German state railway norms

In German railway engineering, norms (Normalien) are standards for the design and production of railway vehicles. In the 1880s and 1890s, Prussian norms were developed for the locomotives, tenders and wagons of the Prussian state railways under the direction of the railway director responsible for railway engineering, Moritz Stambke. Later, these were largely adopted by the other state railways (Länderbahnen) in Germany.

Engineering drawingsEdit

These norms are defined by engineering drawings to 1:40 scale on individual sheets and show the locomotives and wagons as full design drawings, referred to by their sheet (Musterblatt) numbers. The first drawings date from 1878. In 1885 the Minister for Public Works tasked the Hütte Academic Institute with the publication of the norms. The drawings were regularly updated as technical developments occurred. The last Prussian drawings were issued in 1923.

Goods wagonsEdit

The design drawings for goods wagons were of special importance. The wagons built to these specifications appeared in large numbers and formed the bulk of the German wagon fleet until well after the Second World War. The 1973 DR Goods Wagon Handbook still contained most of the DSV wagon classes as well as the former Prussian Class IId wagons. The most important types are listed in the following table. Note that group IIb are goods wagons based on old designs, IIc goods wagons under 15 ton maximum load and IId goods wagons with at least 15 tons maximum load. A-group wagons are those built to the standard drawings of the DSV. Wagons according to sheets with other nos. are special designs, of which some were also built in large numbers.

Description Sheet No. Payload State Railway Class DRG Class
from 1922
DB Class
from 1952
to 1909/14 from 1909/14
Goods van 8 10 t Gl G Gw Magdeburg
IIb 1 10 or 12.5 t Gl G Gw Magdeburg Gw 01
IIb 3 15 t Gml Gm G Hannover or Stettin
IId 8 15 t
10 t
G Hannover/Stettin
Gwh Magdeburg
G 02
A2 15 t Gm, Nm G(h) Kassel/München G(h) 10
Goods van
(facultative wagon)
with end platforms
for occasional passenger transport
IIb 1a 10 t Gnl Ni Giwh Magdeburg
Six-wheeled goods van
for express goods
IIc 13 10, later 15 t G(n)l N Gh Hannover
IIc 13II 6, later 15 t G(n)wl Nwl für Sz Glpwhs Dresden G(w)h(s) 05
Large-capacity goods van
(container glass wagon)
Ce5 15 t Gml Gml Gl Dresden Gl 06
A9 15 t Gml Gl Dresden Gl 11
Double-deck livestock van
for small animals
IIc 1 10 t Vel Ven Vpwh Altona Vwh 04
IIc 1a 10 t Ve(n)lz Venz Vwh Altona Vwh 04
IIc 1b 10 t Ve Ven Vpwh Altona Vwh 03
IId 10 15 t Ve(n)mlz Venmz Vh Altona Vh 04
A8 15 t Venmz Vh Altona Vh 14
Livestock van
for cattle and horses
IIc 2 10 t V(n)l Vn Gvwh Magdeburg
Open livestock wagon
for cattle and horses
IIc 3 10 t VO(n)l VO Ovw Karlsruhe
Lidded wagon
(lime wagon)
IIc 8 10 or 12.5 t Kr K Kw Elberfeld Kw 05
IId 4 15 t Km Km K Elberfeld K 06
A7 15 t Km K Elberfeld K 15
Open goods wagon
sides 85 to 100 cm high,
removable for military vehicle transport,
end doors
10 10 t Olk[u] Ok[u] Ow Karlsruhe, Xow Erfurt
IIb 2 10 or 12.5 t Olk Ok Ow Karlsruhe
IId 3 15 t Omk Omk O Frankfurt/Würzburg O 01
A1 15 t Omk O Halle O 10
Coal wagon
sides 108 to 130 cm high,
end doors
IIc 4 10 or 12.5 t Ork Ok Ow Karlsruhe
IIc 5 10 or 12.5 t Ork[u] Ok[u] Ow Karlsruhe
IId 1 15 t Omk[u] Omk[u] O Schwerin O 02
A6 15 t Omk[u] O Nürnberg O 11
Coke wagon
sides 140 to 155 cm high,
end doors
IIc 7 10 or 12.5 t Oclk[u] Ock[u] Ocw Münster
IId 2 15 t Ocmlk[u] Ocmk[u] Oc Münster Oc 01
IId 2III 20 t Omlk[u] Ommk[u] Om Ludwigshafen Om 04
A10 20 t Ommk[u] Om Breslau/Essen Om 12
Coal wagon
sides 150 to 180 cm high,
end doors
Cc7 20 t Omk[u] Ommk[u] Om Ludwigshafen Om 04
Ce93, Ce95 20 t Omk[u] Ommk[u] Om Ludwigshafen Om 04
Ce146 20 t Ommk[u] Om Ludwigshafen Om 04
Bogie coal wagon
sides 130 cm high,
end door
IId 7 (1st use) 30 t OOmk OOmk OO Oldenburg
Coal hopper wagon IIc 6 10 t Otr[u] Ot[u] Otw Mainz
IIc 12 12.5 t Otr[u] Ot[u] Otw Mainz
Long low wagon
with wooden stanchions
IIc 10 10 or 12.5 t Sl R Rw Stuttgart Rw 01
IId 5 15 t Sml Rm R Stuttgart R 02
A4 15 t Rm R Stuttgart R 10
Flat wagon
(rail wagon)

13 m loading length
Ce143 15 t Sml Sml S Augsburg S 05
A11 15 t Sml S Augsburg S 14
Bogie flat wagon
(rail wagon)

12 to 18 m loading length
IIc 9 20, later 25 t SS SS SSkw Köln
IId 6 30, later 35 t SSm SSm SSk Köln SSk 07
IId 6a 30, later 35 t SSml SSml SSk Köln SSk 07
IId 7 30, later 35 t SSml SSml SSk Köln SSk 08
IId 7II 35 t SSml SS Köln SS 08
A3 35 t SSml SS Köln SS 15
Ce168 38 t SSml SSl Köln SSl 16
Single bolster wagon
(timber truck)
IIc 11 10 t HHrsz Hsz Hosw Regensburg
IId 9 15 t HHmrsz Hmsz Hos Regensburg
A5 18, later 15 t Hrmz H Regensburg H 10

Other examplesEdit

Other examples of Prussian norms are:

Pwg Pr 92c Sheet IIa 3
Bogies Sheet VId 7II
Diamond bogie Verbandsbauart Sheet B23
S 6 (straight driver's cab end wall) Sheet XIV-2a
G 3 Sheet 15, 16, III-3
T 9.1 Sheet III-4f
T 10 Sheet XIV-4b
Tender 4T18 Sheet III-5e
Tender 4T21,5 Sheet III-5h
Tender 4T21,5 Sheet III-5l
Tender 4T31,5 Sheet III-5m

Literature and sourcesEdit

  • Multiple authors (1974). Güterwagen Handbuch, Transpress VEB Verlag für Verkehrswesen, Berlin
  • Behrends, H.; Hensel, W.; Wiedau, G. (1989). Güterwagen-Archiv (Band 1), Transpress VEB Verlag für Verkehrswesen, Berlin
  • Carstens, S.; Ossig, R. (1989). Güterwagen. Band 1. Gedeckte Wagen, W. Tümmels, Nuremberg
  • Carstens, S.; Diener H. U. (1989). Güterwagen. Band 2. Gedeckte Wagen – Sonderbauarten, W. Tümmels, Nuremberg
  • Carstens, S.; Diener H. U. (1996). Güterwagen. Band 3. Offene Wagen, Eigenverlag, Hasloh
  • Carstens, S. (2003). Güterwagen. Band 4. Offene Wagen in Sonderbauart, MIBA-Verlag, Nuremberg
  • Carstens, S. (2008). Güterwagen. Band 5. Rungen-, Schienen- und Flachwagen, MIBA-Verlag, Nuremberg
  • Deutsche Bundesbahn, EZA Minden (1951). Handbuch für Umzeichnung der Güterwagen, Minden
  • Deutsche Reichsbahn-Gesellschaft, Reichsbahn-Zentralamt (1928) Merkbuch für die Fahrzeuge der Reichsbahn. IV. Wagen (Regelspur). 1928 edition, Berlin
  • Königl. Eisenbahn Zentralamt (1915). Merkbuch für die Fahrzeuge der Preußisch-Hessischen Staatseisenbahnverwaltung. 1915 edition, Berlin
  • Troche, H. (1992) Die preußischen Normal-Güterzuglokomotiven der Gattungen G 3 und G 4. Kap. 17. Die Normalien-Güterwagen, EK-Verlag, Freiburg

See alsoEdit