Haplogroup S-M230

Haplogroup S-M230, also known as S1a1b (and previously as S* or K2b1a4), is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. It is by far the most numerically significant subclade of Haplogroup S1a (and its sole primary subclade, Haplogroup S-P405).

Haplogroup S-M230 (S1a1b)
Melanesia S ADN-Y.PNG
Possible time of origin28,000-41,000 years before present (Scheinfeldt 2006)
Possible place of originNew Guinea/Indonesia
AncestorS1a1 (Z42413)[1][2]
DescendantsS1a1b1 (M254)
Defining mutationsM230, P202
Highest frequenciesEkari 74% (Mona 2007)

S-M230 is commonly found among populations of the highlands of Papua New Guinea (Kayser 2003). It is also found at lower frequencies in adjacent parts of Indonesia and Melanesia.[1] (Kayser 2003 Cox 2006)



One study has reported finding haplogroup S-M230 in: 52% (16/31) of a sample from the Papua New Guinea (PNG) Highlands; 21% (7/34) of a sample from the Moluccas; 16% (5/31) of a sample from the Papua New Guinea coast; 12.5% (2/16) of a sample of Tolai from New Britain; 10% (3/31) of a sample from Nusa Tenggara, and; 2% (2/89) of a sample from the West New Guinea lowlands/coast.(Kayser 2003 Cox 2006)

One subclade, Haplogroup S-M226.1 (S1a1b1d1a; previously S1d) has been found at low frequencies in the Admiralty Islands and along the coast of mainland PNG. (Kayser 2008).


Structure & position within Haplogroup SEdit

  • S1a1 Z42413
    • S1a1a
    • S1a1b M230, P202, P204 – "demoted" in 2016 from its previous position as the basal Haplogroup S* (and known before that as Haplogroup K5)
      • S1a1b1 (M254) (previously known as K2b1a4a)
      • S1a1b1 (M254)
        • S1a1b1a (P57)
        • S1a1b1b (P61)
        • S1a1b1c (P83)
        • S1a1b1d (SK1891)
  • S1a2 P79, P307
  • S1a3 P315
    • S1a3a Z41763
    • S1a3b~ P401
(Based on the 2017 ISOGG tree,[1] the 2015 ISOGG tree,[3]) the 2008 YCC tree (Karafet 2008) and other published research.)


Prior to 2002, there were in academic literature at least seven naming systems for the Y-Chromosome Phylogenetic tree. This led to considerable confusion. In 2002, the major research groups came together and formed the Y-Chromosome Consortium (YCC). They published a joint paper that created a single new tree that all agreed to use. Later, a group of citizen scientists with an interest in population genetics and genetic genealogy formed a working group to create an amateur tree aiming at being above all timely. The table below brings together all of these works at the point of the landmark 2002 YCC Tree. This allows a researcher reviewing older published literature to quickly move between nomenclatures.

YCC 2002/2008 (Shorthand) (α) (β) (γ) (δ) (ε) (ζ) (η) YCC 2002 (Longhand) YCC 2005 (Longhand) YCC 2008 (Longhand) YCC 2010r (Longhand) ISOGG 2006 ISOGG 2007 ISOGG 2008 ISOGG 2009 ISOGG 2010 ISOGG 2011 ISOGG 2012
K-M9 26 VIII 1U 25 Eu16 H5 F K* K K K - - - - - - -

Research publicationsEdit

The following research teams per their publications were represented in the creation of the YCC tree.

2005 YCC treeEdit

2008 YCC treeEdit

From 2002 to 2008, it was known as Haplogroup K5.[citation needed]

See alsoEdit


Y-DNA S subcladesEdit

  • S-M230

Y-DNA backbone treeEdit



Works citedEdit

Further readingEdit


External linksEdit