Goharshad Mosque rebellion
The Goharshad Mosque rebellion (Persian: شورش مسجد گوهرشاد) took place in 1935, when a backlash against the westernizing and secularist policies of Shah Reza Pahlavi erupted in the Imam Reza shrine in Mashhad, Iran.
|Goharshad Mosque rebellion|
Iranian Imperial Army
|Locals and merchants|
|Commanders and leaders|
|Mohammad Vali Asadi||Shi'ite clergy|
|Casualties and losses|
2 officers, 18 soldiers killed;|
2 soldiers executed for disobedience, 1 committed suicide.
(128 dead, 200-300 wounded, 800 arrested according to a British report")
|Total: 151 killed|
The incident is described as a "bloody event".
The Shah Pahlavi's violent Westernization campaign against Islamic society saw a spike in hostilities with the regime in the summer of 1935 when Reza Shah banned traditional Islamic clothing and ordered all men be forced to wear European-style bowler hats.
The event occurred in response to the de-Islamization activities by Reza Khan in 1935. Responding to a cleric, who denounced the Shah's "heretical" innovations, westernizing, corruption and heavy consumer taxes, many merchants and locals took refuge in the shrine, chanted slogans such as "The Shah is a new Yazid," likening him to the tyrannical Umayyad caliph responsible for the massacre of Prophet Muhammad's family members at the Battle of Karbala.
For four full days local police and army refused to violate the shrine and the standoff was ended when troops from Iranian Azerbaijan region arrived and broke into the shrine, killing dozens and injuring hundreds, and marking a final rupture between Shia clergy and the Shah.
The number of killed by Reza Khan's forces were between 2000-5000. According to a British report, which may has deliberately lowered the numbers, the outcome of the event resulted in 2 Army officers and 18 soldiers killed; 2 soldiers executed on the spot for disobedience; 1 soldier committed suicide; there were 800-1200 dead among the villagers, 100-500 wounded and 800 arrested.
- Ward, S.R. (2009). Immortal: A Military History of Iran and Its Armed Forces. Georgetown University Press. p. 140. ISBN 9781589015876. Retrieved 10 April 2015.
- Hovsepian-Bearce, Yvette (2015). The Political Ideology of Ayatollah Khamenei: Out of the Mouth of the Supreme Leader of Iran. Routledge. p. 44. ISBN 9781317605829. Retrieved 15 January 2019.
- "Guel Kohan". Talash-online. Archived from the original on 17 July 2012. Retrieved 17 January 2013.
- Milani, Farzaneh (1992). Veils and Words: The Emerging Voices of Iranian Women Writers, Syracuse, New York: Syracuse University Press, pp. 19, 34–37, ISBN 9780815602668
- Majd, Mohammad Gholi (2001). Great Britain and Reza Shah: The Plunder of Iran, 1921–1941, Gainesville: University Press of Florida, pp. 209–213, 217–218, ISBN 9780813021119
- Katouzian, Homa (2003). "2. Riza Shah's Political Legitimacy and Social Base, 1921–1941" in Cronin, Stephanie: The Making of Modern Iran: State and Society under Riza Shah, 1921–1941, pp. 15–37, London; New York: Routledge; Taylor & Francis, ISBN 9780415302845
- Katouzian, Homa (2004). "1. State and Society under Reza Shah" in Atabaki, Touraj; Zürcher, Erik-Jan: Men of Order: Authoritarian Modernisation in Turkey and Iran, 1918–1942, pp. 13–43, London; New York: I.B. Tauris, ISBN 9781860644269
- Katouzian, Homa (2006). State and Society in Iran: The Eclipse of the Qajars and the Emergence of the Pahlavis, 2nd ed, Library of modern Middle East studies, Vol. 28, London; New York: I.B. Tauris, pp. 33–34, 335–336, ISBN 9781845112721
- Beeman, William Orman (2008). The Great Satan vs. the Mad Mullahs: How the United States and Iran Demonize Each Other, 2nd ed, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, pp. 108, 152, ISBN 9780226041476
- Ervand, History of Modern Iran, (2008), p.94
- Bakhash, Shaul, Reign of the Ayatollahs : Iran and the Islamic Revolution by Shaul, Bakhash, Basic Books, c1984, p.22