GSF Explorer, formerly USNS Hughes Glomar Explorer (T-AG-193), was a deep-sea drillship platform built for Project Azorian, the secret 1974 effort by the United States Central Intelligence Agency's Special Activities Division to recover the Soviet submarine K-129.
|Port of registry:||Vanuatu, Port Vila|
>$350 million (1974)(>$1.44 billion in 2019 dollars.)
|Launched:||4 November 1972|
|Completed:||31 July 1998|
|Name:||Hughes Glomar Explorer|
|Builder:||Sun Shipbuilding and Drydock Co.|
|Launched:||4 November 1972|
|In service:||1 July 1973|
|Displacement:||50,500 long tons (51,310 t) light|
|Length:||619 ft (189 m)|
|Beam:||116 ft (35 m)|
|Draft:||38 ft (12 m)|
|Speed:||10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph)|
The ship was built as Hughes Glomar Explorer in 1971 and 1972 by Sun Shipbuilding and Drydock Co. for more than US$350 million (about $1.4 billion in 2019) at the direction of Howard Hughes for use by his company, Global Marine Development Inc. It began operation on 20 June 1974.
Hughes told the media that the ship's purpose was to extract manganese nodules from the ocean floor. This marine geology cover story became surprisingly influential, causing many others to examine the idea. But in sworn testimony in United States district court proceedings and in appearances before government agencies, Global Marine executives and others associated with Hughes Glomar Explorer project maintained unanimously that the ship could not be used for any economically viable ocean mineral operation.
As K-129 had sunk in very deep water, at a depth of 16,500 feet (3.125 miles or 5.029 kilometres), located 1,560 miles (2,510 km) NW of Hawaii, a large ship was required for the recovery operation. Such a vessel would be detected easily by Soviet vessels, which might then interfere with the operation, so an elaborate cover story was developed. The CIA contacted Hughes, who agreed to help.
In 1974, the ship recovered a portion of K-129, but as the section was being lifted to the surface, a mechanical failure in the grapple caused two-thirds of the recovered section to break off. This lost section is said to have held many of the most-sought items, including the code book and nuclear missiles. The recovered section held two nuclear-tipped torpedoes and some cryptographic machines, along with the bodies of six Soviet submariners, who were given a formal, filmed burial at sea.
The operation became public in February 1975 when the Los Angeles Times published a story about "Project Jennifer". Other news organizations, including The New York Times, added details. The CIA declined to either confirm or deny the reports, a tactic that became known as the Glomar response and subsequently used to confront all manner of journalistic and public inquiry, including Freedom of Information Act requests. The actual name, Project Azorian, became public only in 2010.
The publication Red Star Rogue (2005) by Kenneth Sewell claims "Project Jennifer" recovered virtually all of K-129 from the ocean floor. Sewell states, "[D]espite an elaborate cover-up and the eventual claim that Project Jennifer had been a failure, most of K-129 and the remains of the crew were, in fact, raised from the bottom of the Pacific and brought into the Glomar Explorer".[N 1]
A subsequent movie and book by Michael White and Norman Polmar (Project Azorian: The CIA and the Raising of the K-129) revealed testimony from on-site crewmen as well as B&W video of the actual recovery operation. These sources indicate that only the forward 38 ft (12 m) of the submarine were recovered.
After Project AzorianEdit
While the ship had an enormous lifting capacity, there was little interest in operating the vessel because of her great cost. From March to June 1976, the General Services Administration (GSA) published advertisements inviting businesses to submit proposals for leasing the ship. By the end of four months, GSA had received a total of seven bids, including a US$2 offer submitted by a Lincoln, Nebraska college student, and a US$1.98 million offer ($7.06 million in 2019) from a man who said he planned to seek a government contract to salvage the nuclear reactors of two United States submarines. The Lockheed Missile and Space Company submitted a US$3 million ($10.7 million in 2019), two-year lease proposal contingent upon the company's ability to secure financing. GSA had already extended the bid deadline twice to allow Lockheed to find financial backers for its project without success and the agency concluded there was no reason to believe this would change during the near future.
Although the scientific community rallied to the defense of Hughes Glomar Explorer, urging the president to maintain the ship as a national asset, no agency or department of the government wanted to assume the maintenance and operating cost. Subsequently, during September 1976, the GSA transferred Hughes Glomar Explorer to the Navy for storage, and during January 1977, after it was prepared for dry docking at a cost of more than two million dollars, the ship became part of the Navy's Suisun Bay Reserve Fleet.
Lease, sale and disposalEdit
In September 1978, Ocean Minerals Company consortium of Mountain View, California, announced it had leased Hughes Glomar Explorer and that in November would begin testing a prototype deepsea mining system in the Pacific Ocean. The consortium included subsidiaries of the Standard Oil Company of Indiana, Royal Dutch Shell, and Boskalis Westminster Group NV of the Netherlands. The consortium's prime contractor was the Lockheed Missiles and Space Company.
In 1997, the ship was moved to Atlantic Marine's shipyard in Mobile, Alabama, for conversion to a dynamically-positioned deep sea drilling ship, capable of drilling in waters of 7,500 feet (2,300 m) and, with some modification, up to 11,500 feet (3,500 m), which is 2,000 feet (610 m) deeper than any other existing rig. The conversion cost more than $180 million ($269 million in 2019) and was completed during the first quarter of 1998.
The conversion of the vessel from 1996-1998 was the start of a 30-year lease from the U.S. Navy to Global Marine Drilling at a cost of US$1 million per year ($1.5 million per year in 2019). Global Marine merged with Santa Fe International Corporation during 2001 to become GlobalSantaFe Corporation, which merged with Transocean in November 2007 and operated the vessel as GSF Explorer.
In 2010, Transocean acquired the vessel in return for a US$15 million ($18 million in 2019) cash payment.
- Minutes of the Sixth Plenary Session, USRJC, Moscow, 31 August 1993.
- Thomas, Ryland; Williamson, Samuel H. (2020). "What Was the U.S. GDP Then?". MeasuringWorth. Retrieved 22 September 2020. United States Gross Domestic Product deflator figures follow the Measuring Worth series.
- "ABS Record: GSF Explorer." American Bureau of Shipping, 2010. Retrieved: 25 December 2010.
- Burleson 1997, p. 52.
- "Mysteries of the Deep: Raising Sunken Ships: The Glomar Explorer." Scientific American Frontiers (PBS), p. 2. Retrieved: 25 December 2010.
- Snieckus, Darius. "...and another thing... An offshore Hughes who... " OilOnline, 1 November 2001. Retrieved: 25 December 2010.
- GWU National Security Archive
- Phelan, James. "An Easy Burglary Led to the Disclosure of Hughes-C.I.A. Plan to Salvage Soviet Sub". The New York Times, 27 March 1975, p. 18.
- Sontag et al. 1998, p. 196.
- Sontag et al. 1998, p. 277.
- "Neither Confirm Nor Deny". Radiolab. Radiolab, WNYC. 12 February 2014. Retrieved 18 February 2014.
- Sewell 2005, pp. 128, 148.
- Podvig 2001, p. 243.
- Sewell 2005, pp. 131, 261.
- "Notice of Availability for Donation of the Test Craft Ex-Sea Shadow (IX-529) and Hughes Mining Barge (HMB-1)." Federal Register, Volume 71, Number 178, 14 September 2006, p. 54276.
- Dean, Josh (2018). The Taking of K-129 : How the CIA used Howard Hughes to steal a Russian sub in the most daring covert operation in history. Dutton Caliber. ISBN 978-1101984451.
- Toppan, Andrew. "The Hughes Glomar Explorer's Mission." the-kgb.com. Retrieved: 25 December 2010.
- Pike, John. "Project Jennifer: Hughes Glomar Explorer." Intelligence Resource Program via fas.org, 16 February 2010. Retrieved: 25 December 2010.
- "Transocean 10Q SEC Filing on 4 August 2010."brand.edgar-online.com. Retrieved: 25 December 2010.
- rigzone.com Archived 17 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved: 17 December 2013.
- "Transocean’s new fleet status, scraps GSF Explorer" Offshore Engineer Retrieved: 17 April 2015.
- Journal of the World Ship Society Volume 69, No 11, November 2015 Retrieved 17 December 2015.
- Watson, Jim. "USGS." usgs.gov, 5 May 1999. Retrieved: 25 December 2010.
- Burleson, Clyde W. The Jennifer Project. College Station, Texas: Texas A&M University Press, 1997. ISBN 978-0-89096-764-5.
- DeLuca, Marshall and William Furlow, eds. "Steeped in history, Glomar Explorer finally returns to industry, Converted vessel set to drill in record water depth." Offshore magazine, Volume 58, Issue 3, March 1998.
- Dunham, Roger C. Spy Sub: Top Secret Mission To The Bottom Of The Pacific. New York: Penguin Books, 1996. ISBN 0-451-40797-0.
- Podvig, Pavel, ed. Russian Strategic Nuclear Forces. Stanford, CA: Stanford University, 2001. ISBN 0-262-16202-4. (originally published by Center for Arms Control Studies, Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology)
- Polmar, Norman & Michael White. PROJECT AZORIAN-The CIA and the Raising of the K-129. Naval Institute Press. 2010. ISBN 978-1-59114-690-2.
- Sewell, Kenneth. Red Star Rogue: The Untold Story of a Soviet Submarine's Nuclear Strike Attempt on the U.S. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2005. ISBN 0-7432-6112-7.
- Sharp, David (2012). The CIA’s Greatest Covert Operation: Inside the Daring Mission to Recover a Nuclear-Armed Soviet Sub. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. p. 344. ISBN 978-0-7006-1834-7. Archived from the original on 28 July 2012. Retrieved 3 May 2012.
- Sontag, Sherry, Christopher Drew with Annette Lawrence Drew. Blind Man's Bluff: The Untold Story of American Submarine Espionage. New York: Harper, 1998. ISBN 0-06-103004-X.
- Varner, Roy and Wayne Collier. A Matter of Risk: The Incredible Inside Story of the CIA's Hughes Glomar Explorer Mission to Raise a Russian Submarine. New York: Random House, 1978. ISBN 0-394-42432-8.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to USNS Glomar Explorer (T-AG-193).|
- Photo gallery of USNS Glomar Explorer at NavSource Naval History
- AZORIAN The Raising of the K-129 / 2009 - 2 Part TV Documentary / Michael White Films Vienna
- Transocean, Inc.
- New life as a Global Drilling
- Images of the ship
- Images of HMB-1, the Hughes mining barge which held the recovery claw
- Project overview
- Overview of Project Jennifer
- Virtual tour inside HMB-1 and Sea Shadow, 2011, includes HMB-1 operating manual.
- Glomar Explorer Technical Description
- The secret on the ocean floor, BBC (2018).