control. He relinquished his position in Northern Ireland on 1 February 1973 and was replaced by Lieutenant General Sir Frank King. Tuzo was promoted to Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath (GCB) on 2 June 1973.
After his service in Northern Ireland ended Tuzo was appointed Commander-in-Chief British Army of the Rhine until 1976, when he was made Deputy Supreme Allied Commander Europe. He was placed on the retired list on 5 February 1979. After his service in the army he accepted a position in 1979 as chairman of Marconi Space and Defence Systems which he held until 1983.
Tuzo was appointed a Deputy Lieutenant of Norfolk on 12 September 1983. He lived in Fakenham and was chairman of Pensthorpe Nature Reserve. Tuzo's granddaughter is the journalist Rosie Garthwaite.
- Harnden, Toby (2004). "Tuzo, Sir Harry Craufurd (1917–1998)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/70774. Retrieved 3 September 2008.
- Obituary: General Sir Harry Tuzo, The Independent, 19 August 1998, archived by findarticles.com from the original. Retrieved 30 September 2008.
- "No. 30393". The London Gazette (Supplement). 20 November 1917. p. 12097.
- "No. 34645". The London Gazette. 14 July 1939. pp. 4836–4837.
- "Recommendations for Honours and Awards—Image details—Tuzo, Harry Crawford" (Fee may be required to view full image of original recommendation). Documents Online. The National Archives. Retrieved 9 September 2008.
- "No. 36892". The London Gazette (Supplement). 12 January 1945. p. 392.
- "No. 37213". The London Gazette (Supplement). 7 August 1945. pp. 4044–4046.
- "No. 37442". The London Gazette (Supplement). 22 January 1946. pp. 635–637.
- "No. 37635". The London Gazette (Supplement). 28 June 1946. pp. 3366–3367.
- "No. 43837". The London Gazette (Supplement). 10 December 1965. p. 11680.
- "No. 45322". The London Gazette (Supplement). 12 March 1971. p. 2269.
- Bew, Paul; Gordon Gillespie (1993). Northern Ireland: A Chronology of the Troubles, 1968–1993. Gill & Macmillan. p. 32. ISBN 0-7171-2081-3.
- "No. 45384". The London Gazette (Supplement). 4 June 1971. p. 5958.
- "No. 45899". The London Gazette (Supplement). 5 February 1973. p. 1680.
- Bew, Paul; Gordon Gillespie (1993). Northern Ireland: A Chronology of the Troubles, 1968–1993. Gill & Macmillan. p. 58. ISBN 0-7171-2081-3.
- "No. 45984". The London Gazette (Supplement). 22 May 1973. p. 6474.
- "No. 47768". The London Gazette (Supplement). 12 February 1979. p. 1982.
- "Tuzo, Sir Harry (Craufurd) (1917–1998), General". Liddell-Hart Centre for Military Archives. King's College London. Retrieved 30 September 2008.
- "No. 49474". The London Gazette. 12 September 1983. pp. 11950–11950.
- A genealogical survey of the peerage of Britain Retrieved 2016-11-05.
| GOC British Army in Northern Ireland
Sir Frank King
Sir Peter Hunt
| C-in-C British Army of the Rhine
Sir Frank King
Sir John Mogg
| Deputy Supreme Allied Commander Europe
Sir Jack Harman
Sir Geoffrey Baker
| Master Gunner, St James's Park
Sir Thomas Morony