Sơn Đoòng cave (Vietnamese: hang Sơn Đoòng, IPA: [haːŋ˧ ʂəːn˧ ɗɔ̤ŋ˨˩]), in Phong Nha-Kẻ Bàng National Park, Bố Trạch District, Quảng Bình Province, Vietnam, is one of the world's largest natural caves.
|Sơn Đoòng cave|
|Hang Sơn Đoòng|
|Location||Quảng Bình Province, Vietnam|
|Depth||max. 150 metres (490 ft)|
|Length||approx. 9 kilometres (5.6 mi)|
|Discovery||1991 [AD] by Hồ Khanh|
|Cave survey||2009, British/Vietnamese|
Located near the Laos–Vietnam border, Hang Sơn Đoòng has an internal, fast-flowing subterranean river and the largest cross-section of any cave, worldwide, as of 2009, believed to be twice that of the next largest passage. It is the largest known cave passage in the world by volume.
The entrance to Hang Sơn Đoòng was found in 1991 by a local man named Hồ Khanh, while searching for agarwood, a valuable timber. Although he initially went to investigate further, he was discouraged upon approach by the sound of rushing water and the strong wind issuing from the entrance. Not thinking it to be of any great importance, by the time he returned to his home he had forgotten the exact location of the entrance. Later, he mentioned his discovery in passing to two members of the British Cave Research Association who were exploring in the local area. They asked him to attempt to rediscover the entrance, which he eventually managed to do in 2008, and in 2009 he led an expedition from the BCRA to the entrance.
This expedition, conducted between 10 and 14 April 2009, performed a survey of the cave and gave its volume as 38,500,000 m3 (1.36×109 cu ft). Their progress in exploring the cave's full length was stopped by a large, 60-metre (200 ft) high flowstone-coated wall, which the expedition named the Great Wall of Vietnam. The expedition returned in March 2010 and successfully traversed the wall, which allowed the explorers to reach the end of the cave passage. They estimated that the overall length of the cave system exceeded 9 km (5.6 mi).
Formed in Carboniferous/Permian limestone, the main Sơn Đoòng cave passage is the largest known cave passage in the world by volume – 3.84×107 cubic metres (1.36×109 cu ft), according to BRCA expedition leader Howard Limbert. It is more than 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) long, 200 metres (660 ft) high and 150 metres (490 ft) wide. Its cross-section is believed to be twice that of the next largest passage, in Deer Cave, Malaysia. The cave runs for approximately 9 kilometres (5.6 mi) and is punctuated by two large dolines, areas where the ceiling of the cave has collapsed. The dolines allow sunlight to enter sections of the cave, resulting in the growth of trees as well as other vegetation.
By mid-2019, it became clear that the cave is connected by its underground river with a nearby cave called Hang Thung. This increases the effective volume of the cave by more than 1,600,000 cubic metres (57,000,000 cu ft).
The cave contains some of the tallest known stalagmites in the world, which are up to 70 m (230 ft) tall. Behind the Great Wall of Vietnam were found cave pearls the size of baseballs, an abnormally large size. The cave's interior is so large that it could fit an entire New York block inside, including skyscrapers, or could have a Boeing 747 fly through it without its wings touching either side.
Sơn Đoòng cave doline
In early August 2013, the first tourist group explored the cave on a guided tour at a cost of US$3,000 each. Permits are required to access the cave and are made available on a limited basis, limited to January to August. After August, heavy rains cause river levels to rise, making the cave largely inaccessible. As of 2017[update], only Oxalis Adventure Tours have permission to enter the cave for tourism purposes.
Plans were considered to build a cable car through the cave. The proposed system would be 10.5 kilometres (6.5 mi) long, and cost between US$112 and $211 million. However, the plans were opposed by environmentalists and locals because of the damage mass tourism could cause to the cave and local environment. The plan was ultimately cancelled by local government.
- "From the Biggest to the Longest, Five Amazing Caves to Visit". Smithsonian Magazine. October 1, 2014. Archived from the original on October 28, 2020. Retrieved November 6, 2020.
- "World's Biggest Cave Found in Vietnam". National Geographic. July 9, 2009. Archived from the original on February 28, 2015. Retrieved February 24, 2015.
- Guinness World Records 2013, Page 032. ISBN 9781904994879
- Dykes, Brett Michael (January 3, 2011). "Explorers discover spectacular caves in Vietnam". Yahoo!. Archived from the original on January 6, 2011.
- "Gerological Map of Vietnam, Kampuchea, and Laos". Retrieved May 15, 2014.
- Edström, Martin. "Fly Through A Colossal Cave: Son Doong in 360°". National Geographic. Retrieved October 7, 2017.
- Ho Khanh, a local farmer and biggest cave in the world at sondoongcave.org, accessed June 23, 2020
- "Son Doong Cave exploration story | The largest cave in the world". sondoongcave.info. March 17, 2019. Retrieved April 4, 2022.
- Jenkins, Mark (January 2011). "Conquering an Infinite Cave". National Geographic. Retrieved July 28, 2018.
- "World's largest grotto unveiled in Vietnam". Look At Vietnam. April 23, 2009. Archived from the original on April 27, 2009.
- "Britons claim to find world's largest cave". The Daily Telegraph. London. April 30, 2009.
- Son Doong Cave. "Son Doong cave, Hang Son Doong – Map".
- Springer, Kate (May 20, 2019). "World's biggest cave is even bigger than we thought". CCN. Retrieved June 26, 2019.
- "Vietnam Cave". National Geographic. July 2011. Retrieved January 16, 2017.
- "Son Doong voted among world's seven wonders for 2020". VnExpress International.
- "First foreign tourist group explores Son Doong Cave". Foxnews. August 30, 2018. Retrieved August 8, 2013.
- "Son Doong Expedition 4 Days". Oxalis Adventure. Retrieved April 4, 2022.
- Letter 1213/UBND-VX, 2016-08-03, Government of Quang Binh Province.
- "Son Doong Cave cable car raises controversy". Vietnam.com. Retrieved January 16, 2017.
- "Vietnam's Mammoth Cavern". Retrieved December 21, 2010. National Geographic pictorial of Hang Sơn Đoòng
- "American Film Crew's Backstage Inside Son Doong". Retrieved May 18, 2015. Saigon-online-SonDoong-cave
- Strutner, Suzy (September 7, 2013). "World's Largest Cave, Son Doong, Prepping For First Public Tours" (includes video). The Huffington Post. Retrieved September 11, 2013.
- Chùm ảnh khám phá hang động đẹp và lớn nhất thế giới(includes images) Quảng Bình Province (in Vietnamese)
- "In pictures: Inside Hang Son Doong, the world's largest caves in Vietnam". Retrieved June 20, 2014. The Telegraph Online
- "Hang Son Doong" (video on Vimeo). March 9, 2015. Retrieved March 17, 2015.
- "National Geographic Video March 19, 2015".
- "Photos: Earth's Biggest Cave Will Blow Your Mind". Moss And Fog. May 7, 2022. Retrieved May 12, 2022.